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Glossary of terms on animal housing: interconnecting engineering, physical and physiological definitions

Panagakis, P.; Blanes-Vidal, V.; Banhazi, T.; Barbosa, José Carlos; Maltz, E.; Fitas da Cruz, Vasco; Berckmans, D.
Fonte: CIGR - International Commission of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publicador: CIGR - International Commission of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
Animal Housing is a multidisciplinary scientific area which requires the involvement of scientists from different fields such as engineers, physicians, animal scientists, veterinarians, etc. Their collaboration requires the establishment and use of a standardized vocabulary that provides consistency and reduces misunderstandings among scientists with diverse background or Nationality. A first dictionary entitled ‘Glossary of Terms on Animal Housing: Basic Engineering, Physical and Physiological Definitions’ has been prepared by a Working Group (Animal Housing in Hot Climate) established under CIGR-Section II. The glossary made reference to Engineering, Thermal Biology and Environmental Physiology disciplines and it aimed at (1) setting-up uniformity in Animal Housing terms related to climatization and to (2) serve as a focal point for the development of valuable new terms and definitions, and become a functional tool for all those involved in this study subject. Furthermore, the glossary can eventually become a background document for opening-up further discussions on the meaning of various terms used in Animal Housing.

Aplicação das classificações CID-10 e CIF nas definições de deficiência e incapacidade ; Application of the classifications ICD-10 and ICF on definitions of disability

Di Nubila, Heloisa Brunow Ventura
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/03/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
A Organização Mundial de Saúde tem hoje duas classificações de referência para a descrição dos estados de saúde: a CID-10 (Classificação Estatística Internacional de Doenças e Problemas Relacionados à Saúde) e a CIF (Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde). A utilização da CIF vem sendo aguardada com grande expectativa pelas organizações de pessoas com deficiências e instituições relacionadas. A falta de definição clara de “deficiência” ou “incapacidade” tem sido apontada como um impedimento para a promoção de saúde de pessoas com deficiência. Este trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar definições de deficiência, discutindo a utilização da CID-10 e da CIF e a contribuição da CIF para melhorar a compreensão sobre definições de deficiência a partir do conceito de funcionalidade e dos fatores contextuais. Foram revisados alguns diferentes conceitos/definições de deficiência, bem como publicações envolvendo a aplicação da CIF. São apresentadas algumas categorias de diagnósticos de estados de saúde da CID-10 hoje utilizadas em alguns sistemas, além de elementos da recém-apresentada CIF, que podem contribuir para diferentes campos de aplicabilidade no que diz respeito ao entendimento das definições de deficiência ou incapacidade. ; The World Health Organization has nowadays two reference classifications for description of health conditions: ICD-10 (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems) and ICF (International Classification of Functioning...

Definições parciais de verdade e sistemas de acumulação na aritmética formal; Partial truth definitions and accumulation systems in formal arithmetic

Vicente, Luciano
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/03/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.65%
Segundo o teorema da indefinibilidade de Tarski-Gödel, não existe fórmula da linguagem da aritmética que defina o conjunto dos números de Gödel das sentenças verdadeiras da aritmética. No entanto, para cada número natural n, podemos definir o conjunto dos números de Gödel das sentenças verdadeiras da aritmética de grau menor que n. Essas definições produzem uma hierarquia V0(x), V1(x),..., Vn(x),... tal que, para todo x, se Vn(x), então Vn+1(x). Nesse estudo, ensairemos algumas aplicações desses predicados, chamados definições parciais de verdade, e outros predicados relacionados a eles na construção de sistemas formais para as verdades da aritmética. A ideia subjacente aos nossos sistemas é muito simples, devemos acumular de alguma maneira as definições parciais de verdade. Grosso modo, mostrar como fazê-lo é o objetivo desse estudo.; According to Tarski-Gödels undefinability theorem, there is no formula in the language of arithmetic which defines the set of Gödel numbers of arithmetical true sentences. Nevertheless, for each n, we can define the set of Gödel numbers of all arithmetical true sentences of degree n or less. These definitions yield a hierarchy of predicates V0(x), V1(x),..., Vn(x),... such that...

