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Chemical analysis of dairy cattle feed from Brazil

SANTOS, Luis Gustavo Cofani dos; FERNANDES, Elisabete A. De Nadai; BACCHI, Marcio Arruda; SARRIES, Gabriel Adrian; BLUMER, Lucimara; BARBOSA JR., Fernando
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.47%
The bovine dairy cattle demand diets of high nutritional value being essential to know chemical composition of feed supplied to cows to achieve high levels of quality, safety and productivity of milk. Different roughages and concentrates from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul states, Brazil, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrate and roughage samples were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Ba, Mg, P, Rb and Sr. Samples of concentrate from both origins were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Ni and Rb.; State of Sao Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP)

Avaliação da eficiência produtiva e energética de sistemas de climatização em galpões tipo "Freestall" para confinamento de gado leiteiro.; Evaluation of productive and energetic efficiency of climatization system in dairy cattle free-stall.

Perissinotto, Mauricio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/01/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.53%
O presente trabalho teve como objetivo geral avaliar a eficiência técnica e econômica do sistema de resfriamento adiabático evaporativo (SRAE) na produção intensiva de leite e como objetivos específicos avaliar a eficiência térmica dos sistemas de resfriamento (aspersão e nebulização), conjugados com a ventilação forçada, na resposta produtiva dos animais, na redução do estresse térmico, seus reflexos no microclima interno e sua eficiência econômica quanto ao consumo de energia e de água. O experimento foi realizado em uma fazenda comercial de produção leiteira, localizada no interior do Estado de São Paulo. Em cada tratamento foram utilizados 10 animais da raça Holandesa em produção, selecionados de acordo com a produção e período de lactação, alojados em sistema de "freestall". Dos animais selecionados cinco foram utilizados para a tomada dos dados fisiológicos dos animais (freqüência respiratória, temperatura retal e temperatura do pelame branco e preto, medidos nos horários das 9, 11, 13, 15 e 17 horas, durante nove dias não consecutivos), e cinco animais foram utilizados para a avaliação comportamental (localização e atividades dentro da instalação), sendo para tanto utilizadas vídeo - câmeras das 9 às 17 horas durante seis dias. O período experimental compreendeu vinte e oito dias consecutivos do mês de novembro de 2003...

Ganhos ambientais e energéticos com a utilização da biomassa residual de gado leiteiro em Lagoa da Prata- MG; Profit environmental and energy use of biomass with residual of dairy cattle in the Lagoa da Prata-MG

Oliveira, Flávio Soares de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/10/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.7%
O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar os ganhos ambientais e energéticos com o aproveitamento da biomassa residual de gado leiteiro no município de Lagoa da Prata-MG. Para este estudo realizaram-se trabalhos de campo, tanto para caracterizar a pecuária leiteira no município, como para conhecer os aspectos ambientais da localidade. Para se conseguirem dados de relevância energética e ambiental, visitaram-se nove fazendas da região onde os responsáveis responderam a um questionário. Recolheram-se amostras de resíduos do gado confinado em cada uma delas. Os resultados da pesquisa mostraram uma média de 3 toneladas de geração diária de biomassa residual por propriedade. Constatou-se um consumo médio de energia elétrica de 2.500 kW/h, pela utilização de uma série de equipamentos energointensivos. Encontrou-se um consumo médio de água de 27 m³/dia. Realizaram-se análises químicas por Espectrometria de Fluorescência com Raio X nas amostras de resíduos e observaram-se concentrações médias relativamente altas para os elementos P, Fe, S, Ti, Mn, Zn e Na, passíveis de comprometer o meio ambiente local e regional. Para diagnosticar os ganhos energéticos foi simulada a produção de biogás através de protótipos de biodigestores com as amostras de dejetos obtidas nas fazendas. Os resultados analíticos do biogás através de cromatografia gasosa demonstraram concentrações aproximadas de 70% de CH4 ...

