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An alternative method for purifying and detoxifying diphtheria toxin

FRATELLI, Fernando; ABRAHAO-NETO, Jose; CARICATI, Aline Tojeira Prestia; BORGES, Monamaris Marques; GUIDOLIN, Rosalvo; CARICATI, Celso Pereira
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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36.9%
Infections caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae frequently induce situations in which very small doses of antigens injected intradermally can cause strong inflammatory reactions. This bacterium secretes the diphtheria toxin (DT), a virulence factor that can be lethal to the human organism at doses below 0.1 mu g/kg of body weight. The present work proposes alternative methods of DT purification using affinity chromatography and of DT detoxification through conjugating with the polymer methoxypolyethylene glycol activated (mPEG). Tests were performed to evaluate: the formation of edemas and the presence of dermonecrotic activity, in vitro cytotoxicity to Vero cells, the neutralizing activity of serum from guinea pigs immunized with the diphtheria toxoid inactivated with mPEG, and the immunogenic activity of the purified and modified toxin. The results indicated that purification with Blue Sepharose was an efficient method, yielding antigen purity equivalent to 2600 Lf/mg of protein nitrogen. The modification of the Purified Toxin with mPEG did not result in the formation of edema or necrosis although it was immunogenic and stimulated the formation of antibodies that could neutralize the Purified Toxin. The toxoid obtained from the purified toxin maintained its immunogenic characteristics...

Diphtheria remains a threat to health in the developing world: an overview

Mattos-Guaraldi,Ana Luíza; Moreira,Lílian Oliveira; Damasco,Paulo Vieira; Hirata Júnior,Raphael
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2003 EN
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Changes in the epidemiology of diphtheria are occurring worldwide. A large proportion of adults in many industrialized and developing countries are now susceptible to diphtheria. Vaccine-induced immunity wanes over time unless periodic booster is given or exposure to toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae occurs. Immunity gap in adults coupled with large numbers of susceptible children creates the potential for new extensive epidemics. Epidemic emergencies may not be long in coming in countries experiencing rapid industrialization or undergoing sociopolitical instability where many of the factors thought to be important in producing epidemic such as mass population movements and difficult hygienic and economic conditions are present. The continuous circulation of toxigenic C. diphtheriae emphasizes the need to be aware of epidemiological features, clinical signs, and symptoms of diphtheria in vaccine era so that cases can be promptly diagnosed and treated, and further public health measures can be taken to contain this serious disease. This overview focused on worldwide data obtained from diphtheria with particular emphasis to main factors leading to recent epidemics, new clinical forms of C. diphtheriae infections, expression of virulence factors...

Diphtheria-neutralizing antibody levels in healthy adults from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Pimenta,Fabricia Pires; Damasco,Paulo Vieira; Cerbino Neto,José; Lopes,Guilherme Santoro; Hirata Jr,Raphael; Milagres,Lucimar Gonçalves; Mattos-Guaraldi,Ana Luíza
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2006 EN
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37.15%
In Brazil, until 2004, the immunization policy against diphtheria involved childhood vaccination with no official routine booster dose administered after 15 years of age. This study assessed functional antibody levels against diphtheria among blood donors. A total of 140 blood samples were collected, and diphtheria antitoxin levels were evaluated by Vero cell neutralization test. The mean age of the population was 34 years old (range: 18-61 years); 37.8% females and 62.2% males. Overall, 30.7% (95%, CI: 23.4-38.7) individuals presented neutralizing antitoxin antibody titers < 0.01 IU/ml; 42.1% (95%, CI: 34.1-50.4) showed values between 0.01-0.09 IU/ml and, 27.1% (95%, CI: 20.2-34.9) had ³ 0.1 IU/ml. In the subgroup of individuals with history of diphtheria immunization during childhood (85%), a number of 28.5% showed unprotective levels of circulating neutralizing antibody (< 0.01 IU/ml). Despite the continuous progress of immunization programs directed to Brazilian population, currently healthy adults remain susceptible to diphtheria.

