The aim of this work is to study pure rolling contact fatigue in 32CrMoV13 quenching
and tempering steel. The study involves both experimental and numerical work. The
influence of the roughness and the residual stresses on the mechanisms and zones of
cracking were studied. The results show a rapid reduction in roughness during the first
minute of test but even so there will be specimen deterioration. The residual stress profile
after rolling contact tests have high compression values in the surface and at a depth
of approximately 240 μm, which is related with the Hertzian maximal shear stress. The
numerical simulation of the Hertzian loading was used both to determine the elastic
shakedown of thematerial and to apply a high-cycle multiaxial fatigue criterion. The threedimensional
finite element analysis used in the numerical calculation includes elastic-linear
kinematic hardening plastic material and allows the introduction of an initial residual stress
state. Taking into account the elastoplastic load induced by the Hertz pressure, low-cycle
fatigue tests were used to characterize the mechanical properties of the material. In order
to validate the numerical simulation, the results of the calculation after elastic shakedown
were compared with the values measured by X-ray diffraction after rolling contact tests.
The results showed a reasonable agreement between calculated and measured stresses.
The Dang Van high-cycle multiaxial fatigue criterion showed a good relationship with
the experimental findings.
Este trabalho propõe um modelo numérico de contato roda-trilho, baseado no método dos elementos finitos, para estimar a vida em fadiga até o surgimento da trinca, e quanto à falha por escamação, de uma roda ferroviária classe C de um vagão de carga de uma ferrovia nacional, de Serra dos Carajás. O modelo tem como principal contribuição à abordagem elastoplástica juntamente com a inclusão das tensões residuais provenientes do tratamento térmico do processo de fabricação da roda. O modelo de elementos finitos utilizou técnicas de submodelagem, tanto na determinação no campo de tensões residuais de fabricação, quanto no de contato roda-trilho. Para efeito de comparação, determinaram-se as tensões e deformações também com um modelo semi-analítico elástico, baseado na teoria de Hertz, além de um modelo numérico elastoplástico sem tensões residuais de fabricação. A vida foi determinada através de dois critérios de fadiga, que incorporam a influencia das tensões hidrostáticas e planos críticos. O critério de alto ciclo de Dang Van foi modificado para adaptar-se ao problema de dois corpos em contato. O outro critério utilizado foi o de Fatemi-Socie, baseado em deformações cisalhantes. O número de ciclos encontrado para o início da trinca foi então corrigido de acordo com uma distribuição normal estatística da posição lateral do ponto de contato. O trabalho mostrou que as tensões residuais...
Este trabalho apresenta a comparação entre os diversos critérios de fadiga multiaxial de alto ciclo aplicados ao problema de contato roda-trilho. Para isto, é utilizado um modelo elastoplástico tridimensional de elementos finitos capaz de permitir o cálculo tanto das tensões geradas pelo rolamento de uma roda livre de tensões residuais de fabricação como de uma roda que contenha as tensões residuais provenientes do processo de tratamento térmico, obtidas através de uma simulação térmico-estrutural. Estes dois cenários são avaliados segundo critérios de fadiga multiaxial baseados tanto em planos críticos, como Dang Van, Matake e McDiarmid, quanto nos baseados em invariantes do tensor de tensões, como Sines, Crossland e Kakuno Kawada. Pela natureza da fadiga de contato, que não possui condição de vida infinita, é estimado para cada critério um número de ciclos para o aparecimento das trincas. Como resultado, observa-se que para alguns critérios como Dang Van, Sines e Kakuno-Kawada, a vida em fadiga é beneficiada pelo processo de tratamento térmico, enquanto para os demais, as tensões residuais de fabricação provocam uma redução no número de ciclos para o aparecimento das trincas.; This work presents a comparison of different high cycle multiaxial fatigue criteria...
