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Natural Resources and Development Strategy after the Crisis

Brahmbhatt, Milan; Canuto, Otaviano
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.91%
Recent events have rekindled interest in the role of primary commodities in development. Was the boom in commodity prices from around 2003 through 2008 just a cyclical event, or does it suggests that prices have entered on a period of secular strength, driven by factors such as demand in big, fast growing developing countries like China? It is notable that, while commodity prices fell sharply from their peak in 2008 with the onset of the global recession, they generally remained much higher than previous recession lows, often as high as in 2005-07, a period of robust world growth. Furthermore, prices have also rebounded smartly over the course of 2009. If a period of sustained commodity strength is imminent, what are the implications for development policies? Development economists have long debated the problems associated with the traditionally high specialization in production and export of primary commodities of most developing countries. Many argue that dependence on primary commodities has proved to be a poisoned chalice or curse for development...

City Development Strategy and City Assistance Programme : Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Volume 1

World Bank
Fonte: Kathmandu Publicador: Kathmandu
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.92%
In conformity with its objective of functioning as a local Government, Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC) sought the assistance of the World Bank for the preparation of a City Development Strategy (CDS) for Kathmandu. The various sectoral as well as integrated strategies presented in this document seem to be an overwhelming demand on KMC with its limited manpower and money. However, a CDS is essential if KMC is to focus its development potential. The optimism lies in political leadership, enabling environment and necessary support that will be rendered to KMC from civil society. The vision for Kathmandu stresses the need to develop the valley as administrative, cultural and tourism center. The strategy to move towards that vision through improvement in the overall situation of the KMC, however, is likely to be a long drawn struggle, yet achievable. The urban planning study strongly recommends that Kathmandu should be accorded special status as a capital city and large polluting and manufacturing industries should be discouraged immediately and if possible...

Vietnam 2010 : Entering the 21st Century

World Bank; Asian Development Bank; United Nations Development Program
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.93%
The study outlines the socioeconomic development strategy for Vietnam, during the first decade of the twenty first century, envisaging sustainable economic development, to rapidly adjust to social stability, while maintaining cultural, and traditional ties. The aim is to become a socialist market economy, fully integrated into the global economy, internationally competitive, with characteristics of an industrialized, and knowledge-based society within twenty years. This vision articulates the eradication of hunger, and hard-core poverty, emphasizing universal lower secondary education. Likewise, it intends to reduce child malnutrition, increase life expectancy, and raise access to clean water in urban areas. However, the vision requires a doubling of the GDP by 2010, through increased investments and growing exports, declining agricultural inputs, but increasing the industrial, and services share. Part I of the report, still undergoing extensive consultations within the Government, and civil society, provides the strategic directions for the country...

Poverty in Mexico : An Assessment of Conditions, Trends, and Government Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.94%
This report presents the results of an assessment of poverty conditions in Mexico, and the Government strategies to reduce poverty. It constitutes the first phase of a longer-term work program on poverty reduction in Mexico, that the Bank is undertaking, in collaboration with the Government during the period 2003-2006. The current situation in the country is mixed, with respect to poverty. In terms of well-being, Mexico has experienced major progress in some dimensions - notably related to basic service access - but much weaker progress on others - notably on the income of the poor. Despite the gains between 1996 and 2002,and in particular, for the extreme poor, poverty remains widespread, and is only slightly below the levels prevailing before the 1994195 crisis. The report relates to government strategy, and its strengths. The CONTIGO framework is excellent as a conceptual framework, especially in its attempt to integrate the multiple dimensions of well-being, and public action into a life-cycle approach. There are notable successes in specific programs -with "Oportunidades" (i.e....

Republic of Armenia Export-led Industrial Development Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.97%
The lessons learned from the implications of the global crisis for the Armenian economy led the Government of Armenia to refine its approach to economic development policy. The business environment, the market structure, and the incentive pattern had not fostered reallocation of resources into more productive areas or the emergence of internationally competitive products and services. Despite numerous initiatives and multiple efforts, there was no holistic approach or actionable roadmap for supporting private sector development. The pressing need to restore economic growth despite a small domestic market led the Armenian government to search for new sources of growth in export-oriented industries. At the end of 2011, the Government of Armenia adopted its export-led industrial development strategy. The strategy set as targets improving the general business environment and sector-specific initiatives to address market failures and expand exports. The strategy builds on both a general (crosscutting) and an industry-customized toolset.