Effect of a single tetanus-diphtheria vaccine dose on the immunity of elderly people in São Paulo, Brazil

Weckx,L.Y.; Divino-Goes,K.; Lihama,D.M.; Carraro,E.; Bellei,N.; Granato,C.F.H.; de Moraes-Pinto,M.I.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2006 EN
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37.15%
Epidemiological data regarding tetanus and diphtheria immunity in elderly people in Brazil are scarce. During the First National Immunization Campaign for the Elderly in Brazil in April 1999, 98 individuals (median age: 84 years) received one tetanus-dyphtheria (Td) vaccine dose (Butantan Institute, lot number 9808079/G). Inclusion criteria were elderly individuals without a history of severe immunosuppressive disease, acute infectious disease or use of immunomodulators. Blood samples were collected immediately before the vaccine and 30 days later. Serum was separated and stored at -20ºC until analysis. Tetanus and diphtheria antibodies were measured by the double-antigen ELISA test. Tetanus and diphtheria antibody concentrations lower than 0.01 IU/mL were considered to indicate the absence of protection, between 0.01 and 0.09 IU/mL were considered to indicate basic immunity, and values of 0.1 IU/mL or higher were considered to indicate full protection. Before vaccination, 18% of the individuals were susceptible to diphtheria and 94% were susceptible to tetanus. After one Td dose, 78% became fully immune to diphtheria, 13% attained basic immunity, and 9% were still susceptible to the disease. In contrast, 79% remained susceptible to tetanus...

Prevalence of diphtheria and tetanus antibodies and circulation of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in São Paulo, Brazil

Divino-Goes,K.G.; Moraes-Pinto,M.I. de; Dinelli,M.I.S.; Casagrande,S.T.; Bonetti,T.C.S.; Andrade,P.R.; Weckx,L.Y.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
The introduction of routine vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria in Brazil has decreased the incidence and changed the epidemiology of both diseases. We then investigated the prevalence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae carrier status and diphtheria and tetanus immunity in São Paulo, Brazil. From November 2001 to March 2003, 374 individuals were tested for the presence of C. diphtheriae in the naso-oropharynx and of serum diphtheria and tetanus antibodies. Participants were all healthy individuals without acute or chronic pathologies and they were stratified by age as follows: 0-12 months and 1-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-24, 25-39, 40-59, and ³60 years. Antibodies were assessed using a double-antigen ELISA. C. diphtheriae species were identified by biochemical analysis and toxigenicity was assessed by the Elek test. For diphtheria, full protection (antibodies ³0.1 IU/mL) was present in 84% of the individuals, 15% had basic protection (antibodies ³0.01 and <0.1 IU/mL) and 1% were susceptible (antibodies <0.01 IU/mL). Full tetanus protection (antibodies ³0.1 IU/mL) was present in 79% of the participants, 18% had basic protection (antibodies ³0.01 and <0.1 IU/mL) and 3% were susceptible (antibodies <0.01 IU/mL). The geometric mean of diphtheria and tetanus antibodies reached the highest values at 5-9 years and decreased until the 40-59-year age range...

Determination of low tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin titers in sera by a toxin neutralization assay and a modified toxin-binding inhibition test

Sonobe,M.H.; Trezena,A.G.; Guilhen,F.B.; Takano,V.L.; Fratelli,F.; Sakauchi,D.; Morais,J.F.; Prado,S.M.A.; Higashi,H.G.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2007 EN
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37.2%
A method for the screening of tetanus and diphtheria antibodies in serum using anatoxin (inactivated toxin) instead of toxin was developed as an alternative to the in vivo toxin neutralization assay based on the toxin-binding inhibition test (TOBI test). In this study, the serum titers (values between 1.0 and 19.5 IU) measured by a modified TOBI test (Modi-TOBI test) and toxin neutralization assays were correlated (P < 0.0001). Titers of tetanus or diphtheria antibodies were evaluated in serum samples from guinea pigs immunized with tetanus toxoid, diphtheria-tetanus or triple vaccine. For the Modi-TOBI test, after blocking the microtiter plates, standard tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin and different concentrations of guinea pig sera were incubated with the respective anatoxin. Twelve hours later, these samples were transferred to a plate previously coated with tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin to bind the remaining anatoxin. The anatoxin was then detected using a peroxidase-labeled tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin. Serum titers were calculated using a linear regression plot of the results for the corresponding standard antitoxin. For the toxin neutralization assay, L+/10/50 doses of either toxin combined with different concentrations of serum samples were inoculated into mice for anti-tetanus detection...