This work concerns the application of a mesoscopic scale fatigue criterion to predict the initiation of cracks in components under fretting conditions. A verification of the analysis is carried out by considering available experimental data for fretting fatigue in a high strength Aluminium alloy commonly used in the aerospace industry. These experiments revealed there is a contact size effect in fretting fatigue life. The results show that the mesoscopic scale fatigue criterion can correctly predict the initiation of fretting cracks for larger contact configurations. It is concluded that the reason for the poor performance of the criterion in predicting failure at smaller contacts may well be related to the effect of the stress gradient, a variable not accounted for in the mesoscopic criterion here assessed.
Lien vers la version éditeur: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142112306003240; The aim of this paper is to present new modelling dedicated to multiaxial high cycle fatigue (HCF), and applied to polycrystalline metals. The model presented is based on the experimental characterization of damage during HCF tests, under pure tension and torsion modes. The origin of this approach is a mesoscopic model considering three plastic behaviour stages (hardening, saturation and softening) suggested by Papadopoulos [Papadopoulos I.V. Fatigue limit of metals under multiaxial stress conditions: the microscopic approach. Technical Note No. I.93.101, Commission of the European Communities, Joint Research Centre; 1993. [ISEI/IE 2495/93].], and used by Morel [Morel F. A critical plane approach for life prediction of high cycle fatigue under multiaxial variable loading. Int J Fatigue 2000;22:101–119.]. The principal evolution brought in by this study is a competition description during all the sample lifetime of the plasticity and damage effects. The plasticity mechanisms induce a hardening saturating effects (resulting from movement and accumulation of dislocations), especially significant at the beginning of the crystal life. Damage...
Lien vers la version éditeur: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142112312002356; This article is dedicated to the high cycle fatigue behaviour of cast hypo-eutectic Al–Si alloys. In particular, the AlSi7Cu05Mg03 alloy is investigated. It presents the results of a vast experimental campaign undertaken to investigate the fatigue behaviour, and more specifically the fatigue damage mechanisms observed under complex loading conditions: plane bending with different load ratios, fully reversed torsion and equibiaxial bending with a load ratio of R = 0.1. A specific test set-up has been designed to create an equibiaxial stress state using disk shaped specimens. A tomographic analysis is also presented with the aim of characterising the micro-shrinkage pore population of the material. It is shown that two distinct and coexisting fatigue damage mechanisms occur in this material, depending on the presence of different microstructural heterogeneities (i.e. micro-shrinkage pores, Silicon particles in the eutectic zones, Fe-rich intermetallic phases, etc.). Furthermore, it is concluded that the effect of an equibiaxial tensile stress state is not detrimental in terms of high cycle fatigue. It is also shown that the Dang Van criterion is not able to simultaneously predict the multiaxial effect (i.e. torsion and equibiaxial tension) and the mean stress effect for this material.
Lien vers la version éditeur: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142112312002472; This article is dedicated to the high cycle fatigue behaviour of cast hypo-eutectic Al–Si alloys and in particular the AlSi7Cu05Mg03 alloy. In a vast experimental campaign undertaken to investigate the fatigue damage mechanisms operating in this alloy, subject to complex loading conditions, it was shown that two different coexisting fatigue damage mechanisms occur in this materials, depending on the presence of different microstructural heterogeneities (i.e. micro-shrinkage pores, Si particles, Fe-rich intermetallic phases, DAS of the Al-matrix, etc.). In order to take into account both of these damage mechanisms, a probabilistic approach using the weakest link concept is introduced to model the competition between the two mechanisms. This approach leads naturally to a probabilistic Kitagawa type diagram, which explains the relationship between the fatigue behaviour of the material and the different casting processes or post-treatments (e.g. gravity casting and HIP). It is shown that the sensitivity to the different loading modes (i.e. uniaxial with and without mean stress, torsion and equibiaxial tension) depends on the microstructural heterogeneities responsible for crack initiation. For a porosity-free alloy...
