Página 1 dos resultados de 682 itens digitais encontrados em 0.003 segundos

Assessment of health-related quality of life in children with functional defecation disorders

Faleiros, Francisca T. V.; Machado, Nilton C.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 421-425
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.45%
Objective: To evaluate the health-related quality of life in children with functional defecation disorders. Methods: One hundred children seen consecutively were enrolled and subdivided into three subsets according to the Roma II classification criteria: functional constipation (n = 57), functional fecal retention (n = 29) and nonretentive functional soiling (n = 14). The generic instrument Child Health Questionnaire - Parent Form 50 (CHQ-PF50®), was used to measure quality of life and to assess the impact of these disorders from the point of view of parents. The instrument measures physical and psychosocial wellbeing in 15 health domains, each of which is graded on a scale from 0 to 100, with higher values indicating better health and greater wellbeing. Ten of these are then used to obtain two aggregated and summary scores: the physical and psychosocial scores. Results: No statistically significant differences were detected between subsets in terms of demographic or anthropometric characteristics. In 14 domains, children with defecation disorders scored lower than healthy children. When subsets were compared, statistically significant differences were detected between children with nonretentive functional soiling (lower scores) and those with functional constipation. Physical and psychosocial scores for the entire sample were lower than those for the group of healthy children used as controls. Conclusions: The CHQ-PF50® was considered adequate for demonstrating compromised quality of life in children with functional defecation disorders...

Avaliação da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde por meio do questionário CHQ-PF50® em crianças com distúrbios da evacuação

Faleiros, Francisca Teresa Veneziano
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 77 f.
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.37%
Pós-graduação em Pediatria - FMB; Neste estudo foi realizada a primeira avaliação da Qualidade de Vida Relacionada à Saúde em um grupo de 100 crianças com Distúrbios da Evacuação (Grupo Total-GT), classificadas de acordo com os Critérios de Roma II, divididas em: 57 com Constipação Intestinal Funcional (CIF), 29 com Retenção Fecal Funcional (RFF) e 14 com “Soiling“ Sem Retenção (SSR), homogêneas quanto às características demográficas. Utilizou-se o CHQ-PF50®, um instrumento genérico de medida de Qualidade de Vida Relacionada à Saúde, para se avaliar o impacto destes distúrbios na Qualidade de Vida dessas crianças, na percepção dos pais. Esse instrumento avalia o bem estar físico e psicossocial dos pacientes, por meio de 15 conceitos em saúde denominados Domínios, cada qual com uma escala de 0 a 100, com os maiores valores indicando melhor estado de saúde, bem estar e satisfação. Para a pontuação desse instrumento, obtém-se 2 escores agregados e sumários, o Escore Físico (PhS) e o Escore Psicossocial (PsS), através da transformação de 10 desses 15 Domínios. Os valores dos Escores Físico (PhS ) e Psicossocial (PsS ) das crianças do estudo comparados com aqueles das Populações de Referência: Normal e com Artrite Idiopática Juvenil...

Management of patients with rectocele, multiple pelvic floor dysfunctions and obstructed defecation syndrome

Murad-Regadas,Sthela Maria; Regadas,Francisco Sergio P.; Rodrigues,Lusmar Veras; Fernandes,Graziela Olivia da Silva; Buchen,Guilherme; Kenmoti,Viviane T.
Fonte: Instituto Brasileiro de Estudos e Pesquisas de Gastroenterologia - IBEPEGE ; Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgia Digestiva - CBCD ; Sociedade Brasileira de Motilidade Digestiva - SBMD ; Federação Brasileira de Gastroenterologia - FBG; Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia - SBH; Sociedade Brasileira de Endoscopia Digestiva - SOBED Publicador: Instituto Brasileiro de Estudos e Pesquisas de Gastroenterologia - IBEPEGE ; Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgia Digestiva - CBCD ; Sociedade Brasileira de Motilidade Digestiva - SBMD ; Federação Brasileira de Gastroenterologia - FBG; Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia - SBH; Sociedade Brasileira de Endoscopia Digestiva - SOBED
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.45%
CONTEXT: Management of patients with obstructed defecation syndrome is still controversial. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the efficacy of clinical, clinical treatment followed by biofeedback, and surgical treatment in patients with obstructed defecation, rectocele and multiple dysfunctions evaluated with echodefecography. METHODS: The study included 103 females aged 26-84 years with obstructed defecation, grade-II/III rectocele and multiple dysfunctions on echodefecography. Patients were distributed into three treatment groups and constipation scores were assigned. Group I: 34 (33%) patients with significant improvement of symptoms through clinical management only. Group II: 14 (14%) with improvement through clinical treatment plus biofeedback. Group III: 55 (53%) referred to surgery due to treatment failure. RESULTS: Group I: 20 (59%) patients had grade-II rectocele, 14 (41%) grade-III. Obstructed defecation syndrome was associated with intussusception (41%), mucosal prolapse (41%), anismus (29%), enterocele (9%) or 2 dysfunctions (23%). The average constipation score decreased significantly from 11 to 5. Group II: 11 (79%) grade-II rectocele, 3 (21%) grade-III, associated with intussusception (7%), mucosal prolapse (43%), anismus (71%) or 2 dysfunctions (29%). There was significant decrease in constipation score from 13 to 6. Group III: 8 (15%) grade-II rectocele...