Records of performance and sanitary status from a dairy cattle herd in southern Brazil; Registros de desempenho e de status sanitário de um rebanho bovino leiteiro no Sul do Brasil

Cruz, Claudio Estevao Farias da; Raymundo, Djeison Lutier; Cerva, Cristina; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Dalto, André Gustavo Cabrera; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Driemeier, David
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.73%
Nas últimas décadas, os cuidados sanitários de vacas leiteiras passaram por um processo de adaptação, no qual o enfoque individual foi substituído pelo coletivo, cujo sistema de manutenção e interpretação de registros por veterinários assumiu papel fundamental. Os registros de eficiência produtiva e reprodutiva, bem como os de ordem sanitária observados em um rebanho bovino leiteiro no Sul do Brasil foram apresentados e discutidos. O período estudado foi 2000-2009. Os dados de produção leiteira média incluíram, por período de lactação de 349 dias, 8436 kg de leite, 290 kg de gordura e 275 kg de proteína, com média de contagem de células somáticas de 201000 células/ml de leite. Idade ao primeiro parto (31 meses), serviços por concepção (2,1), intervalo entre partos (428 dias), intervalo parto-concepção (146 dias), taxas médias anuais de parição (76,2%), perdas fetais (9,8-19%) e natimortos (3,6%), além de período de espera voluntária (94 dias) foram alguns dos índices de desempenho reprodutivo registrados. Informações sanitárias do rebanho incluíram prevalência média de doenças comuns em bovinos leiteiros tais como anaplasmose (29,8%), mastites (27,8%), doenças digitais (26,3%), cistos ovarianos (21...

Genetic characterisation of Giardia duodenalis in dairy cattle in Brazil

Paz e Silva, Flavio Medeiros; Lopes, Raimundo Souza; Araujo, Joao Pessoa
Fonte: Folia Parasitologica Publicador: Folia Parasitologica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 15-20
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.63%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 05/52175-2; The intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis (Lambl, 1859) Kofoid & Christiansen, 1915 [syn. Giardia intestinalis and Giardia lamblia] has emerged as a widespread enteric pathogen in humans and domestic animals. In recent years, G. duodenalis has been found in cattle worldwide and longitudinal studies have reported cumulative prevalence of 100% in some herds. In the present study, we determined the prevalence and genetic characterisation of G. duodenalis in 200 dairy cattle from 10 dairy farms in São Paulo state, Brazil. All faecal specimens were screened for the presence of G. duodenalis using microscopy examination, enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA was extracted from faecal samples and G. duodenalis were identified by amplification of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU-rDNA) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) genes followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or sequencing analysis. Giardia was identified in eight farm locations (80% prevalence). Overall, 15/200 (7.5%) animals were positive for infection, only one of which was a cow. Giardia duodenalis genotype E was present in 14 of the animals tested. Zoonotic genotype AI was present in one positive sample. Genotype E and genotype A represented 93% and 7% of G. duodenalis infections...

Welfare indicators identification in Portuguese dairy cows farms

Silva, Catarina de Noronha Krug Marques da
Fonte: Universidade de Lisboa. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária Publicador: Universidade de Lisboa. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 29/11/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.72%
Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária; The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of identifying dairy farms with poor welfare using a national cattle database. The welfare of dairy cattle was assessed using the Welfare Quality protocol on almost 2000 adult animals from 24 Portuguese dairy farms. More than 14 million records from national cattle database were analyzed to identify potential welfare indicators for dairy farms. Within the 24 dairy farms, one was scored as ‗enhanced‘, 18 were ‗acceptable‘ and five were ‗not classified‘, according to the Welfare Quality protocol. The main welfare problems identified were: presence of lesions and swellings mainly in the lower back legs and neck/back area; approximately 40% of moderate lameness; no pain management in disbudded calves; non-grazing production systems; insufficient or dirty drinkers; severe dirtiness of the udder and hindquarter; and high percentage of cows lying outside the stall. Twelve potential welfare indicators were identified. Within these only two, proportion of on-farm deaths and female/male births ratio, were significantly different between farms with good welfare (‗enhanced‘ and ‗acceptable‘) and poor welfare (‗not classified‘). A model to detect farms with poor welfare was created with J48 classifier and it had 75.86% accuracy.; RESUMO - Identificação de Indicadores de Bem-estar Animal em Explorações de Bovinos Leiteiros em Portugal - Este trabalho teve como propósito determinar a possibilidade de identificar vacarias de leite com baixos níveis de bem-estar através do Sistema Nacional de Identificação e Registo de Bovinos (SNIRB). Aplicou-se o protocolo Welfare Quality em cerca de 2000 animais adultos de 24 explorações portuguesas. Analisaram-se mais de 14 milhões de registos do SNIRB na tentativa de identificar potenciais indicadores de bem-estar nacionais. Tendo como base os princípios do Welfare Quality...