Automatic extraction of definitions

Gaudio, Rosa Del, 1979-
Fonte: Universidade de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade de Lisboa
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.87%
Tese de doutoramento, Informática (Engenharia Informática), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2014; This doctoral research work provides a set of methods and heuristics for building a definition extractor or for fine-tuning an existing one. In order to develop and test the architecture, a generic definitions extractor for the Portuguese language is built. Furthermore, the methods were tested in the construction of an extractor for two languages different from Portuguese, which are English and, less extensively, Dutch. The approach presented in this work makes the proposed extractor completely different in nature in comparison to the other works in the field. It is a matter of fact that most systems that automatically extract definitions have been constructed taking into account a specific corpus on a specific topic, and are based on the manual construction of a set of rules or patterns capable of identifyinf a definition in a text. This research focused on three types of definitions, characterized by the connector between the defined term and its description. The strategy adopted can be seen as a "divide and conquer"approach. Differently from the other works representing the state of the art, specific heuristics were developed in order to deal with different types of definitions...

Variations in state-level definitions: children with special health care needs.

Beers, Nathaniel S.; Kemeny, Alexa; Sherritt, Lon; Palfrey, Judith S.
Fonte: Association of Schools of Public Health Publicador: Association of Schools of Public Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.75%
Multiple agencies at the federal and state level provide for children with special health care needs (CSHCN), with variation in eligibility criteria. Epidemiological studies show that 3.8%-32% of children could be classified as children with special health care needs, depending on the definition and method of determination used. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent of variation between definitions used and funding by Supplemental Security Income (SSI), Title V, and Medicaid for CSHCN. METHODS: Statistics on children receiving SSI and the amount of funding were obtained from the SSI website. This was compared to information on Title V children from the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) website and eligibility definitions published by the Institute of Child Health Policy in Gainesville, Florida. Medicaid definitions were obtained through interviews with state Medicaid agencies and confirmed with state regulations. RESULTS: The population enrolled in SSI has varied with alterations in eligibility criteria. The number of children enrolled in SSI and the amount of funding per child in each state correlate with the state poverty rate (r=0.56, p<0.0001; r=0.44, p<0.001). Enrollment in Title V does not correlate with state poverty rates (r=0.16...

Adolescent definitions of change in smoking behavior: An investigation

MacPherson, Laura; Myers, Mark G.; Johnson, Malieka
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.75%
Although adolescent smoking cessation has received increased research attention, little information exists as to how adolescents define change efforts for smoking behaviors. This issue is of particular importance because surveys routinely incorporate items assessing smoking cessation, yet how adolescents interpret such items is unclear. The present study investigated definitions of smoking behavior change efforts among adolescents. A total of 94 adolescent smokers—of average age 16.7 years (SD=1.0), 56% female, and 71% White—were asked to define the terms quit, stop, and cut down smoking. Responses to the three questions were categorized using content analysis. Definitions of quit and stop were categorized as (a) stop permanently, (b) stop temporarily, (c) stop except in certain situations, and (d) reduce smoking (for quit only). Definitions of cut down were categorized as (a) reduce the number of cigarettes, (b) smoke less in a time frame, (c) reduce smoking occasions, and (d) smoke less. Three trained raters sorted responses into each of the categories. Definitions of quit and stop were most frequently categorized in the stop permanently category (86% and 75%, respectively). Definitions of cut down were distributed across categories...

Consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures for studies of injuries in rugby union