Dynamics of feeding and defecation in Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) and its potential in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi

Santos,Claudiney Biral dos; Leite,Gustavo Rocha; Sessa,Paulo Augusto; Falqueto,Aloísio
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.37%
Adults of Triatoma vitticeps infected by flagellates similar to Trypanosoma cruzi are frequently captured by the inhabitants of rural areas in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo. The dynamics of feeding and defecation were observed in three groups of adult triatomines, consisting of sylvatic T. vitticeps and laboratory-reared specimens of this species and T. infestans. Triatomines were observed from the moment they were presented with an immobilized chicken as a bloodmeal source until 240 min after feeding had ended. Mean times between the end of feeding and defecation for T. infestans, wild T. vitticeps and laboratory-reared specimens of the latter species were 1.2, 21.1, and 64 min respectively. All T. infestans defecated within 10 min of feeding, while only 29.9 of wild and 52.8% laboratory-reared specimens of T. vitticeps did so within this period. These results may explain the low efficiency of T. vitticeps in T. cruzi transmission to man. The shorter time between feeding and defecation in laboratory-reared T. vitticeps may indicate a change in behaviour of this species as a result of adaptation to an artificial environment.

Life cycle, feeding and defecation patterns of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis (Lent & León 1958) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) under laboratory conditions

Villacís,Anita G; Arcos-Terán,Laura; Grijalva,Mario J
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.26%
Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is the second most important vector of Chagas Disease (CD) in Ecuador. The objective of this study was to describe (and compare) the life cycle, the feeding and defecation patterns under laboratory conditions of two populations of this specie [from the provinces of Manabí (Coastal region) and Loja (Andean region)]. Egg-to-adult (n = 57) development took an average of 189.9 ± 20 (Manabí) and 181.3 ± 6.4 days (Loja). Mortality rates were high among Lojan nymphs. Pre-feeding time (from contact with host to feeding initiation) ranged from 4 min 42 s [nymph I (NI)] to 8 min 30 s (male); feeding time ranged from 14 min 45 s (NI)-28 min 25 s (male) (Manabí) and from 15 min 25 s (NI)-28 min 57 s (nymph V) (Loja). The amount of blood ingested increased significantly with instar and was larger for Manabí specimens (p < 0.001). Defecation while feeding was observed in Manabí specimens from stage nymph III and in Lojan bugs from stage nymph IV. There was a gradual, age-related increase in the frequency of this behaviour in both populations. Our results suggest that R. ecuadoriensis has the bionomic traits of an efficient vector of Trypanosoma cruzi. Together with previous data on the capacity of this species to infest rural households...

FLR-4, a Novel Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase, Regulates Defecation Rhythm in Caenorhabditis elegans

Take-uchi, Masaya; Kobayashi, Yuri; Kimura, Koutarou D.; Ishihara, Takeshi; Katsura, Isao
Fonte: The American Society for Cell Biology Publicador: The American Society for Cell Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.45%
The defecation behavior of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is controlled by a 45-s ultradian rhythm. An essential component of the clock that regulates the rhythm is the inositol trisphosphate receptor in the intestine, but other components remain to be discovered. Here, we show that the flr-4 gene, whose mutants exhibit very short defecation cycle periods, encodes a novel serine/threonine protein kinase with a carboxyl terminal hydrophobic region. The expression of functional flr-4::GFP was detected in the intestine, part of pharyngeal muscles and a pair of neurons, but expression of flr-4 in the intestine was sufficient for the wild-type phenotype. Furthermore, laser killing of the flr-4–expressing neurons did not change the defecation phenotypes of wild-type and flr-4 mutant animals. Temperature-shift experiments with a temperature-sensitive flr-4 mutant suggested that FLR-4 acts in a cell-functional rather than developmental aspect in the regulation of defecation rhythms. The function of FLR-4 was impaired by missense mutations in the kinase domain and near the hydrophobic region, where the latter allele seemed to be a weak antimorph. Thus, a novel protein kinase with a unique structural feature acts in the intestine to increase the length of defecation cycle periods.