Associations among milk production traits and glycosylated haemoglobin in dairy cattle: importance of lactose synthesis potential

Shahbazkia, Homayon Reza; Aminlari, Mahmoud; Tavasoli, Atoosa; Mohamadnia, Ahmad Reza; Cravador, A.
Fonte: Universidade do Algarve Publicador: Universidade do Algarve
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.53%
Abstract Glucose is the major precursor of lactose synthesis in the mammary gland. Lactose the major carbohydrate and osmolyte of milk, controls milk volume and its concentration. Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbG) is a retrospective measure of mean blood glucose level and it is largely unaffected by recent physiological conditions and environmental events. The purposes of this study were to determine the correlations between lactose traits and other milk production traits in dairy cattle and to investigate whether HbG level can be correlated with milk and lactose production traits. Here, HbG percentage, milk and lactose production traits including milk yield, lactose, protein, SNF, total solid and fat percentages and yields were measured in 485 second calved Iranian Holstein cattle. Statistically significant negative correlations were established between HbG and milk yield (r=−0.88), lactose yield (r=−0.83), SNF yield (r=−0.81), protein yield (r=−0.79) and total solid yield (r=−0.74). Positive correlations were established between lactose yield and milk (r=0.96), protein (r=0.81), SNF (r=0.92) and total solid (r=0.79) yields. The negative correlation between HbG and milk and total lactose production is probably related to the higher glucose demands in the lactating mammary gland of more productive cows. The positive correlation between lactose yield and milk...

Low cost driver device for microclimate maintenance in the pre-milking of dairy cattle

Silva,Irenilson M. da; Pandorfi,Héliton; Vasconcelos,Ângelo J. S. de; Laurenti,Renato; Guiselini,Cristiane
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.47%
Due to the importance of the environment on animal production and thus environmental control, the study aims to build a system for monitoring and control the meteorological variables, temperature and relative humidity, low cost, which can be associated with an evaporative cooling system (ECS). The system development included all the stages of assembly, test and laboratory calibration, and later the validation of the equipment carried in the field. The validation step showed results which allowed concluding that the system can be safely used in the monitoring of these variables. The controller was efficient in management of the microclimate in the waiting corral and allowed the maintenance of the air temperature within the comfort range for dairy cattle in pre-milking with averaged 25.09 ºC during the afternoon. The equipment showed the lower cost (R$ 325.76) when compared to other middle market (R$ 450.00).

Records of performance and sanitary status from a dairy cattle herd in southern Brazil

Cruz,Cláudio E. F.; Raymundo,Djeison L.; Cerva,Cristine; Pavarini,Saulo P.; Dalto,André G. C.; Corbellini,Luís G.; Driemeier,David
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.73%
Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 201SCS (D: days in lactation, M: kg of milk yield, F: kg of fat, P: kg of protein and SCS: somatic cell score in 1000 cells/ml of milk). Major indexes of reproductive efficiency included age at first calving (31 months), services per conception (2.1), intercalving interval (428 days), calving to conception interval (146 days), mean annual rates of parturitions (76.2%), fetal losses (9.8-19.0%), and stillbirths (3.6%), apart of voluntary waiting period (94 days). Main information on sanitary status of the herd was associated with the mean prevalence of common disorders of dairy cattle such as anaplasmosis (29.8%), mastitis (27.8%), digital diseases (26.3%), ovarian cysts (21.3%), placental retention (19.7%), postpartum uterine infections (10.6%), and calf diarrhea (23.7%) and pneumonia (16.8%)...

Occurrence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in dairy cattle from the northern region of the Paraná State, Brazil

Ogawa,L.; Freire,R.L.; Vidotto,O.; Gondim,L.F.P.; Navarro,I.T.
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Escola de Veterinária Publicador: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Escola de Veterinária
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.66%
Three-hundred and eighty-five serum samples were taken from dairy cows on 90 farms in 12 counties from the northern region of the Paraná State, Brazil. The samples were analyzed by IFAT for the detection of anti-Neospora caninum and anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies. Forty-five (12%) samples were seropositive to N. caninum, while 102 (26%) samples were seropositive to T. gondii. Only four animals were seropositive to both coccidia. No significant difference was observed between the N. caninum serology and any of the variables studied, such as dairy cattle management, milk production, reproductive problems, feeding, and presence of dogs, cats and rodents. These data suggest that neosporosis is present among dairy cattle in the studied geographic region and the simultaneous detection of serum positive animals to both types of coccidian parasite demonstrates the independent occurrence of these coccidia in dairy cows.

Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the south of Chile

Fernández,Heriberto; Hitschfeld,Marianne
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.65%
The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the South of Chile was established. Campylobacter were statistically more prevalent among beef cattle (35.9%) than among dairy cattle (21.3%), being C. jejuni the species most frequently isolated.

Identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in dairy cattle in Brazil

Silva,Flavio Medeiros Paz e; Lopes,Raimundo Souza; Araújo-Junior,João Pessoa
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinária Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinária
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.63%
In this study, we identified Cryptosporidium species and genotypes present in dairy cattle in the central region of São Paulo state, Brazil. Fecal specimens were collected from 200 animals (100 calves and 100 cows) in ten dairy farms. Fecal samples were examined using microscopic examination (ME), enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cryptosporidium species and genotypes were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or DNA sequencing analysis of the SSU-rRNA and GP60 genes. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection was 14% (28/200). The occurrence in calves (26%) was significantly higher than in cows (2%). Of the 27 Cryptosporidium-positive specimens submitted to genotyping, C. andersoni was identified in 23 (85.1%), C. bovis in three (11.1%), and the zoonotic C. parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1 in one (3.7%). The study demonstrates that Cryptosporidium spp. infection was common and widespread in dairy cattle in this region and that calves have a high prevalence of C. andersoni. Furthermore, the presence of C. parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1 indicates that dairy calves from this region should be considered a potential source of zoonotic Cryptosporidium oocysts.

Prevalence of Neospora caninum infection in Australian (NSW) dairy cattle estimated by a newly validated ELISA for milk

Hall, C.; Reichel, M.; Ellis, J.
Fonte: Elsevier Science BV Publicador: Elsevier Science BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.77%
Aim: To determine the performance characteristics of an Institut Pourquier (IP) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against Neospora caninum in bovine milk and subsequent determination of the prevalence of N. caninum infection in New South Wales (NSW) dairy cattle. Methods: Matching serum and milk samples from 93 cattle were assayed in two commercially available ELISAs for the detection of anti-N. caninum antibodies. Serum test results of one ELISA (IDEXX) were used to determine the N. caninum infection status of the cattle. Optimised cut-off values for the IP ELISA using milk samples were determined by two-graph receiver operating characteristic (TG-ROC) analysis and then applied to a representative sample of 398 milk samples from dairy herds around NSW. Results: When this ELISA was applied to a representative collection of 398 milk samples from dairy cattle across NSW it demonstrated a 21.1% prevalence of N. caninum infection in those cattle. From the TG-ROC analysis an IP ELISA protocol was derived which suggested a cut-off threshold that would allow milk testing with 97% sensitivity and specificity, respectively, relative to serum testing. Conclusions: The prevalence of N. caninum in NSW dairy cattle was higher than previously believed. When used on individual milk samples this ELISA demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity and so could be used to accurately identify N. caninum infection. TG-ROC analysis of the IP ELISA optimised the protocol and prescribed cut-off values enabling the ELISA to be used for the screening of N. caninum antibodies in the milk of dairy cattle.; C.A. Hall...

Parametrização e avaliação de modelos de estimativa das exigências e do desempenho de bovinos leiteiros para uso no Brasil; Parameterization and evaluation of models to estimate the requirements and performance of dairy cattle for use in Brazil

Souza, Veridiana Lourenço de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/08/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.74%
O rebanho brasileiro de bovinos leiteiros é composto predominantemente por vacas mestiças criadas em condições tropicais. Os principais modelos usados no Brasil para a formulação e avaliação de dietas são norte-americanos e baseados nas exigências de vacas Holandesas em clima temperado. A principal contribuição do primeiro capítulo deste estudo foi o desenvolvimento e avaliação de um novo modelo para estimar a ingestão de matéria seca (IMS) de vacas mestiças. A nova equação de predição da IMS foi desenvolvida e avaliada usando um banco de dados com 161 médias de tratamentos provenientes de 38 estudos brasileiros publicados com vacas mestiças [n = 446 vacas, 16,60 ± 5,70 (DP) kg leite/dia]. O modelo proposto foi: IMS (kg/dia): [0,5552 (± 0,06636 EP) × LC4%G + 0,06332 (± 0,009455) × PV0,75] × [1 - e (- 0,7732 (± 0,7019) × (SEM - 1,629 (± 1,9313))) ]. O novo modelo apresentou maior acurácia (QMEP = 1,64, r2 = 0,88) na predição da IMS quando comparado com modelos norte-americanos. O novo modelo de predição da IMS pode ser aplicado na formulação de dietas para vacas leiteiras mestiças em condições tropicais. No capítulo 2, um estudo avaliou as novas atualizações das exigências nutricionais de bezerras leiteiras sugeridas por Van Amburgh e Drackley (2005) e inseridas em programa comercial (AMTS...