Diphtheria toxin IgG levels in military and civilian blood donors in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Speranza,F.A.B.; Ishii,S.K.; Hirata Jr.,R.; Mattos-Guaraldi,A.L.; Milagres,L.G.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
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37.11%
Serologic data on diseases that are preventable by vaccines are necessary to evaluate the success of immunization programs and to identify susceptible subgroups. In the present study, we determined serum IgG levels against diphtheria toxin of military and civilian blood donors (N = 75; 69.3% males and 30.7% females) aged 18-64 years, from the Brazilian Army Biology Institute, Rio de Janeiro, using a commercial diphtheria kit (Diphtheria IgG ELISA; IBL, Germany). Most (63%) unprotected military donors were from the older age group of 41 to 64 years. In contrast, the majority (71%) of young military donors (18 to 30 years) were fully protected. About half of the military donors aged 31 to 40 years were protected against diphtheria. Among the civilians, about 50% of persons aged 18 to 30 years and 31 to 40 years had protective antibody levels against diphtheria as also did 64% of individuals aged 41 to 64 years. All civilians had a similar antibody response (geometric mean = 0.55 IU/mL) independent of age group. Military donors aged 18-30 years had higher IgG levels (geometric mean = 0.82 IU/mL) than military donors of 41-64 years (geometric mean = 0.51 IU/mL; P > 0.05). In conclusion, the existence of a considerable proportion of susceptible adults supports the position that reliable data on the immune status of the population should be maintained routinely and emphasizes the importance of adequate immunization during adulthood.

DIPHTHERIA IN A VACCINATED ADULT IN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

Mattos-Guaraldi,Ana Luiza; Formiga,Luiz Carlos Duarte; Marques,Elizabeth Andrade; Pereira,Gabriela Andrade; Moreira,Lílian Oliveira; Pimenta,Fabrícia Pires; Camello,Thereza Cristina Ferreira; Oliveira,Elsa Fuchshuber
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2001 EN
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37.11%
In 1999, a case of diphtheria in a 32-year-old woman was reported. The patient developed a sore throat immediately after participating of a five-day meeting with European workers in Rio de Janeiro. Her history included complete pediatric immunization (DTP) and three doses of adult formulation tetanus and diphtheria toxoid (dT) two years earlier. Clinical diagnosis of diphtheria was not made until microbiologic examination of specimens confirmed toxigenicity of Corynebacterium diphtheriae var. gravis, a biotype currently found circulating within Europe where diphtheria remains epidemic. This case reinforces the potential susceptibility of Brazilian adults to epidemic diphtheria in the vaccine era.

Diphtheria Antibodies and T lymphocyte Counts in Patients Infected with HIV-1

Speranza,Francisco A. B.; Ishii,Solange K.; Thuler,Luiz C. S.; Damasco,Paulo V.; Hirata Jr,Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi,Ana L.; Milagres,Lucimar G.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
We assessed the IgG levels anti-diphtheria (D-Ab) and T cell counts (CD4+ and CD8+) in HIV-1 infected subjects undergoing or not highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Approximately 70% of all HIV-1 patients were unprotected against diphtheria. There were no differences in D-Ab according to CD4 counts. Untreated patients had higher D-Ab (geometric mean of 0.62 IU/ml) than HAART-patients (geometric mean of 0.39 IU/ml). The data indicated the necessity of keeping all HIV-1 patients up-to-date with their vaccination.

Ultrasound examination of extensive limb swelling reactions after diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis or reduced-antigen content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis immunization in preschool-aged children

Marshall, H.; Gold, M.; Gent, R.; Quinn, P.; Piotto, L.; Clarke, M.; Roberton, D.
Fonte: Amer Acad Pediatrics Publicador: Amer Acad Pediatrics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the site, extent, and resolution of tissue involvement when extensive limb swelling occurred in the injected limb for children who received diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis or reduced-antigen content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine at 4 to 6 years of age. METHODS: Children who had experienced an injection site reaction at 18 months of age were assigned randomly to receive an intramuscular injection of either reduced-antigen content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine or diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine between 4 and 6 years of age. Children who developed extensive limb swelling were recruited for assessment by clinical examination; ultrasound studies of the affected and opposite (control) arms were performed 24 to 48 hours after immunization and 48 to 96 hours later. RESULTS: Twelve children with extensive limb swelling were enrolled in the study. Ultrasound examinations demonstrated swelling of both the subcutaneous and muscle layers of the vaccinated arm. Ultrasound assessment showed that the swelling exceeded the clinical measurements of skin redness and swelling. Subcutaneous and muscle tissues expanded to 281% and 111% of the tissue thicknesses of the control arm...