Genetic Analysis of Defecation in Caenorhabditis Elegans

Thomas, J. H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1990 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.51%
Defecation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is achieved by a cyclical stereotyped motor program. The first step in each cycle is contraction of a set of posterior body muscles (pBoc), followed by contraction of a set of anterior body muscles (aBoc), and finally contraction of specialized anal muscles that open the anus and expel intestinal contents (Exp). By testing existing behavioral mutants and screening for new mutants that become constipated due to defects in defecation, I have identified 18 genes that are involved in defecation. Mutations in 16 of these genes affect specific parts of the motor program: mutations in two genes specifically affect the pBoc step; mutations in four genes affect the aBoc step; mutations in four genes affect the Exp step; and mutations in six genes affect both aBoc and Exp. Mutations in two other genes affect the defecation cycle period but have a normal motor program. Sensory inputs that regulate the cycle timing in the wild type are also described. On the basis of the phenotypes of the defecation mutants and of double mutants, I suggest a formal genetic pathway for the control of the defecation motor program.

Schedule-induced defecation by rats during ratio and interval schedules of food reinforcement.

Wylie, A M; Layng, M P; Meyer, K A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1993 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.51%
Lever pressing in rats was maintained by continuous and intermittent schedules of food while defecation was monitored. In Experiment 1, reinforcement densities were matched across variable-ratio and variable-interval schedules for three pairs of rats. Defecation occurred in all 3 rats on the variable-ratio schedule and in all 3 rats on the yoked variable-interval schedule. In Experiment 2, fixed-ratio and fixed-interval schedules with similar reinforcement densities maintained lever pressing. Defecation occurred in 3 of 4 rats on the fixed-ratio schedule and in 4 of 4 rats on the fixed-interval schedule. Almost no defecation occurred during continuous reinforcement in either experiment. These results demonstrate that defecation may occur during both ratio and interval schedules and that the inter-reinforcement interval is more important than the behavioral requirements of the schedule in generating schedule-induced defecation.

Schedule-induced defecation.

Rayfield, F; Segal, M; Goldiamond, I
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1982 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.45%
Excessive defecation, typically considered to be a concomitant of stress, was experimentally induced or eliminated under specific schedules of positive reinforcement of lever pressing by rats. The schedules were, by and large, those under which polydipsia is typically induced. In the first of three experiments, rats under fixed-interval 32-second schedules and variable interval 32-second schedules for food and water reinforcers defecated profusely, but not under fixed-interval one-second schedules or other small interval schedules. Somewhat higher rates of defecation were observed on variable interval 32-second schedules than on fixed-interval 32-second schedules. In a second experiment, fixed-ratio schedules were used, some of which resulted in responding such that reinforcement densities were similar to those on the interval schedules that induced defecation. Defecation was not systematically induced by these ratio schedules. In a third experiment, fixed-time schedules of food presentations were utilized. High rates of defecation were induced comparable to those induced by interval schedules of the same time parameter. No other behavior commonly termed "emotional" was observed in any of these experiments.

Effects of biofeedback on obstructive defecation--reconditioning of the defecation reflex?

Papachrysostomou, M; Smith, A N
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1994 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.63%
Twenty two patients with obstructive defecation were recruited for relaxation training by domiciliary self regulatory biofeedback. Each patient served as his or her own control for anorectal and proctographic assessments. Biofeedback training improved the obstructive symptoms of the patients and showed significant change in various parameters related to the obstructive defecation syndrome. As examined by isotope dynamic proctography: the defecation rate (% of evacuation/defecation time) was significantly increased (p < 0.05), the anorectal angles at rest and during attempted defecation were made more obtuse (p < 0.05), and the pelvic floor movements were made more dynamic on voluntary contraction of the anal sphincter (p < 0.03). The external anal sphincter electromyographic voltage recorded during defecation was significantly reduced (p < 0.0005) as was the surface anal plug electromyographic electrode voltage (p < 0.0001), which was associated with a greatly reduced anismus index (p < 0.0001). The rectal sensation was improved (p < 0.05), concomitantly. Biofeedback thus improves the defecation act in patients suffering from inappropriate contraction of the pelvic floor and sphincter musculature. Furthermore, this study has shown that biofeedback objectively influences the defecation reflex leading to an improved quality of higher control of bowel function.

