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Produto interno bruto ajustado ambientalmente para Amazônia legal brasileira: uma análise de matriz de insumo-produto e matriz de contabilidade social; Environmental gross domestic product for Brazilian Legal Amazon: an analysis of input-output matrix and social accounting matrix.

Brasileiro, Andrea Castelo Branco
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/11/2012 PT
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The purpose of this work was to present and apply an analytical tool to the flows of goods and income between economic agents and the environment that allows us to calculate the Environmental Gross Domestic Product (EGDP) for Brazilian Legal Amazon. In order to achieve this goal the Environmental Social Accounting Matrix (ESAM) was developed. The model was developed from the traditional Social Accounting Matrix, the Environmental Input-Output Analysis Models, and from the United Nations handbook on the System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accountings. The EGDP was calculated from the Environmental Input-Output Analysis, since the unavailability of data did not allow the application of the model of ESAM. The flows between the economy and the environment considered were the emissions of green house gases (depreciation of natural capital) and the investment needed to return the air to the same quality it had before being polluted. The results showed that the inclusion of depreciation of natural capital in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and in the added value (AV) calculation for each industry of the Brazilian Legal Amazon Region diminished the AV significantly in the industries of cattle (235%), soybean (77%), and other activities of livestock and agricultural (24%). In the Rest of Brazil...

Is Protectionism on the Rise? Assessing National Trade Policies during the Crisis of 2008

Kee, Hiau Looi; Neagu, Cristina; Nicita, Alessandro
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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To understand the role of trade policies in the crisis of 2008, this paper constructs the overall trade restrictiveness indices for a wide range of countries using their tariff schedules in 2008 and 2009. The index summarizes the trade policy stance of a country, taking into account the share of each good in trade as well as its corresponding import demand elasticity. Results show that there is no widespread increase in protectionism via tariff policies since the global financial crisis has unfolded. While many countries have adjusted tariffs upward on selected products, only a handful of countries, such as Malawi, Russia, Argentina, Turkey and China focus on products that have significant impacts on trade flows. The United States and the European Union, by contrast, rely mainly on anti-dumping duties to shield domestic industries. Overall, while the rise in tariffs and anti-dumping duties in these countries may have jointly caused global trade to drop by as much as US$43 billion during the crisis period, it explains less than 2 percent of the collapse in world trade.

Growth Identification and Facilitation : The Role of the State in the Dynamics of Structural Change

Lin, Justin Yifu; Monga, Celestin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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Active economic policies by developing countries governments to promote growth and industrialization have generally been viewed with suspicion by economists, and for good reasons: past experiences show that such policies have too often failed to achieve their stated objectives. But the historical record also indicates that in all successful economies, the state has always played an important role in facilitating structural change and helping the private sector sustain it across time. This paper proposes a new approach to help policymakers in developing countries identify those industries that may hold latent comparative advantage. It also recommends ways of removing binding constraints to facilitate private firms entry into those industries. The paper introduces an important distinction between two types of government interventions. First are policies that facilitate structural change by overcoming information and coordination and externality issues, which are intrinsic to industrial upgrading and diversification. Such interventions aim to provide information...

Implications of WTO Disciplines for Special Economic Zones in Developing Countries

Creskoff, Stephen; Walkenhorst, Peter
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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Many developing countries operate geographically delineated economic areas in the form of export processing zones, special industrial zones, or free trade zones. This paper provides an overview of the application of World Trade Organization disciplines to incentive programs typically employed by developing countries in connection with such special economic zone programs. The analysis finds that the disciplines under the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures have the most immediate relevance for middle-income World Trade Organization members that are not exempt for certain "grandfathered" programs, but will also concern other developing countries in the future, as their exemption expires or their per-capita income passes a threshold of US$1,000. Incentives related to special economic zones can be broadly grouped into three categories: (i) measures that are consistent with the World Trade Organization, notably exemptions from duties and taxes on goods exported from special economic zones; (ii) measures that are prohibited or subject to challenge under World Trade Organization law...

