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Aristóteles: a teoria política da constituição e a deliberação; Aristotle: the political theory of the constitution and deliberation

Tierno, Patricio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/11/2008 PT
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O objetivo da presente tese é interpretar a Política de Aristóteles a partir de dois conceitos nucleares: a constituição e a deliberação consideradas como categorias hermenêuticas e exegéticas que derivam de e se conectam a outras noções teóricas da filosofia aristotélica. Assim, o estudo se inicia com o exame da existência natural da pólis determinada pelo princípio da forma - e o ser político do homem - especificado pela posse do lógos. Esta interpretação penetra depois na análise paralela da prudência e do intelecto prático, o cidadão e a deliberação política por uma parte, e a virtude ética e a justiça, os tipos de constituição política e as formas históricas por outra. Ambas linhas analíticas convergem para uma síntese que reconhece empiricamente a variedade dos regimes, a heterogeneidade social da cidade e a autoridade da instituição da assembléia. Por meio de nossa reconstrução, a teoria política de Aristóteles revela o fundamento democrático que subjaz a um pensamento crítico, problemático e historicamente situado.; The objective of this thesis is to interpret Aristotle's Politics starting from two core concepts: the constitution and the deliberation considered as hermeneutic and exegetic categories derived from and connected with other theoretical notions of the Aristotelian philosophy. Thus...

Bioethics education on deliberation - a view of a novel: Blue Gold, by Clive Cussler

Magalhães, Susana; Araújo, Joana; Carvalho, Ana Sofia
Fonte: Universidade Católica Portuguesa Publicador: Universidade Católica Portuguesa
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2010 ENG
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Bioethics education on deliberation - a view of a novel: Blue Gold, by Clive Cussler (Article presented at the conference Bioethics Education: Contents, Methods, Trends, Zefat, Israel, May 2-5, 2010) Authors: Susana Magalhães* (researcher), Joana Araújo (researcher), Ana Sofia Carvalho (Head of the Institute of Bioethics) Research Centre of Bioethics, Institute of Bioethics, Portuguese Catholic University Bioethics education on deliberation - a view of a novel: Blue Gold, by Clive Cussler Since the focus of Bioethics is the bridge between Humanities and the Life Sciences and bearing in mind that this bridge is often difficult to build, those who believe that this dialogue is important in our days should promote it through Education. By educating in Bioethics it is possible to improve the participation of the citizens in debates on the ethical issues raised by new technologies and scientific research. It is our conviction that literary texts are laboratories of ethical judgment, where the ethical questions concerning specific scientific/technological issues are addressed in an imaginary world. Therefore our purpose is to present a framework for ethical deliberation through the use of literature. Fiction allows us to “practise” ethical decision making...

Bioethical education on deliberation: the views of a novel

Araújo, Joana; Magalhães, Susana; Carvalho, Ana Sofia
Fonte: Institute for Innovation and Development of University of Ljubljana Publicador: Institute for Innovation and Development of University of Ljubljana
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 ENG
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Ethics is the study of the moral basis of human behavior that aims to determine the best course of action. Bioethics, as a transdisciplinary area, based both on ethics and on life sciences, reflects upon the ethical problems raised by new technologies and scientific research. One of the main tools to tackle bioethical problems is deliberation, a procedure that attempts to analyse problems, weighing up the principles and values involved as well as the context of each case. Due to the complexity of deliberation, educational projects should be promoted, providing the practice necessary for correct deliberation and raising awareness of the current ethical issues. It is our purpose to present a framework for ethical deliberation throughout the use of literature. Literary texts are essential, since they show human beings acting in space and time and they give the readers an opportunity to deliberate on ethical issues. Based on a literary text, we will reflect upon a controversial ethical issue - Preimplantion Genetic Diagnosis (PGD).

Beyond information seeking: Consumers’ online deliberation about the risks and benefits of red meat

Rutsaert, Pieter; Barnett, Julie; Gaspar, Rui; Marcu, Afrodita; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Seibt, Beate; Lima, Luisa; Fletcher, Dave; Verbeke, Wim
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
ENG
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Successfully engaging consumers in a dialogue may provide opportunities for better tailored and more effective communication about food-related risks and benefits. Using an online deliberation concept and software, VIZZATA™, we explored the validity of a behavioral measure of deliberation in an online environment in the context of consumers’ perceptions and information seeking about the risks and benefits of red meat. Participants from Belgium, Portugal and the United Kingdom (n = 150) were given the opportunity to engage in an asynchronous interaction with the research team about the information provided. Online deliberation was operationalized as an individual metric based on the number of questions asked in relation to the information, the number of comments left, the number of glossary terms accessed, and the time spent on deliberative activity. This operationalization provided a coherent measure of deliberation which was positively correlated with information recall about the risks and benefits of red meat. Participants who perceived the information about red meat risks and benefits as too complex engaged less with the information. The study herewith presents a novel method of investigating consumers’ deliberation about food issues that conceptualizes consumer engagement as more than just information seeking.