Phenotypic and suppressor analysis of defecation in clk-1 mutants reveals that reaction to changes in temperature is an active process in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Branicky, R; Shibata, Y; Feng, J; Hekimi, S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.6%
Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans maternal-effect gene clk-1 affect cellular, developmental, and behavioral timing. They result in a slowing of the cell cycle, embryonic and postembryonic development, reproduction, and aging, as well as of the defecation, swimming, and pharyngeal pumping cycles. Here, we analyze the defecation behavior in clk-1 mutants, phenotypically and genetically. When wild-type worms are grown at 20 degrees and shifted to a new temperature, the defecation cycle length is significantly affected by that new temperature. In contrast, we find that when clk-1 mutants are shifted, the defecation cycle length is unaffected by that new temperature. We carried out a screen for mutations that suppress the slow defecation phenotype at 20 degrees and identified two distinct classes of genes, which we call dsc for defecation suppressor of clk-1. Mutations in one class also restore the ability to react normally to changes in temperature, while mutations in the other class do not. Together, these results suggest that clk-1 is necessary for readjusting the defecation cycle length in response to changes in temperature. On the other hand, in the absence of clk-1 activity, we observe temperature compensation, a mechanism that maintains a constant defecation period in the face of changes in temperature.

Increased defecation during stress or after 5-hydroxytryptophan: selective inhibition by the 5-HT4 receptor antagonist, SB-207266

Sanger, G J; Yoshida, M; Yahyah, M; Kitazumi, K
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.51%
5-HT4 receptor antagonism pr2events the ability of exogenous 5-HT or 5-HTP to sensitize the intestinal peristaltic reflex and increase the rate of defecation, generally without affecting non-stimulated intestinal function. In this study we confirmed the ability of the selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonist SB-207266 1–1000 μg kg−1 p.o., to prevent the increase in defecation evoked over a 60 min period by 5-HTP 10 mg kg−1 s.c. in conscious mice, in the absence of an apparent constipating action.The role of endogenous 5-HT in the mechanisms of increased defecation and/or diarrhoea was then investigated in conscious, fed rats. This was evoked by 180 min exposure to restraint stress, which increased both the number and mean weight of formed, faecal pellets excreted over the entire time period.SB-207266 1–1000 μg kg−1 p.o. (dosed 30 min before restraint) did not affect the increase in defecation evoked during the first 60 min of restraint stress, but significantly and dose-dependently reduced or prevented the increased defecation during the remaining 120 min of the experiment; this action occurred in the absence of an apparent constipating action of SB-207266.In fasted rats exposed to restraint stress, watery diarrhoea developed and although there was a tendency for SB-207266 1–1000 μg kg−1 p.o. (dosed 30 min before restraint) to reduce the incidence of diarrhoea...

Control of defecation in patients with spinal injuries by stimulation of sacral anterior nerve roots.

MacDonagh, R P; Sun, W M; Smallwood, R; Forster, D; Read, N W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/06/1990 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.45%
OBJECTIVE--To observe the effects of stimulation of the sacral anterior roots on anorectal and low colonic pressures and to programme implanted stimulators to produce defecation. DESIGN--Prospective study of 12 consecutive patients. SETTING--Spinal injuries unit and university gastrointestinal physiology department. PATIENTS--12 Patients with complete supraconal spinal cord lesions. Their injuries had been sustained at least two years before the study. INTERVENTIONS--A Brindley-Finetech intradural sacral anterior root stimulator was implanted in all patients. Three months postoperatively the stimulator settings were adjusted after measurement of simultaneous anorectal and low colonic pressures. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Full defecation. RESULTS--Six patients achieved complete rectal evacuation of faeces using the implant and subsequently did not require manual help for defecation. For all but one of the patients the total time taken to complete defecation was reduced, and all were free from constipation, the most prevalent gastrointestinal symptom in patients with spinal injuries. CONCLUSIONS--Sacral anterior root stimulators can be programmed to achieve complete unassisted defecation and can considerably improve the quality of life of patients with spinal injuries.