Conclude Doha : It Matters!

Hoekman, Bernard; Martin, Will; Mattoo, Aaditya
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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The Doha Round must be concluded not because it will produce dramatic liberalization but because it will create greater security of market access. Its conclusion would strengthen, symbolically and substantively, the WTO s valuable role in restraining protectionism in the current downturn. What is on the table would constrain the scope for tariff protection in all goods, ban agricultural export subsidies in the industrial countries and sharply reduce the scope for distorting domestic support - by 70 per cent in the EU and 60 per cent in the US. Average farm tariffs that exporters face would fall to 12 per cent (from 14.5 per cent) and the tariffs on exports of manufactures to less than 2.5 per cent (from about 3 per cent). There are also environmental benefits to be captured, in particular disciplining the use of subsidies that encourage over-fishing and lowering tariffs on technologies that can help mitigate global warming. An agreement to facilitate trade by cutting red tape will further expand trade opportunities. Greater market access for the least-developed countries will result from the "duty free and quota free" proposal and their ability to take advantage of new opportunities will be enhanced by the Doha-related "aid for trade" initiative. Finally...

Vertical and Regional Integration to Promote African Textiles and Clothing Exports : A Close Knit Family?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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Apparel production is especially labor intensive, with low start-up investments and easily transferable technology. Furthermore, the labor requirements can be easily met with low and semi-skilled workers, especially women. As a result, many countries with competitive labor costs, especially in South and East Asia, have captured significant shares in the world market during the last four decades. Despite the potential development benefits and their various sources of comparative advantage, few African countries have managed to establish a presence in the global textiles and apparel markets until recently. As a result, Africa as a whole remains a net importer of textiles and clothing even though it is a net exporter of cotton. The future of apparel exporters in sub-Saharan Africa is, however, rather uncertain as they face two major challenges for their products: i) increased competition from large, low-wage producers such as India, China, Bangladesh and Pakistan following the phase-out of quotas after the expiry of the ATC; and...

Free Trade Area Membership as a Stepping Stone to Development : The Case of ASEAN

Fukase, Emiko; Martin, Will
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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This study investigates the economic impacts of accession to the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) by the new member countries of Cambodia, the Lao PDR, Myanmar, and Vietnam. The trade policies of these countries are examined, and a series of quantitative analyses were undertaken to evaluate the impacts of accession. The results showed that the static impacts of reducing tariffs against ASEAN members are beneficial, although the magnitude of the net gains is diminished by the trade diversion resulting from the discriminatory nature of the reforms. The binding commitments on protection rates under the AFTA plan provide an important initial step to more broader and more beneficial trade reforms. The study focuses on some of the key country-specific policy challenges associated with trade liberalization--such as declining tariff revenues in Cambodia, and the negative impacts on sensitive domestic industries in Vietnam. The study recommends that accession to AFTA be viewed as an important transitional step in the broader process of trade reform and institutional development needed for successful development and poverty alleviation.

Trade Policy, Trade Volumes, and Plant-Level Productivity in Colombian Manufacturing Industries

Fernandes, Ana Margarida
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Fernandes explores Colombian trade policy from 1977-91, a period of substantial variation in protection across industries, to examine whether increased exposure to foreign competition generates plant-level productivity gains. Using a large panel of manufacturing plants, she finds a strong positive impact of tariff liberalization on consistent productivity estimates, controlling for plant and industry heterogeneity. This result is not driven by the endogeneity of protection nor by plant exit. The impact of tariff liberalization on productivity is stronger for large plants and for plants in less competitive industries. Qualitatively similar results are obtained when using effective rates of protection and import penetration ratios as measures of protection

Does Foreign Direct Investment Increase the Productivity of Domestic Firms : In Search of Spillovers through Backward Linkages