Fuller, Colin W; Molloy, Michael G; Bagate, Christian; Bahr, Roald; Brooks, John H M; Donson, Hilton; Kemp, Simon P T; McCrory, Paul; McIntosh, Andrew S; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Quarrie, Kenneth L; Raftery, Martin; Wiley, Preston
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.75%
Wide variations in the definitions and methodologies used for studies of injuries in rugby union have created inconsistencies in reported data and made interstudy comparisons of results difficult. The International Rugby Board established a Rugby Injury Consensus Group (RICG) to reach an agreement on the appropriate definitions and methodologies to standardise the recording of injuries and reporting of studies in rugby union. The RICG reviewed the consensus definitions and methodologies previously published for football (soccer) at a meeting in Dublin in order to assess their suitability for and application to rugby union. Following this meeting, iterative draft statements were prepared and circulated to members of the RICG for comment; a follow‐up meeting was arranged in Dublin, at which time all definitions and procedures were finalised. At this stage, all authors confirmed their agreement with the consensus statement. The agreed document was presented to and approved by the International Rugby Board Council. Agreement was reached on definitions for injury, recurrent injury, non‐fatal catastrophic injury, and training and match exposures, together with criteria for classifying injuries in terms of severity, location, type, diagnosis and causation. The definitions and methodology presented in this consensus statement for rugby union are similar to those proposed for football. Adoption of the proposals presented in this consensus statement should ensure that more consistent and comparable results will be obtained from studies of injuries within rugby union.

Strength of Association for Incident Diabetes Risk Factors According to Diabetes Case Definitions: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

Bielinski, Suzette J.; Pankow, James S.; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Bailey, Kent; Li, Man; Selvin, Elizabeth; Couper, David; Vazquez, Gabriela; Brancati, Frederick
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.78%
Prospective epidemiologic studies have characterized major risk factors for incident diabetes by a variety of diabetes case definitions. Whether different definitions alter the association of diabetes with risk factors is largely unknown. Using 1987–1998 data from the ongoing Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, the authors assessed the relation of traditional risk factors with 3 different diabetes case definitions and 4 fasting glucose categories. They compared the study protocol case definition with 2 nested case definitions, self-reported diabetes and a multiple-evidence definition. Significant differences in risk factor associations by case definition and by screening cutpoints were observed. Specifically, the magnitude of the association between the risk factors (baseline metabolic syndrome, fasting glucose, blood pressure, body mass index, and serum insulin) and incident diabetes differed by case definition. Associations with these risk factors were weaker with a case definition based on self-report compared with other definitions. These results illustrate the potential limitations of case definitions that rely solely on self-report or those that incorporate measured glucose values to ascertain undiagnosed cases. Although the ability to identify risk factors of diabetes was consistent for the case definitions studied...

Evaluation of Tuberculosis Diagnostics in Children: 1. Proposed Clinical Case Definitions for Classification of Intrathoracic Tuberculosis Disease. Consensus From an Expert Panel

Graham, Stephen M.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Amanullah, Farhana; Browning, Renee; Cardenas, Vicky; Casenghi, Martina; Cuevas, Luis E.; Gale, Marianne; Gie, Robert P.; Grzemska, Malgosia; Handelsman, Ed; Hatherill, Mark; Hesseling, Anneke C.; Jean-Philippe, Patrick
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/05/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.75%
There is a critical need for improved diagnosis of tuberculosis in children, particularly in young children with intrathoracic disease as this represents the most common type of tuberculosis in children and the greatest diagnostic challenge. There is also a need for standardized clinical case definitions for the evaluation of diagnostics in prospective clinical research studies that include children in whom tuberculosis is suspected but not confirmed by culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A panel representing a wide range of expertise and child tuberculosis research experience aimed to develop standardized clinical research case definitions for intrathoracic tuberculosis in children to enable harmonized evaluation of new tuberculosis diagnostic technologies in pediatric populations. Draft definitions and statements were proposed and circulated widely for feedback. An expert panel then considered each of the proposed definitions and statements relating to clinical definitions. Formal group consensus rules were established and consensus was reached for each statement. The definitions presented in this article are intended for use in clinical research to evaluate diagnostic assays and not for individual patient diagnosis or treatment decisions. A complementary article addresses methodological issues to consider for research of diagnostics in children with suspected tuberculosis.