Obstructive Defecation in Middle-Aged Women

Varma, Madhulika G.; Hart, Stacey L.; Brown, Jeanette S.; Creasman, Jennifer M.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Thom, David H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.63%
Obstructive defecation, a significant contributor to constipation, is frequently reported in middle-aged women, yet few population-based studies have established prevalence in this group. We analyzed data from the Reproductive Risks for Incontinence Study at Kaiser, a population-based cohort of racially diverse women, 40–69 years old, to describe the prevalence of obstructive defecation and identify associated risk factors. The Reproductive Risks for Incontinence Study at Kaiser is a randomly selected cohort of 2,109 women in the Kaiser Medical System. Obstructive defecation, determined by self-report, was defined as difficulty in passing stool, hard stool, straining for more than 15 min, or incomplete evacuation, occurring at least weekly. Age, race, income, education, drinking, health status, parity, pelvic organ prolapse, urinary incontinence, number of medications, hysterectomy, surgery for pelvic organ prolapse, colectomy, irritable bowel syndrome, and body mass index were assessed for both their univariate and multivariate association with obstructive defecation. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the independent association between associated factors and the primary outcome of obstructive defecation. Obstructive defecation that occurred at least weekly was reported by 12.3% of women. Significant independent risk factors included irritable bowel syndrome [odds ratio 1.78...

Open Defecation and Childhood Stunting in India: An Ecological Analysis of New Data from 112 Districts

Spears, Dean; Ghosh, Arabinda; Cumming, Oliver
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/09/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.51%
Poor sanitation remains a major public health concern linked to several important health outcomes; emerging evidence indicates a link to childhood stunting. In India over half of the population defecates in the open; the prevalence of stunting remains very high. Recently published data on levels of stunting in 112 districts of India provide an opportunity to explore the relationship between levels of open defecation and stunting within this population. We conducted an ecological regression analysis to assess the association between the prevalence of open defecation and stunting after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Data from the 2011 HUNGaMA survey was used for the outcome of interest, stunting; data from the 2011 Indian Census for the same districts was used for the exposure of interest, open defecation. After adjustment for various potential confounding factors – including socio-economic status, maternal education and calorie availability – a 10 percent increase in open defecation was associated with a 0.7 percentage point increase in both stunting and severe stunting. Differences in open defecation can statistically account for 35 to 55 percent of the average difference in stunting between districts identified as low-performing and high-performing in the HUNGaMA data. In addition...

Identification of motor neurons and a mechanosensitive sensory neuron in the defecation circuitry of Drosophila larvae

Zhang, Wei; Yan, Zhiqiang; Li, Bingxue; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung
Fonte: eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd Publicador: eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/10/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.51%
Defecation allows the body to eliminate waste, an essential step in food processing for animal survival. In contrast to the extensive studies of feeding, its obligate counterpart, defecation, has received much less attention until recently. In this study, we report our characterizations of the defecation behavior of Drosophila larvae and its neural basis. Drosophila larvae display defecation cycles of stereotypic frequency, involving sequential contraction of hindgut and anal sphincter. The defecation behavior requires two groups of motor neurons that innervate hindgut and anal sphincter, respectively, and can excite gut muscles directly. These two groups of motor neurons fire sequentially with the same periodicity as the defecation behavior, as revealed by in vivo Ca2+ imaging. Moreover, we identified a single mechanosensitive sensory neuron that innervates the anal slit and senses the opening of the intestine terminus. This anus sensory neuron relies on the TRP channel NOMPC but not on INACTIVE, NANCHUNG, or PIEZO for mechanotransduction.

Establishment and Management of Community Sanitary Complexes in Rural Areas : A Handbook

Ministry of Rural Development; World Bank
Fonte: New Delhi Publicador: New Delhi
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.45%
Indian remains one of the countries wherein a lot of efforts are still required to eliminate the practice of open defecation. In rural areas, open defecation though reduced in scale continues to be a socially and culturally accepted traditional behavior largely. Low awareness of the potential health and economic benefits of better sanitation and hygiene practices, perception of high costs of having a toilet, the perceived convenience of open defecation are some of the other bottlenecks towards achievement of the goal of open defecation free India. Lack of priority to safe confinement and disposal of human excreta poses significant health risks manifest in the sanitation challenge facing the nation today. However, the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) launched by Government of India in 1999 has gone a long way in achieving and sustaining the status of open defecation free Gram Panchayats in rural India and ensuring healthy and hygienic environment. The vigorous efforts made under this Campaign have helped to achieve rural sanitation coverage to an estimated 70 per cent as of March 2011. The campaign has proved to be one of the most effective programs for its focus on community-led...