Javorcik, Beata
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Many countries compete against one another in attracting foreign investors by offering ever more generous incentive packages and justifying their actions with the productivity gains that are expected to accrue to domestic producers from knowledge externalities generated by foreign affiliates. Despite this being hugely important to public policy choices, there is little conclusive evidence indicating that domestic firms benefit from foreign presence in their sector. It is possible, though, that researchers have been looking for foreign direct investment (FDI) spillovers in the wrong place. Multinationals have an incentive to prevent information leakage that would enhance the performance of their local competitors in the same industry but at the same time may want to transfer knowledge to their local suppliers in other sectors. Spillovers from FDI may be, therefore, more likely to take place through backward linkages-that is, contacts between domestic suppliers of intermediate inputs and their multinational clients-and thus would not have been captured by the earlier literature. This paper focuses on the understudied issue of FDI spillovers through backward linkages and goes beyond existing studies by shedding some light on factors driving this phenomenon. It also improves over existing literature by addressing several econometric problems that may have biased the results of earlier research. Based on a firm-level panel data set from Lithuania...

Regional Integration and Industrial Growth among Developing Countries : The Case of Three ASEAN Members

Madani, Dorsati H.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Has the revival of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in the early 1990s affected the industrial growth of Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines? The author uses two mechanisms to capture this potential impact: scale effects, and intermediate imports variety. She performs the analysis on twenty two industries (at the three-digit level of the International Standard Industrial Classification) over the period 1971-95. The results show significant heterogeneity in industry-level returns to scale. Moreover, the three ASEAN members have very small, mostly negative cross-industry scale effects. As a result, they may not achieve large, or across-the-board gains from their regional arrangement through scale effects. The author finds unexpected results with respect to the role of intermediate imports variety in industrial growth. She finds no support for the hypothesis that non-regional (rest of the world) suppliers, and goods variety have a positive effect on ASEAN industries through the channel of imported intermediate inputs. The regional variety measure...

Trade Issues in East Asia : Preferential Rules of Origin

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Rules of origin are a necessary feature of any regional trade agreement. They ensure that preferences are available only to the signatories of the agreement and that imports from non-members do not avoid customs duties by entering through the member with the lowest tariff. The rules of origin define the amount of local processing, or the extent of the transformation of the product, that must be undertaken in the country from which the product claiming preferences is exported. The definition of these requirements to prevent trade deflection is not straightforward. If the rules are too onerous and complex and are costly to comply with, they will limit the impact of tariff reductions on trade. Indeed, import competing industries have often been successful in obtaining restrictive rules of origin that dilute the impact of the loss of tariff protection. This is most apparent in agreements between developed countries and lower wage countries. As FTAs multiply in the region, putting in place rules of origin (ROO) that are simple...

Georgia Competitive Industries Preliminary Sector Diagnostic

Onugha, Ifeyinwa; Iootty, Mariana; Kilroy, Austin; Palmade, Vincent
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Development Policy Review (DPR); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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As a small and open economy, Georgia's growth prospects are directly linked to its ability to produce and sell goods and services competitively in the global marketplace. The World Bank Georgia Competitive Industries Technical Assistance Project has been launched in February 2013 in response to the December 19, 2012 letter of the Ministry of economy and sustainable development of Georgia with the request to get the Bank's support in diagnoses of trade competitiveness and identification of a road map for reform to enhance Georgia's export growth and competitiveness. The project is envisioned as a three phase program, that comprises: February-June 2013 analytical and technical assistance support, including diagnostic of trade competitiveness and constraints to export growth, and competitive industries sector diagnostic report, supported by extensive discussions through a series of workshops, private and public sector interviews, discussions and a large 2-day seminar on February 28-March 1, 2013; July-December 2013-deep dive analysis of selected competitive industries and development of a reform road map to support Georgia's competiveness strategy; and from January 2013-reform implementation...