A systematic review of definitions of extreme phenotypes of HIV control and progression

Gurdasani, Deepti; Iles, Louise; Dillon, David G.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Olson, Ashley D.; Naranbhai, Vivek; Fidler, Sarah; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Post, Frank A.; Kellam, Paul; Porter, Kholoud; Sandhu, Manjinder S.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.78%
The study of individuals at opposite ends of the HIV clinical spectrum can provide invaluable insights into HIV biology. Heterogeneity in criteria used to define these individuals can introduce inconsistencies in results from research and make it difficult to identify biological mechanisms underlying these phenotypes. In this systematic review, we formally quantified the heterogeneity in definitions used for terms referring to extreme phenotypes in the literature, and identified common definitions and components used to describe these phenotypes. We assessed 714 definitions of HIV extreme phenotypes in 501 eligible studies published between 1 January 2000 and 15 March 2012, and identified substantial variation among these. This heterogeneity in definitions may represent important differences in biological endophenotypes and clinical progression profiles of individuals selected by these, suggesting the need for harmonized definitions. In this context, we were able to identify common components in existing definitions that may provide a framework for developing consensus definitions for these phenotypes in HIV infection.

A collection of definitions of intelligence

Legg, Shane; Hutter, Marcus
Fonte: IOS Press Publicador: IOS Press
Tipo: Conference paper
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.65%
This paper is a survey of a large number of informal definitions of “intelligence” that the authors have collected over the years. Naturally, compiling a complete list would be impossible as many definitions of intelligence are buried deep inside articles and books. Nevertheless, the 70-odd definitions presented here are, to the authors’ knowledge, the largest and most well referenced collection there is.; This work was supported by the Swiss NSF grant 200020-107616.

Expanding disease definitions in guidelines and expert panel ties to industry: A cross-sectional study of common conditions in the United States

Moynihan, Raymond N.; Cooke, Georga P. E.; Doust, Jenny A.; Bero, Lisa; Hill, Suzanne; Glasziou, Paul P.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 12 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.78%
Background: Financial ties between health professionals and industry may unduly influence professional judgments and some researchers have suggested that widening disease definitions may be one driver of over-diagnosis, bringing potentially unnecessary labeling and harm. We aimed to identify guidelines in which disease definitions were changed, to assess whether any proposed changes would increase the numbers of individuals considered to have the disease, whether potential harms of expanding disease definitions were investigated, and the extent of members' industry ties. Methods and Findings: We undertook a cross-sectional study of the most recent publication between 2000 and 2013 from national and international guideline panels making decisions about definitions or diagnostic criteria for common conditions in the United States. We assessed whether proposed changes widened or narrowed disease definitions, rationales offered, mention of potential harms of those changes, and the nature and extent of disclosed ties between members and pharmaceutical or device companies. Of 16 publications on 14 common conditions, ten proposed changes widening and one narrowing definitions. For five, impact was unclear. Widening fell into three categories: creating "pre-disease''; lowering diagnostic thresholds; and proposing earlier or different diagnostic methods. Rationales included standardising diagnostic criteria and new evidence about risks for people previously considered to not have the disease. No publication included rigorous assessment of potential harms of proposed changes. Among 14 panels with disclosures...

The impact of ‘Creative Industries’ definitions on subsector typologies = O impacto das definições de ‘Indústrias Criativas’ nas tipologias dos subsectores

Pires, Bruno Miguel Teixeira Bento
Fonte: Universidade Católica Portuguesa Publicador: Universidade Católica Portuguesa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 03/09/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
Being the ‘Creative Industries’ (CI) a growing economical sector, many studies have tried to define it as well as to identify it's subsectors. However, the discussion still remains as to whether the sector should be called ‘Cultural Industries’ or if these should be included inside the wider CI group. Other discussions debate how the CI should be identified. So, what are Creative Industries? What makes this sector different from other sectors? It is of vital importance to define this sector and not just enumerate possible subsectors, so that future mappings can provide us exact numbers on its extension and influence on economy, both direct and indirect. This study aims to contribute to the definition of Creative Industries by analyzing previous definitions, namely in terms of criteria and subsectors.