Conscious thought beats deliberation without attention in diagnostic decision-making: at least when you are an expert

Mamede, Sílvia; Schmidt, Henk G.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Custers, Eugene J. F. M.; Splinter, Ted A. W.; van Saase, Jan L. C. M.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Contrary to what common sense makes us believe, deliberation without attention has recently been suggested to produce better decisions in complex situations than deliberation with attention. Based on differences between cognitive processes of experts and novices, we hypothesized that experts make in fact better decisions after consciously thinking about complex problems whereas novices may benefit from deliberation-without-attention. These hypotheses were confirmed in a study among doctors and medical students. They diagnosed complex and routine problems under three conditions, an immediate-decision condition and two delayed conditions: conscious thought and deliberation-without-attention. Doctors did better with conscious deliberation when problems were complex, whereas reasoning mode did not matter in simple problems. In contrast, deliberation-without-attention improved novices’ decisions, but only in simple problems. Experts benefit from consciously thinking about complex problems; for novices thinking does not help in those cases.

A functional imaging investigation of moral deliberation and moral intuition

Harenski, Carla L.; Antonenko, Olga; Shane, Matthew S.; Kiehl, Kent A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Prior functional imaging studies of moral processing have utilized ‘explicit’ moral tasks that involve moral deliberation (e.g., reading statements such as ‘he shot the victim’ and rating the moral appropriateness of the behavior) or ‘implicit’ moral tasks that involve moral intuition (e.g., reading similar statements and memorizing them for a test but not rating their moral appropriateness). Although the neural mechanisms underlying moral deliberation and moral intuition may differ, these have not been directly compared. Studies using explicit moral tasks have reported increased activity in several regions, most consistently the medial prefrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junction. In the few studies that have utilized implicit moral tasks, medial prefrontal activity has been less consistent, suggesting the medial prefrontal cortex is more critical for moral deliberation than moral intuition. Thus, we hypothesized that medial prefrontal activity would be increased during an explicit, but not an implicit, moral task. Participants (n = 28) were scanned using fMRI while viewing 50 unpleasant pictures, half of which depicted moral violations. Half of the participants rated pictures on moral violation severity (explicit task) while the other half indicated whether pictures occurred indoors or outdoors (implicit task). As predicted...

What Happened on Deliberation Day?

Sunstein, Cass Robert; Schkade, David; Hastie, Reid
Fonte: California Law Review Inc. Publicador: California Law Review Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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What are the effects of deliberation about political issues? This essay reports the results of a kind of Deliberation Day, involving sixty-three citizens in Colorado. Groups from Boulder, a predominantly liberal city, met and discussed global warming, affirmative action, and civil unions for same-sex couples; groups from Colorado Springs, a predominately conservative city, met to discuss the same issues. The major effect of deliberation was to make group members more extreme than they were when they started to talk. Liberals became more liberal on all three issues; conservatives became more conservative. As a result, the division between the citizens of Boulder and the citizens of Colorado Springs were significantly increased as a result of intragroup deliberation. Deliberation also increased consensus, and dampened diversity, within the groups. Implications are explored for the uses and structure of deliberation in general.

Group Judgments: Deliberation, Statistical Means, and Information Markets

Sunstein, Cass Robert
Fonte: The New York University Law Review Publicador: The New York University Law Review
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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How can groups elicit and aggregate the information held by their individual members? There are three possibilities. Groups might use the statistical mean of individual judgments; they might encourage deliberation; or they might use information markets. In both private and public institutions, deliberation is the standard way of proceeding; but for two reasons, deliberating groups often fail to make good decisions. First, the statements and acts of some group members convey relevant information, and that information often leads other people not to disclose what they know. Second, social pressures, imposed by some group members, often lead other group members to silence themselves because of fear of disapproval and associated harms. As a result, deliberation often produces a series of unfortunate results: the amplification of errors, hidden profiles, cascade effects, and group polarization. A variety of steps can be taken to ensure that deliberating groups obtain the information held by their members; restructuring private incentives, in a way that increases disclosure, is the place to start. Information markets have substantial advantages over group deliberation; such markets count among the most intriguing institutional innovations of the last quarter-century and should be used far more frequently than they now are. One advantage of information markets is that they tend to correct...