Diphtheria in the Postepidemic Period, Europe, 2000–2009

Wagner, Karen; White, Joanne; Lucenko, Irina; Mercer, David; Crowcroft, Natasha; Neal, Shona; Androulla, Efstratiou; Diphtheria Surveillance Network
Fonte: CDC-National Center for Infectious Diseases Publicador: CDC-National Center for Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2012 ENG
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Paula Lavado é a representante de Portugal Na rede da difteria, participando nas reuniões científicas e enviando dados de Portugal.Faz parte do Grupo de autores: Diphtheria Surveillance Network; Diphtheria incidence has decreased in Europe since its resurgence in the 1990s, but circulation continues in some countries in eastern Europe, and sporadic cases have been reported elsewhere. Surveillance data from Diphtheria Surveillance Network countries and the World Health Organization European Region for 2000–2009 were analyzed. Latvia reported the highest annual incidence in Europe each year, but the Russian Federation and Ukraine accounted for 83% of all cases. Over the past 10 years, diphtheria incidence has decreased by >95% across the region. Although most deaths occurred in disease-endemic countries, case-fatality rates were highest in countries to which diphtheria is not endemic, where unfamiliarity can lead to delays in diagnosis and treatment. In western Europe, toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans has increasingly been identified as the etiologic agent. Reduction in diphtheria incidence over the past 10 years is encouraging, but maintaining high vaccination coverage is essential to prevent indigenous C. ulcerans and reemergence of C. diphtheriae infections.

The European Diphtheria Surveillance Network (ESDN) a strong model to combat a rare disease and use resources efficiently, share knowledge openly, and give support effectively

Neal, Shona; Efstratiou, Androulla; The European Diphtheria Surveillance Network, EDSN
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 24/10/2012 ENG
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47.26%
Maria Paula Bajanca Lavado é a microbiologista responsável pela Diphtheria em Portugal e representa Portugal no ECDC no Grupo "The European Diphtheria Surveillance Network (EDSN)".; BACKGROUND: As diphtheria is uncommon within the EU, complacency and minimal awareness is constantly observed. However, diphtheria is still seen sporadically in many EU countries and recent outbreaks have occurred worldwide. From the success of the EU-funded Diphtheria Network (DIPNET), the European Diphtheria Surveillance Network (EDSN) was established in 2010 under the auspices of ECDC, and continues to integrate epidemiologists and microbiologists. Microbiological activities have been tendered to the Health Protection Agency and managed as work packages; coordination; diagnostic external quality assurance (EQA) scheme; serology EQA; training workshops and molecular typing. The main objective is to strengthen laboratory diagnosis to ensure accurate and comparative diphtheria surveillance across Europe. METHODS: Thirty laboratory experts were nominated from the EU and EEA countries. Since February 2010, there have been two network meetings, two diagnostic EQAs, one serology EQA and two training workshops. RESULTS: The first diagnostic EQA generated unacceptable identification and toxigenicity reports of 14% and 10%...

Diphtheria - 'The strangling angel' of children

Byard, R.
Fonte: Churchill Livingstone Publicador: Churchill Livingstone
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.06%
Diphtheria, an acute infectious condition caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, was once a major killer of children. Although the mortality rates dropped dramatically in the mid-twentieth century, due to a combination of improved standards of living and immunization programs, outbreaks are still occurring. Two children, aged four and five years respectively, are reported to demonstrate characteristic features of lethal cases. Death in case 1 was due to an extensive upper airway pseudomembrane causing acute respiratory failure. The diagnosis of diphtheria was only made at postmortem. Death in case 2 was due to acute cardiac failure with heart block complicating diphtheria. Other mechanisms in fatal cases involve disseminated intravascular coagulation, renal and endocrine failure. Declining levels of immunity among adults has resulted in a change in the epidemiological pattern of the disease with an older age of victims in recent outbreaks. As a result of population shifts and failure to immunize children it is likely that forensic pathologists may see more cases of diphtheria in the future. Due to the rarity of cases in Western communities and atypical presentations, the diagnosis may only be established at autopsy.; Roger W. Byard

Tetanus and diphtheria immunity in adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil

Dinelli,M.I.S; Fisberg,M; Moraes-Pinto,M.I de
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2007 EN
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37.2%
Tetanus and diphtheria vaccines are of special concern in adolescents because boosters are necessary for adequate maintenance of protection and are often omitted. We assessed serum levels of tetanus and diphtheria antibodies in adolescents and their association with vaccination status. From May to October 2001, we evaluated the vaccination records of 208 adolescents aged 10 to 20 years in São Paulo, Brazil. Antibodies to tetanus and diphtheria were detected using double-antigen ELISA and vaccination records were analyzed according to the guidelines of the Brazilian National Immunization Program. All adolescents had received complete primary vaccinations against tetanus and diphtheria, but 23.1% of them had not received a booster dose in the last 10 years. All adolescents were immune to tetanus and 88.9% were fully protected (antibodies ³0.1 IU/mL). One individual (0.5%) was non-immune to diphtheria and 86% were fully protected against the disease. Adolescents with up-to-date vaccination records had higher antibody levels than those with not up-to-date records for tetanus (0.763 vs 0.239 IU/mL, t-test: P < 0.0001) and diphtheria (0.366 vs 0.233 IU/mL, t-test: P = 0.014). Full immunity against tetanus (antibodies ³0.1 IU/mL) was higher among individuals with up-to-date vaccination (93.1%) when compared to those with not up-to-date records (75%...

The designing of anti-diphtheria serotherapy at the Institut Pasteur (1888-1900) : the role of a supranational network of microbiologists

Gachelin, Gabriel
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
The development of anti-diphtheria serotherapy at the Institut Pasteur immediately follows the crisis known as the Pasteur-Koch debate. Research on diphtheria in Paris is indicative of the importance granted by Pasteurian scientists to Koch’s school criticisms. After 1887, relations between French and German bacteriologists become more relaxed. A scientific and social network develops between them. It later extends to other fields of research at the Institut Pasteur, particularly therapeutic chemistry. The evolution of Franco-German relations at the Institut Pasteur is placed in the general framework of the way French universities considered German science.

The Pasteur hospital as an element of Emile Roux’s anti-diphtheria apparatus (1890-1914)

Opinel, Annick
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.99%
Before the decisive discovery by Gaston Ramon of a vaccine («anatoxine diphtérique») in 1923, the fight against diphtheria in France had started in 1894 with the serotherapy approach of Martin and Roux. Emile Roux, director of the Institut Pasteur, developed a dynamic concept of research/production/application expressed in the organization of a specialized hospital, the Hôpital Pasteur, which was constructed near the research laboratories and also incorporated production centres outside Paris in Marnes-la-Coquette. Roux implemented a well-defined project against diphtheria that took account of all of the logistical implications. By associating this therapeutic project with an architectural project, Roux established a coherent anti-diphtheria apparatus.

Diphtheria serum and serotherapy. Development, Production and regulation in fin de siècle Germany

Hüntelmann, Axel C.
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.99%
The development, production and state regulation of diphtheria serum is outlined against the background of industrialisation, standardization, falling standards of living and rising social conflict in fin de siècle Germany. On one hand, diphtheria serum offered a cure for an infectious disease and was a major therapeutic innovation in modern medicine. On the other hand, the new serum was a remedy of biological origin and nothing was known about its side effects or long-term impact. Moreover, serum therapy promised high profits for manufacturers who succeeded in stabilizing the production process and producing large quantities of serum in so-called industrial production plants. To minimize public health risks, a broad system of state regulation was installed, including the supervision of serum production and distribution. The case of diphtheria serum illustrates the indirect forms of government supervision and influence adopted in the German Empire and the cooperation and networking among science, state and industry.