Effect of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BB-12®, on defecation frequency in healthy subjects with low defecation frequency and abdominal discomfort: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial

Eskesen, Dorte; Jespersen, Lillian; Michelsen, Birgit; Whorwell, Peter J.; Müller-Lissner, Stefan; Morberg, Cathrine M.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.56%
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BB-12®, on two primary end points – defecation frequency and gastrointestinal (GI) well-being – in healthy adults with low defecation frequency and abdominal discomfort. A total of 1248 subjects were included in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomised to 1 or 10 billion colony-forming units/d of the probiotic strain BB-12® or a matching placebo capsule once daily for 4 weeks. Subjects completed a diary on bowel habits, relief of abdominal discomfort and symptoms. GI well-being, defined as global relief of abdominal discomfort, did not show significant differences. The OR for having a defecation frequency above baseline for ≥50 % of the time was 1·31 (95 % CI 0·98, 1·75), P=0·071, for probiotic treatment overall. Tightening the criteria for being a responder to an increase of ≥1 d/week for ≥50 % of the time resulted in an OR of 1·55 (95 % CI 1·22, 1·96), P=0·0003, for treatment overall. A treatment effect on average defecation frequency was found (P=0·0065), with the frequency being significantly higher compared with placebo at all weeks for probiotic treatment overall (all P<0·05). Effects on defecation frequency were similar for the two doses tested...

TRPM channels are required for rhythmicity in the ultradian defecation rhythm of C. elegans

Kwan, Claire S. M.; Vazquez-Manrique, Rafael P.; Ly, Sung; Goyal, Kshamata; Baylis, Howard A.
Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Tipo: Article; Published Version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.63%
RIGHTS : This article is licensed under the BioMed Central licence at http://www.biomedcentral.com/about/license which is similar to the 'Creative Commons Attribution Licence'. In brief you may : copy, distribute, and display the work; make derivative works; or make commercial use of the work - under the following conditions: the original author must be given credit; for any reuse or distribution, it must be made clear to others what the license terms of this work are.; Abstract Background Ultradian rhythms, rhythms with a period of less than 24 hours, are a widespread and fundamental aspect of life. The mechanisms underlying the control of such rhythms remain only partially understood. Defecation in C. elegans is a very tightly controlled rhythmic process. Underlying the defecation motor programme is an oscillator which functions in the intestinal cells of the animal. This mechanism includes periodic calcium release and subsequent intercellular calcium waves which in turn regulate the muscle contractions that make up the defecation motor programme. Here we investigate the role of TRPM cation channels in this process. Results We use RNA interference (RNAi) to perturb TRPM channel gene expression. We show that combined knock down of two of the TRPM encoding genes...

Prevalence of sexual and physical abuse in patients with obstructed defecation: impact on biofeedback treatment

Solé,L. I.; Bolino,M. C.; Lueso,M.; Caro,L.; Cerisoli,C.; Castiglia,N.; Bassotti,G.
Fonte: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas Publicador: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/07/2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.56%
Background: obstructed defecation is one of the most common subtypes of constipation, and it is frequently responsive to biofeedback treatment. Aims: since a history of sexual and physical abuse may be present in patients with obstructed defecation, we assessed the incidence of abuse history in patients with obstructed defecation referred to a general gastroenterology practice, and whether such a history may lead to a different outcome of biofeedback training in these patients. Patients and methods: one hundred and twenty-one patients (17 men, 104 women, age 53 ± 15 years) with obstructed defecation were studied by retrospective chart review. Their history of sexual, physical and psychological abuse was obtained by a standard interview, and biofeedback training was carried out by means of a three-balloon technique. Results: a history of sexual/physical or psychological abuse was present in 12.4% patients. Biofeedback training yielded a successful improvement of obstructed defecation in 93% patients without abuse and in 100% of patients with abuse; this difference was not statistically different (p = 0.53). Conclusions: the prevalence of sexual/physical or psychological abuse in a population of patients with obstructed defecation referred to a general gastroenterology practice is relatively low; such a history seems not to affect the outcome of biofeedback training in these patients.