Le Théâtre-forum : pour une délibération sous le signe de la reconnaissance?

Hamel, Sonia
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Cette recherche explore le Théâtre-forum comme support méthodologie d’un espace délibératif pour discuter des tensions sociales liées à la coprésence au centre-ville de Montréal entre des personnes en situation de rue et leurs voisins domiciliés. L’argument au cœur de la problématique repose sur les taches aveugles de la délibération: dans les forums de quartier, les inégalités sociales se traduisent par des inégalités délibératives au désavantage des personnes sans adresse en défaut d’autorité épistémologique en raison de leur statut; ces inégalités délibératives reproduisent le déni de reconnaissance qui traverse l’expérience relationnelle de ces personnes. Le Théâtre-forum est issu du Théâtre de l’opprimé : une pratique d’intervention théâtrale conçue par Augusto Boal durant la dictature au Brésil comme dispositif émancipateur pour les groupes opprimés. Le Joker incite les membres de l’auditoire à devenir Spect-acteurs par les remplacements du protagoniste, et ce, afin de surmonter son oppression. Ainsi, cette projection dans les chaussures du protagoniste-itinérant facilite-t-elle ce passage de l’indignité à la reconnaissance pour les personnes en situation de rue? L’échange théâtral peut-il ouvrir la voie vers la reconstruction d’un lien intersubjectif entre personnes sans adresse et domiciliés...

Deliberation and Development

Heller, Patrick; Rao, Vijayendra
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Livro
EN_US
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Deliberation is the process by which a group of people, each with equal voice, can - via a process of discussion and debate - reach an agreement. This book attempts to do two things. First, it rethinks the role of deliberation in development and shows that it has potential well beyond a narrow focus on participatory projects. Deliberation, if properly instituted, has the potential to have a transformative effect on many if not all aspects of development, and especially in addressing problems of collective action, coordination, and entrenched inequality. This has broad implications both at the global and local level. Second, the book demonstrates that taking deliberation seriously calls for a different approach to both research and policy design and requires a much greater emphasis on the processes by which decisions are made, rather than an exclusive focus on the outcomes. Deliberation and Development contributes to a broader literature to understand the role of communicative processes in development.

Public Deliberation and Interest Organisations: a Study of Responses to Lay Citizen Engagement in Public Policy

Hendriks, Carolyn Maree
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
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This thesis empirically examines how lobby groups and activists respond to innovative forms of public participation. The study centres on processes that foster a particular kind of deliberative governance including citizens’ juries, consensus conferences and planning cells. These deliberative designs bring together a panel of randomly selected lay citizens to deliberate on a specific policy issue for a few days, with the aim of providing decision makers with a set of recommendations. While policy makers worldwide are attracted to these novel participatory processes, little consideration has been given to how well they work alongside more adversarial and interest-based politics. This doctoral research project examines this interface by studying what these processes mean to different kinds of policy actors such as corporations, advocacy groups, government agencies, experts and professionals. These entities are collectively referred to in this thesis as ‘interest organisations’ because in some way they are seeking a specific policy outcome from the state – even government-based groups. The empirical research in this thesis is based on comparative case studies of four deliberative design projects in Australia and Germany. The Australian cases include a citizens’ jury on waste management legislation and a consensus conference on gene technology in the food chain. The German case studies include a planning cells project on consumer protection in Bavaria...

Deliberative Demokratie und Diskurs ; eine Debatte zwischen Habermas und Rawls; Deliberative Democracy and „Diskurs“ ; the Discussion between Habermas and Rawls

Papadopoulou, Theodora
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
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Die Deliberation stellt eine neue Herausforderung für die Demokratie dar, während die Partizipation durch die Deliberation regeneriert werden kann. Was macht eine Demokratietheorie zu einer deliberativen Demokratie? Die Autorin bietet eine neue Intepretation der deliberativen Demokratie an, indem sie auf einen daurhaften Dialog basieren muss, der nach aktiven Bürgern verlangt, die ihre Thesen bezüglich politischer Angelegenheiten argumentativ rechtfertigen. Deliberation gibt Demokratie Authentizität zurück. Unter diesen Rahmen werden die Thesen von Habermas, Rawls und Höffe diskutiert. Was ist deliberativ in ihren Theorien? Was ist unter Deliberation bei Habermas und Rawls zu verstehen? Ist der sogenannten Diskurs auch bei Rawls zu finden?; Deliberation is the new challenge for democracy, while the democratic participation can be also regenerated by the deliberation. Which principles should be included in a theory of deliberative democracy? The authoress offers a new interpretation to the deliberative democracy, by pointing out the meaning of a lasting dialogue for this concept as well as the requirement for active citizens, who should exercise the public power together based on reasons and arguments. Deliberation can restore democracy her authenticity that she lost. We will discuss the theses of Habermas...