The aim of this paper is to present a novel un-notched fatigue test specimen in which a biaxial stress state is achieved using a uniaxial loading condition. This allows the problem of multi-axial fatigue to be studied using relatively common one-axis servo-hydraulic testing machines. In addition the specimen presented here is very compact and can be made using a small volume of material (100x40x4.5mm). For this specimen, the degree of biaxiality, defined by the parameter is equal to approximately 0.45. The specimen geometry was optimised using the Dang Van multi-axial fatigue criterion. In addition to use as a fatigue specimen, it has been demonstrated that the biaxial specimen presented here is also suitable for biaxial tensile tests, to determine the rupture strength of a material in a biaxial stress state.
Two different materials have been investigated: The first was wrought aluminium 2024-O in the form of 5mm sheets. The second was a cast aluminium-silicon alloy AlSi7Cu0.5Mg0.3, commonly used in automotive and aeronautical applications. The fatigue strengths were determined at 2x106 cycles and at various R-ratios using a staircase procedure. For the aluminium 2024, it is shown that the biaxial stress state increases the maximum permissible first principal stress when compared to the uniaxial condition. However...
This article is dedicated to the high cycle fatigue behaviour of cast hypo-eutectic Al–Si alloys. In particular, the AlSi7Cu05Mg03 alloy is investigated. It presents the results of a vast experimental campaign undertaken to investigate the fatigue behaviour, and more specifically the fatigue damage mechanisms observed under complex loading conditions: plane bending with different load ratios, fully reversed torsion and equibiaxial bending with a load ratio of R = 0.1. A specific test set-up has been designed to create an equibiaxial stress state using disk shaped specimens. A tomographic analysis is also presented with the aim of characterising the micro-shrinkage pore population of the material.
It is shown that two distinct and coexisting fatigue damage mechanisms occur in this material, depending on the presence of different microstructural heterogeneities (i.e. micro-shrinkage pores, Silicon particles in the eutectic zones, Fe-rich intermetallic phases, etc.). Furthermore, it is concluded that the effect of an equibiaxial tensile stress state is not detrimental in terms of high cycle fatigue. It is also shown that the Dang Van criterion is not able to simultaneously predict the multiaxial effect (i.e. torsion and equibiaxial tension) and the mean stress effect for this material.; PSA Peugeot Citroën
Région Pays de la Loire
This study provides an analysis of high cycle multiaxial fatigue crack initiation modes based on SEM observations.The statistical study of crack initiation preferential sites shows that grains with multiple slip have a high probability of crack initiation. The application of Dang Van criterion at the grain scale using finite element analysis (cubic elasticity with / or without crystal plasticity) on 3D synthetic semi-periodic microstructures shows a strong heterogeneity of both the hydrostatic stress and shear. The evolution of this heterogeneity introduced by the material behavior is discussed. Finally, a method based on the extreme values statistics is proposed and applied to the fatigue indicative parameter associated to the Dang Van criterion. The effects of free surface and constitutive material model were analyzed.
Fatigue phenomena, which appear generally below the yield stress, is the cause of more than 80 % of in-service mechanical failures. However, the optimization of the weight and cost when designing mechanical components or structures, linked to improved performance, leads to increasingly stressed components. Therefore a fatigue design approach must be done by the engineer. This paper shows the experience gained over five academic years of teaching fatigue the assessment of automotive components using a reliability approach to predict probability of failure, in the engineering school, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, in France. The choice was made to present a comprehensive fatigue assessment approach using a method, initially developed in the automotive industry and since extended to the aeronautical and mechanical industries. This method is known as the “Stress-Strength interference analysis”. The “Stress” represents the distribution of the driver severity, and the “Strength” represents the distribution of the fatigue strength of all the components. A suspension arm is used to illustrate the approach. The Dang Van multiaxial fatigue criterion is implemented in a Finite Elements Code and a danger coefficient is visualized on the meshed structure. The fatigue analysis is interpreted with respect to the target reliability sought by the car- manufacturer.