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Transferência de renda, estrutura produtiva e desigualdade: uma análise inter-regional para o Brasil; Transfer of income, production structure and inequality: an analysis inter-regional for Brazil

Zylberberg, Raphael Simas
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/12/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.75%
Nos últimos anos, especialmente após 2002, a utilização de programas de transferência de renda como forma de combate à pobreza se intensificou no Brasil, o que pode ser percebido pela implementação de diversos Programas de Transferência Condicionada de Renda, com grande destaque para o programa o Bolsa Família, criado em 2004. Este movimento foi acompanhado por uma forte queda na desigualdade de renda no Brasil, de tal forma que o índice de Gini medido pelo Ipea tenha atingido o seu menor patamar histórico. Neste contexto, é importante que se analise a capacidade de políticas de transferências compensatórias de renda afetarem a estrutura distributiva da economia brasileira. Ou seja, se programas nos moldes do Bolsa Família, os quais não alteram a estrutura econômica, afetam a distribuição da renda. Para cumprir este objetivo, foi utilizado um modelo baseado em uma Matriz de Contabilidade Social inter-regional construída neste trabalho, de forma a considerar as relações inter-setoriais, inter-regionais e entre os setores institucionais, combinando informações de uma matriz insumo-produto inter-regional com informações das Contas Econômicas Integradas e de pesquisas domiciliares POF e PNAD do IBGE. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho mostram que transferências de renda...

Essays in the theory of the distribution of income.

Loury, Glenn Cartman
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 185 leaves; 11109499 bytes; 11109257 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
EN_US
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75.61%
A dynamic theory of racial income differences.--Intergenerational transfers and the equilibrium distribution of earnings.; Thesis. 1976. Ph.D.--Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Economics.; Microfiche copy available in Archives and Dewey.; Bibliography: leaves 92-95, 182-185.

Financial Development, Growth, and the Distribution of Income

Greenwood, Jeremy (1953 - ); Jovanovic, Boyan
Fonte: Universidade de Rochester Publicador: Universidade de Rochester
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.56%
Working paper, lecture notes, referee reports, handwritten notes, and two photos.; A paradigm is presented in which both the extent of financial intermediation and the rate of economic growth are endogenously determined. Financial intermediation promotes growth because it allows a higher rate of return to be earned on capital, and growth in turn provides the means to implement costly financial structures. Thus financial intermediation and economic growth are inextricably linked in accord with the Goldsmith-McKinnon-Shaw view on economic development. The model also generates a development cycle reminiscent of the Kuznets hypothesis. In particular, in the transition from a primitive slow-growing economy to a developed fastgrowing one, a nation passes through a stage in which the distribution of wealth across the rich and poor widens.

On Analyzing the World Distribution of Income

Atkinson, Anthony B.; Brandolini, Andrea
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.7%
Consideration of world inequality should cause reexamination of the key concepts underlying the welfare approach to measuring income inequality and its relation to measuring poverty. This reexamination leads to exploration of a new measure that allows poverty and inequality to be considered in the same framework, incorporates different approaches to measuring inequality, and allows varied expressions of the cost of inequality. Applied to the world distribution of income for 1820–1992, the new measure provides different perspectives on the evolution of global inequality.

Big Bad Banks? The Impact of U.S. Branch Deregulation on Income Distribution

Beck, Thorsten; Levine, Ross; Levkov, Alexey
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.79%
Policymakers and economists disagree about the impact of bank regulations on the distribution of income. Exploiting cross-state and cross-time variation, the authors test whether liberalizing restrictions on intra-state branching in the United States intensified, ameliorated, or had no effect on income distribution. The analysis finds that branch deregulation lowered income inequality by affecting labor market conditions, not by boosting the business income of the poor, nor by enhancing educational attainment. Reductions in the earnings gap between men and women and between skilled and unskilled workers account for the bulk of the explained drop in income inequality.