Trade Policy Flexibilities and Turkey : Tariffs, Antidumping, Safeguards, and WTO Dispute Settlement

Bown, Chad P.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Trade policy commitments to lower import tariffs and to maintain tariffs at low levels entail short and long-run political-economic costs and benefits. Empirical work examining the relationship between such commitments and the exercise of trade policy flexibilities is still relatively nascent, especially for emerging economies. This paper provides a rich, empirically-based assessment of ways that Turkey exercised trade policy flexibilities during the global economic crisis of 2008-11. First, and despite multilateral and customs union commitments that might limit changes to applied tariffs, Turkey made changes to both its applied Most Favored Nation and preferential tariffs that cumulatively affect nearly 9 percent of manufacturing imports and 10 percent of import product lines. Second, Turkey's cumulative application of temporary trade barrier (TTB) policies -- antidumping, safeguards and countervailing duties -- are estimated to impact by 2011 an additional 4 percent of imports and 6 percent of product lines. Other surprising results on Turkey's use of flexibilities include: extending the duration of previously imposed antidumping and safeguards beyond expected removal dates...

Taking Stock of Trade Protectionism Since 2008

Datt, Mohini; Hoekman, Bernard; Malouche, Mariem
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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The onset of the financial crisis in September 2008 and the subsequent 'Great Trade Collapse' (Baldwin 2009), many countries actively used trade policy instruments as part of their response to the global recession. Governments pursued a mix of trade liberalization, trade promotion, and trade restrictions. The choice of trade policy has varied, with limited use of tariff hikes or antidumping and safeguard actions. Sector-specific support to industries dominated initial responses to the crisis, and there has been increasing resort to nontariff measures. Recent research suggests that vertical specialization the growth in global supply chains has played a significant role in limiting the use of traditional protectionist instruments. Pressures on governments to support domestic economic activity may increase, given current gloomy economic prospects and more binding macroeconomic policy constraints, and the number of protectionist measures has recently risen. Open trade cannot be taken for granted, thus the need for monitoring persists.

Zambia - What Would it Take for Zambia’s Beef and Dairy Industries to Achieve Their Potential?

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: PSD, Privatization and Industrial Policy
ENGLISH
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This report is a window into a larger initiative, the jobs and prosperity: building Zambia's Competitiveness (JPC) program. The JPC program is a 'joint venture' between the governments of the Republic of Zambia, the Zambian private sector, the United Kingdom's Department for International Development (DFID), the African development bank group and the World Bank Group. As such, the report represents the collective efforts of many people who engaged in this work at different stages in the process. This report is part of a series produced by the World Bank's Africa Finance and Private Sector Development Unit (AFTFP). This report explores the potential contribution that the beef and dairy industries could make to jobs and prosperity in Zambia, and what it will take to achieve this potential. The Zambian government has been looking to increase growth and job creation, and the prosperity resulting from them, by developing a more competitive and diversified economy. This report explores the potential contribution that the beef and dairy industries could make to the government's ambition and sets out what it will take for the industries to achieve their potential. Two main factors provide Zambia with large potential for developing its beef and dairy industries: the country could sustain more than double its current population of cattle; the demand for beef and dairy products in the domestic and regional markets is likely to increase significantly. However...

Import Dynamics and Demands for Protection

Hillberry, Russell; McCalman, Phillip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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What kinds of changes in foreign competition lead domestic industries to seek import protection? To address this question this paper uses detailed monthly U.S. import data to investigate changes in import composition during a 24-month window immediately preceding the filing of a petition for protection. A decomposition methodology allows a comparison of imports from two groups of countries supplying the same product: those that are named in the petition and those that are not. The same decomposition can be applied to products quite similar to the imports in question, but not subject to a petition. The results suggest that industries typically seek protection when faced with a specific pattern of shocks. First, a persistent positive relative supply shock favors imports from named countries. Second, a negative demand shock hits imports from all sources just prior to domestic industries' petition for protection. The relative supply shock is a broad one; it applies both to named commodities and to the comparison product group. The import demand shock...