Democratic Deliberation in a Multinational Federation

Noël, Alain
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Democratic deliberation is an aspiration that, in the most favorable conditions, remains difficult to achieve. In divided or multinational societies, the requirements of democratic theory appear particularly daunting. This essay surveys the Canadian debate about democratization and constitutional politics to better understand the significance of democratic deliberation in a concrete case, when principles are evoked in a context where institutions, interests, identities and power also matter. The article proposes to think of deliberation and power politics as closely intertwined and, in fact impossible to separate. Even in the best conditions, multinational deliberations always remain imperfect exercises in practical reason.

Jury decision making and the Story Model: How do deliberation style and evidence order influence the story that juries create?

Reardon, Margaret
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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This study investigated the utility of the Story Model for decision making at the jury level by examining the influence of evidence order and deliberation style on story consistency and guilt. Participants were shown a video-taped trial stimulus and then provided case perceptions including a guilt judgment and a narrative about what occurred during the incident. Participants then deliberated for approximately thirty minutes using either an evidence-driven or verdict-driven deliberation style before again providing case perceptions, including a guilt determination, a narrative about what happened during the incident, and an evidence recognition test. Multi-level regression analyses revealed that evidence order, deliberation style and sample interacted to influence both story consistency measures and guilt. Among students, participants in the verdict-driven deliberation condition formed more consistent pro-prosecution stories when the prosecution presented their case in story-order, while participants in the evidence-driven deliberation condition formed more consistent pro-prosecution stories when the defense's case was presented in story-order. Findings were the opposite among community members, with participants in the verdict-driven deliberation condition forming more consistent pro-prosecution stories when the defense's case was presented in story-order...

Logique d'action et quête de sens : le risque en protection de l'enfance

Lambert, Annie
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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La présente recherche a comme sujet la gestion des risques au cœur de la prise de décision en protection de l’enfance. Elle a comme objectif une meilleure compréhension de la pratique à partir de la construction des logiques d’action déployées par les professionnels ainsi que la réflexion sur le sens qu’ils accordent à leurs actions. Le projet est porté par une posture constructiviste : les professionnels « construisent » la situation problématique de l’enfant à protéger tout comme ils construisent la solution envisagée. C’est à partir de la combinaison entre la réflexivité (Schön; Racine; Giddens) et la délibération éthique (Bossé, Morin et Dallaire) que des groupes de discussion impliquant des professionnels de professions et de statuts différents ont été réalisés au Centre jeunesse de l’Estrie. Ces groupes s’inscrivent dans une méthodologie qualitative laissant place aux discours des acteurs et sont accompagnés d’entretiens individuels comme stratégie complémentaire de cueillette de données. Les données ont été explorées à partir d’une analyse de contenu sous trois axes (Van der Maren) : une analyse horizontale (dégager les éléments pertinents à partir d’un cadre de délibération éthique)...

Conditions expérimentales de la délibération éthique dans les organisations

Mahieu, Christian
Fonte: Centre de recherche en éthique de l'UdeM (CRÉUM) Publicador: Centre de recherche en éthique de l'UdeM (CRÉUM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
FR
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Le terme délibération connaît une forte actualité. Des initiatives et des expérimentations se font jour sur ce thème dans des contextes organisationnels très différents. Les recherches sur les processus de décision éthique et l’analyse de plusieurs expérimentations sur ce thème nous conduisent à focaliser notre attention sur les processus décisionnels en lien avec ces nouvelles pratiques délibératives. S’agissant de la décision éthique et de sa légitimité, plus que l’analyse des convergences dans les systèmes de représentation et de jugement éthiques, la priorité doit être donnée à l’analyse du processus délibératif lui-même. Partant de cette conception, nous analysons comment des démarches et méthodes expérimentales proposées aux acteurs intègrent cette conception de la légitimité par la procédure délibérative.