Equity, Welfare, and the Setting of Trade Policy in General Equilibrium

Francois, Joseph; Rojas-Romagosa, Hugo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.73%
The authors analyze general equilibrium relationships between trade policy and the household distribution of income, decomposing social welfare into real income level and variance components and emphasizing Gini and Atkinson indexes. They embed these inequality-adjusted social welfare functions in a general equilibrium structure mapping from tariff protection to household inequality. This yields predictions regarding the linkages between trade protection, country characteristics, and inequality within a broad general equilibrium framework. In addition, the authors can separate the efficiency and equity effects of tariffs on welfare. They then examine endogenous tariff formation when policymakers care about both equity and special interests.

Middle-Income Traps : A Conceptual and Empirical Survey

Im, Fernando Gabriel; Rosenblatt, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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75.78%
In recent years, the term "middle-income trap" has entered common parlance in the development policy community. The term itself often has not been precisely defined in the incipient literature. This paper discusses in more detail definitional issues on the so-called middle-income trap. The paper presents evidence in terms of both absolute and relative thresholds. To get a better understanding of whether the performance of the middle-income trap has been different from other income categories, the paper examines historical transition phases in the inter-country distribution of income based on previous work in the literature. Transition matrix analysis provides little support for the idea of a middle-income trap. Analysis of cross-country patterns of growth provides additional support for the conclusions in the paper, which closes with a general discussion of potential policy implications.

Economics of Tobacco Toolkit, Tool 6 : Equity Issues, Tobacco, and the Poor

Peck, Richard M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.7%
Currently there are approximately 4 million tobacco related deaths annually. If present trends continue, by the year 2030 the number of deaths will soar to about 10 million annual deaths, with 7 million in low-income countries. However, government action to establish various tobacco control initiatives can prevent this from happening and save a significant number of lives. Tobacco control measures include: i) raising tobacco prices by imposing higher excise taxes; ii) advertising and marketing bans and restrictions; and iii) clean indoor air provisions. A popular and valid concern holds that raising tobacco excise taxes for the purposes of tobacco control imposes an untenable and unfair burden on the poor. In short, it is argued that higher tobacco excise taxes increase inequality in the post-tax distribution of income and reduces the real incomes of a particularly vulnerable group, the poor. This tool discusses a number of approaches in which to examine the validity of this argument. Techniques to analyze the impact of tobacco consumption and tobacco taxes on the poor are explained. And analytical methods using country-specific data are examined so that policy analysts can effectively address concerns about the poor...

The Distribution of Income Shocks during Crises : An Application of Quantile Analysis to Mexico, 1992-95

Maloney, William F.; Cunningham, Wendy V.; Bosch, Mariano
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.77%
Moving beyond the simple comparisons of averages typical of most analyses of household income shocks, this article employs quantile analysis to generate a complete distribution of such shocks by type of household during the 1995 crisis in Mexico. It compares the distributions across normal and crisis periods to see whether observed differences were due to the crisis or are intrinsic to the household types. Alternatively, it asks whether the distribution of shocks during normal periods was a reasonable predictor of vulnerability to income shocks during crises. It finds large differences in the distribution of shocks by household types both before and during the crisis but little change in their relative positions during the crisis. The impact appears to have been spread fairly evenly. Households headed by people with less education (poor), single mothers, or people working in the informal sector do not appear to experience disproportionate income drops either in normal times or during crises.

Can We Discern the Effect of Globalization on Income Distribution? Evidence from Household Surveys

Milanovic, Branko
Fonte: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.81%
New data derived directly from household surveys are used to examine the effects of globalization on income distribution in poor and rich countries. The article looks at the impact of openness and of direct foreign investment on relative income shares across the entire income distribution. It finds strong evidence that at low average income levels, the income share of the poor is smaller in countries that are more open to trade. As national income levels rise, the incomes of the poor and the middle class rise relative to the income of the rich. The article explains why using the trade to gross domestic product (GDP) ratio in purchasing power parity terms, as favored by some analysts, is inappropriate in studies of the effect of trade on income distribution.

Distribution of income and aggregation of demand

Marhuenda, Francisco
Fonte: The Econometric Society Publicador: The Econometric Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/1995 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.63%
We show that, under certain regularity conditions, if the distribution of income is price independent and satisfies a condition on the shape of its graph, then total market demand, F(p), is monotone; i.e., given two positive prices, p and q, one has $(p - q). (F(p) - F(q)) < 0$. These results allow for density functions increasing on some intervals, like unimodal distributions or even densities with more than one peak. Similar assumptions on the distribution of endowments, yield a restricted monotonicity property on aggregate excess demand, where, now, wealth is determined by market prices. This property guarantees uniqueness and stability of equilibrium of the Walrasian pure exchange economy.