What is Hooking Up? Examining Definitions of Hooking Up in Relation to Behavior and Normative Perceptions

Lewis, Melissa A.; Atkins, David C.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Dent, David V.; Kaysen, Debra L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.78%
Research has demonstrated ambiguity about the definition of hooking up among college students. The current research examined whether there were multiple hooking up definitions among college students and how different definitions might be associated with participant's own hooking up behavior and normative perceptions of peer hooking up behavior. A random sample (N = 1,468) of undergraduates (56.4% female) completed a Web-based survey that was comprised of measures of drinking and sexual behavior. Open-ended definitions of hooking up were content coded and analyzed using a mixture model to explore discrete definitions of hooking up among college students. Findings indicated three clusters of student definitions of hooking up. Cluster 1 had the broadest definition, referring to sex in general, not specific sexual acts, and to making out. Cluster 2 placed an emphasis on interpersonal and social aspects. Cluster 3 defined hooking up as sex with notable references to specific sexual acts. Results further indicated that hooking up behavior and normative perceptions differentiated these three groups of definitions. Clinical implications regarding the inconsistency of student definitions of hooking up and how they may impact negative consequences associated with hooking up are discussed.

Nursing diagnoses related to skin: operational definitions

Ribeiro,Maria Andréia Silva; Lages,Julieth Santana Silva; Lopes,Maria Helena Baena Moraes
Fonte: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.78%
OBJECTIVE: to validate the operational definitions of the defining characteristics and risk factors of the three NANDA International (NANDA-I) nursing diagnoses and to revise these diagnoses' definitions. METHOD: content validation of nursing diagnosis. 146 defining characteristics and risk factors were identified in the literature in Brazilian and international databases. This was followed by content validation of the definitions of these diagnoses (presented by NANDA-I) and of the operational definitions (developed by the researchers) of the defining characteristics and risk factors, carried out by six expert nurses, regarding relevance, clarity and comprehensiveness. RESULT: of the 146 defining characteristics and risk factors, 22 were considered redundant and were excluded. The experts proposed changing the definitions of the diagnoses of Impaired Tissue Integrity and Risk for Impaired Skin Integrity. It was possible to identify various defining characteristics and risk factors which are not present in the NANDA-I taxonomy but which are indicated in the literature. CONCLUSION: the process attained its objective of producing valid operational definitions for defining characteristics and risk factors, which will permit the undertaking of validation studies for these diagnoses. The study's contribution to advancing scientific knowledge consists in its presenting clearer operational definitions for these diagnoses and a higher number of defining characteristics and risk factors...

Problematic Exercise in Anorexia Nervosa: Testing Potential Risk Factors against Different Definitions

Rizk, Melissa; Lalanne, Christophe; Berthoz, Sylvie; Kern, Laurence; ; Godart, Nathalie
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/11/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.81%
“Hyperactivity” has a wide prevalence range of 31% to 80% in the anorexia nervosa literature that could be partly due to the plethora of definitions provided by researchers in this field. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) To assess the variance across prevalence rates of problematic exercise encountered in patients with anorexia nervosa, in relation to seven different definitions found in the literature. 2) To examine how core eating disorder symptoms and the dimensions of emotional profile are associated with these different definitions and the impact of these definitions on the assessment of patients’ quality of life. Exercise was evaluated in terms of duration, intensity, type and compulsion using a semi-structured questionnaire administered to 180 women suffering from severe anorexia nervosa. Seven different definitions of problematic exercise were identified in the literature: three entailing a single dimension of problematic exercise (duration, compulsion or intensity) and four combining these different dimensions. Emotional profile scores, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, eating disorder symptomatology, worries and concerns about body shape, self-esteem and quality of life were assessed using several established questionnaires. The prevalence of problematic exercise varied considerably from...

Philosophical aspects of chaos: definitions in mathematics, unpredictability, and the observational equivalence of deterministic and indeterministic descriptions

Werndl, Charlotte
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Faculty of Philosophy Publicador: University of Cambridge; Faculty of Philosophy
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
This dissertation is about some of the most important philosophical aspects of chaos research, a famous recent mathematical area of research about deterministic yet unpredictable and irregular, or even random behaviour. It consists of three parts. First, as a basis for the dissertation, I examine notions of unpredictability in ergodic theory, and I ask what they tell us about the justification and formulation of mathematical definitions. The main account of the actual practice of justifying mathematical definitions is Lakatos's account on proof-generated definitions. By investigating notions of unpredictability in ergodic theory, I present two previously unidentified but common ways of justifying definitions. Furthermore, I criticise Lakatos's account as being limited: it does not acknowledge the interrelationships between the different kinds of justification, and it ignores the fact that various kinds of justification - not only proof-generation - are important. Second, unpredictability is a central theme in chaos research, and it is widely claimed that chaotic systems exhibit a kind of unpredictability which is specific to chaos. However, I argue that the existing answers to the question "What is the unpredictability specific to chaos?" are wrong. I then go on to propose a novel answer...