Sero-prevalence of Neospora caninum and Besnoitia besnoiti in South Australian beef and dairy cattle

Nasir, A.; Lanyon, S.; Schares, G.; Anderson, M.; Reichel, M.
Fonte: Elsevier Science BV Publicador: Elsevier Science BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.79%
A serological survey for Neospora caninum and Besnoitia besnoiti was carried out in beef and dairy cattle in South Australia. Serum samples of dairy cattle (n=133) from 9 properties and tank milk samples from a further 122 dairy herds were tested. An additional 810 sera from beef cattle from 51 properties were also tested. Testing at the individual animal level by IDEXX NEOSPORA X2 Ab test ELISA revealed a low prevalence of N. caninum antibodies of only 2.7% (95% CI; 1.6-3.7%) sera positive, as did the milk testing that showed 2.5% (95% CI; 1.4-3.6%) of tank milks being positive. At the herd level, 29.4% (95% CI; 16.9-41.9%) of beef, and 44.4% (95% CI; 12.0-76.9%) of dairy cattle herds showed serum antibodies. The highest within-herd prevalence in beef was 20% and 25%in dairy, which explains the low herd prevalence in dairy detected by bulk milk testing. Testing for B. besnoiti antibodies by PrioCHECK(®) Besnoitia Ab 2.0 ELISA initially identified 18.4% (95% CI: 15.8-21.0%) of 869 individual cattle sera as positive by ELISA at the manufacturer's suggested cut-off threshold (15 PP). Additional tests by immunoblot and IFAT, however, could not confirm any of the ELISA results. The use of a higher (40 PP) threshold in the ELISA is suggested to improve specificity. There is thus no evidence of B. besnoiti infection in South Australian cattle.; Amar Nasir...

Expected impacts from construction of Road PR-22 on the cattle and dairy farms of Puerto Rico

Guzmán, Mildred M.; Guzman, Mildred
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 25/04/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.67%
The dairy industry is the most important economic sector of Puerto Rico’s Agriculture. Statistics indicate that during the 2010-2011 fiscal year it had a gross income of $235.1 MM, corresponding to a total of 29.8% of the total agriculture market. It employees some 25,000 people and supports other businesses such as cheese, hay sale and meat production. The industry is upheld by the dairy cattle ranchers, many of which are family-owned businesses. A threat to the industry was declared by the Departamento de Transportación y Obras Públicas (DTOP) when in 2010 it re-issued its intent to construct a road through areas on the northwest of the island. These areas are known for being the island’s top milk-producers. The objective of this Masters Project was to identify the expected impacts the road construction can have on the dairy cattle industry. This objective is pursued by understanding the current state of the industry, review DTOP’s stated need for construction, evaluate direct and indirect impacts to the industry, and review interviews to stakeholders provided by “Transecto Socio-Ecologico del Karso Norteño”. The result of the research leads to an industry whose production volumes, pasture areas, and amount of farms are already in decline. Stakeholders interviewed by Transecto foresee an industry weakened by parcel segregation that would make them impracticable for cattle grazing. As a result many milking facilities and ranches may have to close. For an industry in decline and with many operational complications...

CROP YIELD UNDER DIFFERENT RATES OF LIQUID DAIRY CATTLE MANURE AND MINERAL FERTILIZER; PRODUTIVIDADE DE CULTURAS SOB DIFERENTES DOSES DE ESTERCO LÍQUIDO DE GADO DE LEITE E DE ADUBO MINERAL

PAULETTI, Volnei; FUNDAÇÃO ABC; BARCELLOS, Milena; UFPR; MOTTA, Antonio Carlos Vargas; UFPR-DSEA; MONTE SERRAT, Beatriz; UFPR-DSEA; SANTOS, Ivo Rodrigues dos; FUNDAÇÃO ABC
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/03/2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.53%
The Paraná has the fifth large dairy cattle herd among the Brazilians States, generating high volume of liquid manure. However, there is lack of long term experiments in order to establish manure rate limits for row crops fertilization at the State. A research fields were conducted on a Haplohumox soil in Castro, Paraná State, from 1997 to 2003. The study aimed to determine the summer and winter crop yields response to different liquid dairy manure rates (0, 15, 30, 45 m3 ha-1) combined with fractions of starter fertilization recommended for grain (0, 50 and 100%). The crop rotation used was soybean/black-oat/corn/wheat/dry-bean/white-oat, under no-tillage. The soybean, dry-bean, corn and wheat grain yields were not affected by starter fertilization, but the residual of this fertilization enhanced the dry matter production of black-oat and white-oat. There was no response to manure application for soybean and for black-oat dry matter. When was improve on yield by manure application, reaching maximum grain yield was obtained with 28 m3 ha-1 to dry-beans and 44 m3 ha-1 to corn and the maximum dry matter for white-oat was obtained with 41 m3 ha-1. Manure application also provided linear yield increment for wheat.; O Paraná possui o quinto maior rebanho bovino leiteiro do Brasil...