Factors Influencing Energy Intensity in Four Chinese Industries

Fisher-Vanden, Karen; Hu, Yong; Jefferson, Gary; Rock, Michael; Toman, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Energy intensity has declined significantly in four Chinese industries -- pulp and paper; cement; iron and steel; and aluminum. While previous studies have identified technological change within an industry to be an important influence on energy intensity, few have examined how industry-specific policies and market factors also affect industry-level intensity. This paper employs unique firm-level data from China's most energy-intensive large and medium-size industrial enterprises in each of these four industries over a six-year period from 1999 to 2004. It empirically examines how China's energy-saving programs, liberalization of domestic markets, openness to the world economy, and other policies, contribute to the decline in energy intensity in these industries. The results suggest that rising energy costs are a significant contributor to the decline in energy intensity in all four industries. China's industrial policies targeting scale economies -- for example, "grasping the large, letting go off the small" -- also seem to have contributed to reductions in energy intensity in these four industries. However...

The World Trade Organization and Antidumping in Developing Countries

Bown, Chad P.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Since the 1995 inception of the World Trade Organization (WTO), developing countries have become some of the most frequent users of the WTO-sanctioned antidumping trade policy instrument. This paper exploits newly available data to examine the pattern of actual industrial use of antidumping in nine of the major "new user" developing countries - Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru, Turkey and Venezuela. For these countries we are able to match data from two newly available sources: data on production in 28 different 3-digit ISIC industries from the Trade, Production and Protection Database to data on antidumping investigations, outcomes and imports at the 6-digit Harmonized System (HS) product level from the Global Antidumping Database. Our econometric analysis is to estimate a two-stage model of the industry-level decision to pursue an antidumping investigation and the national government's decision of whether and how much antidumping import protection to provide. First, we find evidence consistent with the theory of endogenous trade policy: larger industries that face substantial import competition are more likely to pursue an antidumping investigation, and larger and more concentrated industries receive greater antidumping protection from imports. Second...

Domestic Constraints, Firm Characteristics, and Geographical Diversification of Firm-Level Manufacturing Exports in Africa

Yoshino, Yutaka
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Using firm-level data on manufacturing sectors in Africa, this paper addresses how domestic supply constraints and other firm characteristics explain the geographical orientation of firms' exports and the overall market diversification of African manufacturing exports. The degree of market diversification, measured by the number of export destinations, is highly correlated with export intensity at the firm level, and both embody strong scale effects. Technological factors, such as new vintage capital and Internet access, which improve production efficiency and lower export costs, show strong effects on the firm-level export intensity. Some qualitative differences exist between Africa's regional exports and exports to the global markets. Foreign ownership is a significant factor in characterizing the intensity of global exports but not regional exports. The technological factors are significant in both cases, but more so in global exports. Public infrastructure constraints, such as inferior power services and customs delays...

Trade Liberalization and the Profitability of Domestic Mergers.

GAUDET, Gérard; KANOUNI, Rams
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 155549 bytes; application/pdf
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It is often thought that a tariff reduction, by opening up the domestic market to foreign firms, should lessen the need for a policy aimed at discouraging domestic mergers. This implicitly assumes that the tariff in question is sufficiently high to prevent foreign firms from selling in the domestic market. However, not all tariffs are prohibitive, so that foreign firms may be present in the domestic market before it is abolished. Furthermore, even if the tariff is prohibitive, a merger of domestic firms may render it nonprohibitive, thus inviting foreign firms to penetrate the domestic market. In this paper, we show, using a simple example, that in the latter two cases, abolishing the tariff may in fact make the domestic merger more profitable. Hence, trade liberalization will not necessarily reduce the profitability of domestic mergers.; Contrairement à une certaine idée reçue, nous montrons que l'ouverture du marché domestique par l'abolition d'un tarif douanier ne va pas nécessairement rendre moins profitable les fusions domestiques. Cette idée suppose implicitement que le tarif en question est prohibitif avant son abolition et qu'il le demeure après une fusion. Or ce n'est souvent pas le cas. Nous montrons, à l'aide d'un exemple...