Nursing diagnoses related to skin: operational definitions; Diagnósticos de enfermería relacionados a la piel: definiciones operacionales; Diagnósticos de enfermagem relacionados à pele: definições operacionais

Ribeiro, Maria Andréia Silva; Lages, Julieth Santana Silva; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena Moraes
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2012 ENG; POR; SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.78%
OBJECTIVE: to validate the operational definitions of the defining characteristics and risk factors of the three NANDA International (NANDA-I) nursing diagnoses and to revise these diagnoses' definitions. METHOD: content validation of nursing diagnosis. 146 defining characteristics and risk factors were identified in the literature in Brazilian and international databases. This was followed by content validation of the definitions of these diagnoses (presented by NANDA-I) and of the operational definitions (developed by the researchers) of the defining characteristics and risk factors, carried out by six expert nurses, regarding relevance, clarity and comprehensiveness. RESULT: of the 146 defining characteristics and risk factors, 22 were considered redundant and were excluded. The experts proposed changing the definitions of the diagnoses of Impaired Tissue Integrity and Risk for Impaired Skin Integrity. It was possible to identify various defining characteristics and risk factors which are not present in the NANDA-I taxonomy but which are indicated in the literature. CONCLUSION: the process attained its objective of producing valid operational definitions for defining characteristics and risk factors, which will permit the undertaking of validation studies for these diagnoses. The study's contribution to advancing scientific knowledge consists in its presenting clearer operational definitions for these diagnoses and a higher number of defining characteristics and risk factors...

Viruses, definitions and reality

Herrero-Uribe,Libia
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
Viruses are known to be abundant, ubiquitous, and to play a very important role in the health and evolution of life organisms. However, most biologists have considered them as entities separate from the realm of life and acting merely as mechanical artifacts that can exchange genes between different organisms. This article reviews some definitions of life organisms to determine if viruses adjust to them, and additionally, considers new discoveries to challenge the present definition of viruses. Definitions of life organisms have been revised in order to validate how viruses fit into them. Viral factories are discussed since these mini-organelles are a good example of the complexity of viral infection, not as a mechanical usurpation of cell structures, but as a driving force leading to the reorganization and modification of cell structures by viral and cell enzymes. New discoveries such as the Mimivirus, its virophage and viruses that produce filamentous tails when outside of their host cell, have stimulated the scientific community to analyze the current definition of viruses. One way to be free for innovation is to learn from life, without rigid mental structures or tied to the past, in order to understand in an integrated view the new discoveries that will be unfolded in future research. Life processes must be looked from the complexity and trans-disciplinarity perspective that includes and accepts the temporality of the active processes of life organisms...

The devil is in the definition - definitions and their limited use in legal problem solving

Brimer,D; Brimer,A
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
The lawyer's usual attempt to catch the meaning of a thing by entangling it in a net of words is based on a common misapprehension of the way words work. The great minds of the ages have since time immemorial reminded us that words do not contain essences, that meanings are social constructs, and that the relation between words and meanings is slippery at best. Definitions presuppose that words have simple meanings attached to them in something like a one-to-one relationship, which is why the law can sometimes be so obtuse. It is the use of the law in a tribunal that provides the eventual understanding of how the law works. Decisions handed down in courts are embedded in a particular time and a particular set of circumstances and are the products of minds informed by a set of social experiences which other lawyers accept as qualifying those particular persons to pronounce on the law. Our legislature would do well when framing legislation to imitate those who drafted the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 which is sufficiently specific, without the support of pages of definitions, to lead to very precise argument in the Constitutional Court, and yet sufficiently general to allow the law to develop with the flux of time.