Investigation of a syndrome characterised by passage of red urine in smallholder dairy cattle in East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania

Karimuribo,E D; Swai,E S; Kyakaisho,P K
Fonte: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association Publicador: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.63%
A case-control study was carried out to investigate a syndrome in smallholder dairy cattle in East Usambara Mountains characterised by urination of clotted blood. Smallholder dairy farms with the problem (cases) were matched with nearest farms without the problem (controls). In total, 30 farmers from Mbomole (19), Shebomeza (9) and Mlesa (2) villages in Amani division participated in the study. Using a structured questionnaire, information on risk factors associated with conditions characterised by passage of red urine in cattle was collected. In addition, serum samples from 80 smallholder dairy animals were collected and submitted for serodiagnosis of leptospirosis and babesiosis by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Laboratory analysis showed that the seroprevalence of leptospirosis and babesiosis was 21.3% and 46.3%, respectively and there was no significant difference between 'case' and 'control' farms (P>0.05), hence the occurrence of urination of clotted blood syndrome in Amani was not explained. However, bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) was found to be ubiquitous in the area, and also found to be widespread in all areas used as sources of animal fodder. Given the presence and distribution of bracken ferns and clinical signs and post-mortem lesions described by informants...

Risk factors for smallholder dairy cattle mortality in Tanzania

Swai,E S; Karimuribo,E D; Kambarage,D M
Fonte: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association Publicador: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.67%
A retrospective cross-sectional study of mortality was conducted on smallholder dairy farms in 2 separate regions (Iringa and Tanga) of Tanzania during the period of January to April 1999. A total of 1789 cattle from 400 randomly sampled smallholder dairy farms (200 each from Iringa and Tanga regions) were included in the study. These animals contributed a total risk period of 690.4 and 653.95 years for Tanga and Iringa, respectively. The overall mortality rates were estimated to be 8.5 and 14.2 per 100 cattle years risk for Tanga and Iringa regions, respectively; 57.7 % of the reported deaths were of young stock less than 12 months old; 45 % of reported young stock deaths (<12 months old) were due to tickborne diseases, mainly East Coast Fever (ECF) and anaplasmosis. Disease events including ECF were reported to occur in all months of the year. Survival analysis using Cox proportional hazard models indicated that, in both regions, death rate and risk was higher in young stock less than 12 months than in older animals (relative risk RR = 4.92, P <0.001 for Iringa; RR = 5.03 P = 0.005 for Tanga). In the Tanga region reported mortality rates were significantly higher for male animals (RR = 3.66, P = 0.001) and F2 compared with F1 animals (RR = 3.04...

Genetic prediction models and heritability estimates for functional longevity in dairy cattle

Imbayarwo-Chikosi,V.E.; Dzama,K.; Halimani,T.E.; van Wyk,J.B.; Maiwashe,A.; Banga,C.B.
Fonte: South African Journal of Animal Science Publicador: South African Journal of Animal Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.67%
Longevity is a major component of the breeding objective for dairy cattle in many countries because of its high economic value. The trait has been recommended for inclusion in the breeding objective for dairy cattle in South Africa. Linear models, random regression (RR) models, threshold models (TMs) and proportional hazard models (PH) have been used to evaluate longevity. This paper discusses these methodologies and their advantages and disadvantages. Heritability estimates obtained from these models are also reviewed. Linear methodologies can model binary and actual longevity, while RR and TM methodologies model binary survival. PH procedures model the hazard function of a cow at time t derived from survival from first calving to culling, death or censoring. It is difficult to compare methodologies for sire evaluation and ranking across countries because of the variation in the definition of longevity and the choice of model. Sire estimated breeding values (EBVs) are derived differently for the models. Sire EBVs from PH models are expressed as deviations of the culling risk from the mean of the base sires, expected percentage of daughters still alive after a given number of lactations, expected length of productive life in absolute terms or as standard deviation units. In linear...