Cali, Colombia : Toward a City Development Strategy; Cali, Colombia : hacia una estrategia de desarrollo de la ciudad

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.95%
Although many of the problems that Cali is experiencing - social and human capital deterioration, a declining economy, and institutional crisis - are a reflection of Colombia's complicated socioeconomic situation, the city has been hit harder by the crisis than other large cities, as confirmed by the following indicators: GDP, unemployment, poverty rate, inequality, and number of homicides. According to recent estimates, the population in Cali reached the 2 million level in 1999, making the city the second largest in the country after Bogota. Internal migration increased significantly during the early 90s due to the economic boom generated by drug dealing activities, and continued in the last part of the decade, due to resettlement movements of large population groups, affected by social conflict in rural areas. However, migration flows have generated social tension in the city, as economic opportunities became scarce. The Bank engaged in a participatory process to produce a City Development Strategy (CDS)...

Indonesia : Private Sector Development Strategy; Indonesia : World Bank Group Private Sector Development Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.94%
The report reviews the Bank's private sector development strategy in Indonesia, stipulating that the country's potential will not be realized without a pattern of private sector activity, - different from the past - but, taking the opportunity offered by the crisis to make fundamental changes in the business environment, and in how business is conducted. The first priority calls for the banking, and corporate sectors to speed up the resolution of corporate debt, and ease financial flows for investment, and working capital to resume. Second, the structural inefficiencies, partly conducive to the crisis, and to its long lasting effect, need to be overcome; therefore, reforms should enable Indonesia to become a modern market economy, able to avoid future crises. This encompasses fighting corruption in the public administration, ensuring the rule of law through the court system, reinforcing property rights, and dispute resolution mechanisms, and, ensuring transparency and corporate governance. Third, broad-based...

Pakistan : Punjab Economic Report, Towards a Medium-Term Development Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.9%
The report aims analyze the development strategy of the government of Punjab. The report begins by examining the main elements of its economic strategy. This strategy will rest on five pillars: (1) improving governance; (2) reforming the fiscal and financial management system; (3) creating a more supportive environment for private sector-led growth; (4) improving the delivery of public services; and (5) addressing the provincial economy's vulnerability to shocks. Taken together, these elements add up to a strategy that is occupied not only with increasing output, but also emphasizes education, health, improved governance, and protection of the environment. The overriding concern is to provide a better life for the province's citizens. In the short- to medium-term, the provision of a better life to the Punjab's citizens depends essentially on two considerations. First, incomes must be increased; second, the delivery of public services must be improved.

Seizing the Global Opportunity : Investment Climate Assessment and Reform Strategy for Cambodia

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Investment Climate Assessment (ICA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.94%
This report has been accepted as a key input to Cambodia's private sector development strategy following extensive consultations with the Royal Government of Cambodia, its development partners, and the private sector. It was prepared to help these stakeholders identify and prioritize policy reforms to achieve three related objectives: to enable the private sector to lead growth, to help diversify the economy, and to increase the role of the private sector in public service delivery. The report takes as its starting point Cambodia's pro- poor trade strategy, which recognizes that as a small country, exports are critical to expanding job opportunities. However, Cambodia's policymakers are aware that the export opportunities cannot be captured if firms face an uncompetitive domestic business environment. The report employs an investment climate survey of 800 urban, rural, and informal firms to identify how the policy and institutional environment impacts individual firms, and benchmarks the responses of Cambodian firms with those in China...

Policy Note : Environmental Management for a Sustainable Economic Development Strategy for Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.95%
This policy note, Environmental Management for a Sustainable Economic Development Strategy for Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, investigates six environmental management topics which will affect the capacity of the province to develop the economy and need to be underpinned by strong environmental and natural resource management. The six topics cover: agriculture, forestry, fisheries, land and water, environmental law and regulations, and spatial planning. Each topic provides the context for and some background on the sector, key issues facing the management of the sector, potential sustainable development opportunities and initiatives and recommendations on actions to improve the development and management of the sector. The policy note includes a framework to develop nine elements of an enabling environment that would support the development of the province's natural resources, as well as a set of specific recommendations and initiatives.

Designing a Rural Development Strategy for Peru's Sierra

Werbrouck, Pierre
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.93%
Poverty and economic stagnation characterize most rural areas in Peru. National growth has been slow and uneven since the mid-1970s, benefiting urban areas rather than rural ones. Between 1985 and 2000, the number of poor people increased by 71 percent. The incidence of poverty (67 percent) and extreme poverty (40 percent) is highest in rural areas, reaching 73 percent (poverty) and 41 percent (extreme poverty) in the sierra. This means that 4.2 million rural people live with incomes 30 percent below the poverty line and 2.3 million people live in extreme poverty. Regional specific policies to fight poverty may be warranted, notably a strategy for rural development in the sierra aiming for more equitable economic growth and reduced poverty. This brief includes the following headlines: detailed analysis; recommendations; notes; lessons learned; about the author; and about 'en breve'.