More on Marriage, Fertility and the Distribution of Income

Greenwood, Jeremy; Guner, Nezih; Knowles, John
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2002 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.68%
According to Pareto (1896), the distribution of income depends on “the nature of the people comprising a society, on the organization of the latter, and, also, in part, on chance.” An overlapping generations model of marriage, fertility and income distribution is developed here. The “nature of the people” is captured by attitudes toward marriage, divorce, fertility, and children. Singles search for mates in a marriage market. They are free to accept or reject marriage proposals. Married agents make their decisions through bargaining about work, and the quantity and quality of children. They can divorce. Social policies, such as child tax credits or child support requirements, reflect the “organization of the (society).” Finally, “chance” is modelled by randomness in income, opportunities for marriage, and marital bliss.

More on Marriage, Fertility and the Distribution of Income

Greenwood, Jeremy; Guner, Nezih; Knowles, John
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: text/plain; application/pdf
Publicado em //1999 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.68%
According to Pareto, the distribution of income depends on “the nature of the people comprising a society, on the organization of the latter, and, also, in part, on chance.” An overlapping generations model of marriage, fertility and income distribution is developed here. The “nature of the people” is captured by attitudes toward marriage, divorce, fertility, and children. Singles search for mates in a marriage market. They are free to accept or reject marriage proposals. Married agents make their decisions through bargaining about work, and the quantity and quality of children. They can divorce. Social policies, such as child tax credits or child support requirements, re‡ect the “organization of the (society).” Finally, “chance” is modelled by randomness in income, opportunities for marriage, and marital bliss.; Publicado también en la serie: UCLA Department of Economics. Penn CARESS. Working paper

Global Growth and Distribution : Are China and India Reshaping the World?

Bussolo, Maurizio; De Hoyos, Rafael E.; Medvedev, Denis; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.8%
Over the past 20 years, aggregate measures of global inequality have changed little even if significant structural changes have been observed. High growth rates of China and India lifted millions out of poverty, while the stagnation in many African countries caused them to fall behind. Using the World Bank's LINKAGE global general equilibrium model and the newly developed Global Income Distribution Dynamics (GIDD) tool, this paper assesses the distribution and poverty effects of a scenario where these trends continue in the future. Even by anticipating a deceleration, growth in China and India is a key force behind the expected convergence of per-capita incomes at the global level. Millions of Chinese and Indian consumers will enter into a rapidly emerging global middle class-a group of people who can afford, and demand access to, the standards of living previously reserved mainly for the residents of developed countries. Notwithstanding these positive developments, fast growth is often characterized by high urbanization and growing demand for skills...

Rendimentos crescentes e a distribuição internacional de renda; Increasing returns and the international distribution of income

ZAGOTTIS, Alexandre de
Fonte: Editora 34 Publicador: Editora 34
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.6%
The existence of increasing returns in high technology industries assigns a path dependent character to the international division of labor. Rich countries, first entrants in these industries, enjoy permanent advantages that prevent, in a free market environment, the development of such industries in middle-income countries. This dynamics allows the former group of countries to experience a higher growth rate of labor productivity than the latter, and, as a result, increases the gap between the workers' standard of living in these countries. It is up to the States of middle-income countries the task of devising development strategies capable of breaking such pattern and improving the international distribution of income.

Globalization and the distribution of income: The economic arguments

Jones, Ronald W.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.61%
One of the issues currently being debated in the ongoing discussion of the pros and cons of today's globalization concerns the effects of greater world trade as well as of the changes in technology on a country's internal distribution of income, especially on skilled versus unskilled wage rates. In this article, I attempt to spell out some of the arguments concerning internal income distribution that have been put forth both by labor economists and international trade theorists. The impact of globalization on the wage premium between the skilled and unskilled may not be as obvious as is first imagined.