The Objectivity of Beliefs, Reasonable Disagreement and Political Deliberation; La objetividad de las creencias, el desacuerdo razonable y la deliberación política

Oliveira-De Sousa, Felipe; Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico CNPq
Fonte: Universidade La Sabana Publicador: Universidade La Sabana
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
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This paper is part of a broader argument that seeks to offer a justificationfor political (and law’s) authority. The aims here are twofold: to investigatethe role of truth in political argument and to place the problem of reasonabledisagreement. More precisely, the argument focuses on the possibilityof political deliberation. Political deliberation figures as a preliminary stageof political decisionmaking. It has to do with a confrontation betweenvarious incompatible substantive beliefs which, in despite of this, seem tobe all reasonable. How can citizens holding incompatible beliefs engage ina common enterprise of justifying them to one another? That is the mainquestion.; El presente trabajo es parte de un argumento más amplio que busca articularuna justificación para la autoridad política (y del Derecho). Los objetivosdel texto son dos: investigar el papel de la verdad en el argumento políticoy exponer el problema del desacuerdo razonable. De modo más preciso, elargumento se concentra en la posibilidad de la deliberación política comofase preliminar de la toma de decisiones políticas. Ella tiene que ver conuna confrontación entre varias creencias sustantivas incompatibles que,sin embargo, parecen todas razonables ¿Cómo pueden ciudadanos concreencias incompatibles participar en un emprendimiento común de justificaciónmutua de esas creencias? Esa es la cuestión principal.

On the prospects for democratic deliberation: Values analysis applied to Australian politics.

Dryzek, John; Braithwaite, Valerie
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Democratic theorists increasingly stress that democratic legitimacy rests primarily on authentic deliberation. Critics of deliberative democracy believe that this hope is unrealistic - that deliberation either will prove intractable across political differences or will exacerbate instability. This paper deploys some tools of political psychology, notably Q methodology and values analysis, to investigate the conditions under which effective deliberation is likely to occur. These tools are applied to contemporary political debates in Australia, concerned with how the Australian polity should be constituted in light of a reform agenda underpinned by a discourse we term "Inclusive Republicanism." An investigation of the character of the basic value commitments associated with discursive positions in these debates shows that some differences will yield to deliberation, but others will not. When two discourses subscribe to different value bases, deliberation will induce reflection and facilitate positive-sum outcomes. When a discourse has a value base but finds its specific goals opposed by a competitor that otherwise has no value base of its own, deliberation will be ineffective. When one discourse subscribes to a value base that another questions...

Deliberative drift: The emergence of deliberation in the policy process

McLaverty, Peter; Halpin, Darren
Fonte: Sage Publications Inc Publicador: Sage Publications Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This article explores the issue of what we call "deliberative drift": the emergence of deliberation in a non-deliberative setting. The literature on deliberative democracy has tended to focus upon practices taking place in specifically deliberative settings. We ask whether deliberation cannot logically occur elsewhere in the policy process, or, more specifically, can politics based on bargaining and aggregation be transformed (or drift) toward deliberative practice? In pondering this question, Habermas's argument that a communicative rationality underpins deliberation is useful, as it demarcates deliberative from other practices by a willingness of participants to cast aside fixed preferences. While procedures and institutional designs are inflexible, the orientations or rationalities of individuals may be much more malleable. We explore one empirical case in which what started as negotiating and instrumental processes drifted toward a deliberative practice. We speculate that the rationalities that participants bring to their interaction, and the ways in which those rationalities change with the development of trust between participants, are as important in determining whether deliberation occurs as is the setting within which the interaction takes place.

Modest praise for political deliberation

Gallardo,Javier
Fonte: Revista Uruguaya de Ciencia Política Publicador: Revista Uruguaya de Ciencia Política
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
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This text analyzes the relationship between political deliberation and democracy. Its content differs both from a scarcely normative idea of competitive politics, predominant in contemporary Political Science, and from a philosophical defense of the deliberation, founded on an idea of common reasonability or on an ideal of communicative speech. The central argument of the author is that deliberation constitutes a good instrument of improvement of competitive democracy. The reasons he gives are not those held by some contemporary political philosophers, inspired by problematic generalizations about the basic structures of the rationality and reasonability of citizens and their agents. The author stresses instead the capacity of deliberation to strengthen the epistemic and normative basis of the political decisions of the majority. The text discusses different visions of the benefits of political deliberation, some of then centered on their procedural conditions, others on the substantive quality of their results. Besides, this paper analyzes, from a perspective closer to a neo Aristotelian vision than to a modern contractualist tradition, the validity of the consensualist criteria to judge the quality of the deliberative reasons. Finally...