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In Vitro Activity of Gallium Maltolate against Staphylococci in Logarithmic, Stationary, and Biofilm Growth Phases: Comparison of Conventional and Calorimetric Susceptibility Testing Methods▿

Baldoni, Daniela; Steinhuber, Andrea; Zimmerli, Werner; Trampuz, Andrej
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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16.06%
Ga3+ is a semimetal element that competes for the iron-binding sites of transporters and enzymes. We investigated the activity of gallium maltolate (GaM), an organic gallium salt with high solubility, against laboratory and clinical strains of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis (MSSE), and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE) in logarithmic or stationary phase and in biofilms. The MICs of GaM were higher for S. aureus (375 to 2000 μg/ml) than S. epidermidis (94 to 200 μg/ml). Minimal biofilm inhibitory concentrations were 3,000 to ≥6,000 μg/ml (S. aureus) and 94 to 3,000 μg/ml (S. epidermidis). In time-kill studies, GaM exhibited a slow and dose-dependent killing, with maximal action at 24 h against S. aureus of 1.9 log10 CFU/ml (MSSA) and 3.3 log10 CFU/ml (MRSA) at 3× MIC and 2.9 log10 CFU/ml (MSSE) and 4.0 log10 CFU/ml (MRSE) against S. epidermidis at 10× MIC. In calorimetric studies, growth-related heat production was inhibited by GaM at subinhibitory concentrations; and the minimal heat inhibition concentrations were 188 to 4,500 μg/ml (MSSA), 94 to 1,500 μg/ml (MRSA), and 94 to 375 μg/ml (MSSE and MRSE)...

LTX-109 Is a Novel Agent for Nasal Decolonization of Methicillin-Resistant and -Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus

Nilsson, Anna C.; Janson, Håkan; Wold, Hedda; Fugelli, Anders; Andersson, Karin; Håkangård, Camilla; Olsson, Pernilla; Olsen, Wenche Marie
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/10/2014 EN
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Nasal decolonization has a proven effect on the prevention of severe Staphylococcus aureus infections and the control of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). However, rising rates of resistance to antibiotics highlight the need for new substances for nasal decolonization. LTX-109 is a broad-spectrum, fast-acting bactericidal antimicrobial drug for topical treatment, which causes membrane disruption and cell lysis. This mechanism of action is not associated with cross-resistance and has a low propensity for development of resistance. In the present study, persistent nasal MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) carriers were treated for 3 days with vehicle or with 1%, 2%, or 5% LTX-109. A significant effect on nasal decolonization was observed already after 2 days of LTX-109 treatment in subjects treated with 2% or 5% LTX-109 compared to vehicle (P ≤ 0.0012 by Dunnett′s test). No safety issues were noted during the 9-week follow-up period. Minimal reversible epithelial lesions were observed in the nasal cavity. The systemic exposure was very low, with a maximum concentration of drug in plasma (Cmax) at 1 to 2 h postdosing (3.72 to 11.7 ng/ml). One week after treatment initiation, LTX-109 was not detectable in any subject. Intranasal treatment of S. aureus with LTX-109 is safe and reduces the bacterial load already after a single day of treatment. Hence...

Exchange of notes between the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the government of the French Republic concerning the granting of independence to the New Hebrides; Convention between Great Britain and France Concerning the New Hebrides

Vanuatu; Great Britain -- Foreign and Commonwealth Office
Fonte: Universidade da Flórida Publicador: Universidade da Flórida
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1 online resource (52 pages). : ;
Publicado em // ENGLISH; FRENCH
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(Language) Text in English and French.; (Statement of Responsibility) presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs by command of Her Majesty, January 1980.

Les occupations de fermes commerciales au Zimbabwe : récits, expériences et devenirs des fermiers blancs

Kalaora, Léa
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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26.46%
Cette thèse propose une ethnographie des devenirs des fermiers blancs saisis sur le long terme de leur présence au Zimbabwe. L’analyse est centrée autour d’un moment de crise, les occupations de fermes en cours, qualifié dans ce travail d’éthique et de critique. Ces occupations s’attaquent symboliquement et réellement aux restes de la colonisation au Zimbabwe. Leur étude nous a conduits à nous interroger sur les manières suivant lesquelles la décolonisation est mise en oeuvre dans le Zimbabwe du Président Mugabe et sur les enjeux qui concernent la forme, notamment sur le plan légale, de la postcolonie. Ces occupations ont provoqué l’expulsion de plus de 90 % des fermiers blancs hors de leur lieu utopique, à savoir la ferme, et les ont poussés dans des espaces d’ambiguïté à l’intérieur desquels les occupants cherchent la confrontation. La question de la corruption (économique et morale) est au coeur de l’expérience des fermiers blancs qui ont été forcés de renoncer à leur intégrité. Certains d’entre eux ont tenté par divers moyens de la maintenir en se préservant de la corruption et en réclamant le respect de leurs « droits »; d’autres ont accepté de vivre dans la zone grise que constitue l’occupation de leur ferme. Cette thèse qui s’ancre dans l’anthropologie postcoloniale est organisée en trois parties. La question centrale de la première partie qui est d’orientation historique interroge la forme que les settlers ont donnée à ce pays et la manière mise de l’avant par les fermiers blancs pour faire de ces terres africaines « leur » lieu. Dans la deuxième partie...