On the Welfare Implications of Automation

Eden, Maya; Gaggl, Paul
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.71%
This paper establishes that the rise in the income share of information and communication technology accounts for half of the decline in labor income share in the United States. This decline can be decomposed into a sharp decline in the income share of “routine” labor—which is relatively more prone to automation—and a milder rise in the non-routine share. Quantitatively, this decomposition suggests large effects of information and communication technology on the income distribution within labor, but only moderate effects on the distribution of income between capital and labor. A production structure calibrated to match these trends suggests modest aggregate welfare gains from automation.

Mortality within the first year of life in relationship to the distribution of income and of public facilities, S. Paulo (Brasil); Mortalidade no primeiro ano de vida e a distribuição de renda e de recursos públicos de saúde, São Paulo (Brasil)

Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Baldijão, Márcia F. A.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/1980 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.72%
It was made a study to identify the distribution of the infant death rates and the distribution of income, and the distribution of certain public health facilities in the 55 districts of the city of S. Paulo (Brazil) and, then, to analyze the similarity among them. The infant death rates and concentration of low income families increased from the center to the periphery of the city. The public health facilities - water supply, maternity beds, and State health centers - also decreased from the center to the periphery of the city. Both the increasing distribution of income and the decreasing distribution of public facilities were positively related to the increasing mortality distribution. The conclusion, therefore, is that, in S. Paulo, income and public facilities are synergic; that is, they mutually reinforce the inequalities observed through the infant mortality.; Foi feito estudo para identificar em torno de 1976 a distribuição da freqüência do óbito infantil, a distribuição da renda e a distribuição da disponibilidade de determinados recursos públicos de saúde nos 55 distritos e sub-distritos do município de São Paulo (Brasil), para analisar as possíveis identificações entre estas distribuições. A freqüência do óbito infantil foi crescente no sentido centro-periferia da cidade...

The distribution of real state income in Brazil: 1995-2004; Evolução da distribuição familiar da riqueza imobiliária no Brasil: 1995-2004

Tafner, Paulo; IPEA; Carvalho, Márcia de; UCAM
Fonte: Editora UFPR Publicador: Editora UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/12/2007 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.56%
From the PNAD´s data covering 1995 and 2004 this paper estimatesthe value of house rents. Using the estimated coefficients of the physical attributesand of the location of the rented houses, we impute an “estimated rent value” forowned houses. In following, admitted constant the relation between rents andvalue of stock, we estimate the real value of house stock for those years. Basedon PNAD´s data on received rents. We also distribute to each family the corresponding value of stock in properties. Excluding the families that do nothave any property and are able to pay rent corresponding to properties whichprice is higher than the average price of rented houses, the Index of Gini iscalculated for both years. The paper concludes that there was an expressiveimprovement in the shape of distribution of wealth ownership in this period,since the Gini coefficient had changed from 0,69 to 0,61 between 1995 and 2004.; A partir dos dados disponíveis nas PNADs para os anos de 1995 e2004, o trabalho estima o valor do aluguel residencial, utilizando o métodode preço hedônico. A partir dos coeficientes estimados dos atributos físicos e dalocalização dos imóveis, imputa um valor de aluguel para os imóveis nãoalugados. Admitida a hipótese de constância na relação valor de aluguel/valor do imóvel...

Social exclusion, social isolation and the distribution of income

Barry, Brian
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/1998 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.6%
Social exclusion can be distinguished from social isolation, defining social isolation as the phenomenon of non-participation (of an individual or group) in a society's mainstream institutions, while reserving 'social exclusion' for the subset of cases in which social isolation occurs for reasonsthat are beyond the control of those subject to it. The familiar form of social exclusion affects those who are unable to participate in the institutions patronised by the majority. There is also, however, exclusion of the majority by a minority who are in a position to opt out of the mainstream institutions: the epitome of this is the 'gated community'. Social exclusion is a violation of the demands of social justice in two ways: it conflicts with equality of opportunity and is associated with an inability to participate effectively in politics. An alternative account of what is wrong with social exclusion is that it undermines social solidarity. Voluntary social isolation has the same effect, but is less likely to have such adverse consequences. The relation between social exclusion and the distribution of income is not the same in all societies. However, for a society such as that of Britain, it seems plausible that to avoid the social exclusion of a minority it is necessary for nobody to have less than half the median income...