Quantificação de anticorpos diftéricos em cobaias: I - persistência do título de anticorpos séricos em animais inoculados com uma dose de toxóide diftérico; Quantitative determination of diphtheria antibodies in guinea pigs: I - persistency of diphtheria antitoxin levels in sera of animals inoculated with diphtheria toxoid

Furuta, Joana Akiko; Rosa, Raymundo Rolim; Oliveira, Edison Paulo Tavares de; Iizuka, Hideyo
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/1982 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.11%
Foi estudado o comportamento da cinética de anticorpogénese em cobaias inoculadas com uma dose de toxóide diftérico precipitado pelo alúmen. Paralelamente, foi estudada a dinâmica da imunidade passiva naturalmente transmitida aos filhotes. Em cobaias vacinadas com uma dose de antígeno, foi verificado que a síntese de antitoxina diftérica persiste, em títulos detectáveis, até 36 meses após. Os anticorpos transferidos, passivamente, da mãe vacinada para os filhotes atingiram, nestes, concentrações plasmáticas superiores, sendo que a imunidade perdurou em títulos detectáveis até cerca de três meses de idade dos mesmos.; The behavior of the kinetic genesis of antibodies in guinea pigs inoculated with doses of an alum precipitated diphtheria toxoid was studied. In a parallel study the dynamic of passive immunity, naturally transmitted to the offspring, was examined. In immunized guinea pigs, it was verified that the diphtheria antitoxin synthesis maintains detectable titers up to 36 months. Antibodies transfered via placenta by the vaccinated mother reached a plasmic concentration in the newborn superior to that of the mother, and the passive immunity persisted in the circulation of the offspring at titers detectable for up to approximately three months.

Difteria: situação imunitária de uma população infantil urbana de São Paulo, SP, Brasil; Diphtheria: immunity in an infant population in the city of S. Paulo, SP, Brazil

Iizuka, Hideyo; Furuta, Joana Akiko; Oliveira, Edison P. Tavares de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/1980 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.99%
A verificação do teor de anticorpos antidiftéricos provenientes de 130 crianças de 7 a 10 anos de idade, do município de São Paulo, Brasil, revelou 31, 14 e 5% de indivíduos susceptíveis nas idades de 7, 8 e 9 anos, respectivamente. Todas as crianças de 10 anos de idade apresentaram proteção contra a difteria, revelando teor de antitoxina circulante em níveis superiores a 0,01 UI/ml. O teor médio de antitoxina diftérica encontrada variou de 0,0385 a 0,1315 UI/ml de soro, na população examinada.; An ascertainment of the level diphtheria antibodies in 130 children, 7 to 10 years old, in the city of S. Paulo (Brazil), revealed susceptibility in 31% of the 7-year-olds, 14% in the eight-year-olds, and 5% in the nine-year-olds. All ten-year-olds had protective circulating antitoxin at levels superior to 0.01 IU/ml. Analysis of the results thus showed that susceptibility varies inversely to age. In the population examined, the mean diphtheric antitoxin content oscillated between 0.0385 and 0.1315 IU/ml of serum.

Diphtheria in the Dominican Republic: reduction of cases following a large outbreak

Garib,Zacarías; Danovaro-Holliday,M. Carolina; Tavarez,Yira; Leal,Irene; Pedreira,Cristina
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
OBJECTIVE: To describe the most recent outbreak of diphtheria in the Dominican Republic and the disease's occurrence and vaccination coverage in 2004-2013. METHODS: Clinical data of diphtheria cases that occurred in 2004 and that met the study's case definition were reviewed along with socioeconomic and epidemiological information from the cases' families. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess risk factors for fatal diphtheria. Routine surveillance and vaccination coverage data are presented. RESULTS: From January 2004-April 2005, a total of 145 diphtheria cases were reported; 80 (66%) of the 122 cases reported in 2004 met the case definition; 26 were fatal (case-fatality rate: 32.5%). Incidence was highest in the group 1-4 years of age at 5.3 per 100 000; 62.5% were male. Of the 80 cases, 61 (76%) where hospitalized in Hospital A, 17 in Hospital B, and 2 in two other hospitals. Earlier onset (first half of 2004), birth order, and tracheotomy were associated with fatal diphtheria (P < 0.05); cases in Hospital A were also more likely to be fatal (P = 0.066). The average annual diphtheria incidence was 4.91 cases/1 million people in 2000-2003, climbed to 8.8 cases per million in 2004-2005, and dropped to 0.38 in 2006-2014; no diphtheria cases have been reported since 2011. DTP3 vaccination coverage ranged from 72%-81% in 2000-2004 and from 81%-89% in 2005-2013. CONCLUSIONS: The 2004-2005 diphtheria outbreak in the Dominican Republic resulted in important and avoidable morbidity and mortality. Annual cases declined and no cases have been reported in recent years. Maintaining high vaccination coverage and diligent surveillance are crucial to preventing diphtheria outbreaks and controlling the disease.