Sustaining Forests : A Development Strategy, Appendixes (from CD-ROM)

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.01%
Forest resources directly contribute to the livelihoods of 90 percent of the 1.2 billion people living in extreme poverty and indirectly support the natural environment that nourishes agriculture and the food supplies of nearly half the population of the developing world. Forests also are central to growth in many developing countries through trade and industrial development. However, mismanagement of this resource has cost governments revenues that exceed World Bank lending to these countries. Illegal logging results in additional losses of at least US$10 billion to US$15 billion per year of forest resources from public lands. If captured by governments, these losses could support expenditures in education and health that will exceed current development assistance to these sectors. Forests also are central to maintaining the environmental commons. Nearly 90 percent of terrestrial biodiversity is found in the world's forests, with a disproportionate share in the forests of developing countries. Most of the carbon emissions of developing countries come from deforestation...

Reaching the Rural Poor : A Renewed Strategy for Rural Development

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.05%
"From Vision to Action", the Bank's previous rural development strategy launched in 1997, had a decisive influence on global thinking - but disappointing results on the ground. In 2001, lending for agricultural projects was the lowest in the Bank's history. The new strategy is results oriented: "Reaching the Rural Poor" stresses practice, implementation, monitoring, and empowerment of the people it is designed to help. This strategy responds to changes in: the global environment; in client countries; and, in the Bank, starting with the development of regional action plans, and extensive consultations at the regional level. It also reflects, and reinforces the Bank's commitment to the United Nations Millennium Development Goals to increase rural incomes, and broaden opportunities for rural people. The key features of this strategy are to: focus on the rural poor; foster broad-based economic growth; address rural areas comprehensively; forge alliances of all stakeholders; and, address the impact of global developments on client countries. In this capacity...

Revitalizing Eritrea's Development Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56%
It is no exaggeration to say that Eritrea is at a cross-roads today. The war with Ethiopia meant that the development plans and programs gradually put into place since independence were disrupted. The signing of the peace agreement in December 2000, and the ruling of the boundary commission on April 13, 2002, are all-important, but it is clear that the conditions facing Eritrea are significantly more difficult than prior to the war. Not only are the direct costs of the war very high, but the break in economic relations with Ethiopia and the loss of investor confidence will continue to exact a price for some years to come. It is in this context that the Government has decided to review its development strategy and has asked for World Bank input into this process. In response, the Bank has prepared this Country Economic Memorandum (CEM). It follows the first CEM on Eritrea (World Bank 1994) that provided a Bank and donor input as independent Eritrea refined its development strategy. The CEM is divided into three chapters. The first is a review of Eritrea's development experience since independence...

Scaling-Up the Impact of Good Practices in Rural Development : A Working Paper to Support Implementation of the World Bank’s Rural Development Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Rural Development Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.97%
A key thrust in the implementation of the Bank's new rural development strategy is identifying and "scaling-up good practice investments and innovations in rural development." Historically, successful World Bank projects have been one-time investments without strategies for leveraging projects to a larger scale or to broader coverage to increase efficiency and developmental impact in a country or region. The Bank believes that scaling-up good practices must become an integral part of national rural development strategies to reduce rural poverty and support broad-based rural development. This working paper, written in support of the Bank's rural development strategy, is intended to contribute to the development of a framework for thinking about scaling-up. The paper begins with a review of the literature on scaling-up in rural development and other contexts to develop an understanding of basic concepts and terms. Drawing from the literature review and interviews, the authors develop a working definition of the term scaling-up and a provisional framework for analyzing experiences of scaling-up in rural development. Then...

Rural Financial Services : Implementing the Bank's Strategy to Reach the Rural Poor

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Rural Development Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.93%
This paper discusses rural finance aspects of the World Bank's rural development strategy, "Reaching the Rural Poor" (see report no. 26763) by giving an overview of recent implementation experience, discussing current issues, and highlighting priorities for the future. The primary objective is to articulate how the Bank views current best practices in rural finance and attempts to incorporate them into its operations, as a common frame of reference for policymakers in client countries, Bank staff, and other donor agencies. In the process, it provides some operational guidance on the types of instruments suited to different circumstances, although it is not intended as a toolkit for project design. Four sections make up this report. Section II explores the characteristics of rural financial markets and constraints to their development, analyzes why the traditional paradigm of directed agricultural credit was replaced by a financial systems approach, and explains how this new paradigm is incorporated into institutional policies. Section III reviews recent implementation experience of Bank RMF operations and emerging issues. Section IV develops approaches for strengthening implementation of the Bank's strategy for rural financial market development at the levels of macro policies...

Trade in a ‘Green Growth’ Development Strategy : Global Scale Issues and Challenges

de Melo, Jaime
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
This paper surveys the state of knowledge about the trade-related environmental consequences of a country's development strategy along three channels: (i) direct trade-environment linkages (overexploitation of natural resources and trade-related transport costs); (ii) 'virtual trade' in emissions resulting from production activities; and (iii) the product mix attributes of a 'green-growth' strategy (environmentally preferable products and goods for environmental management). Trade exacerbates over-exploitation of natural resources in weak institutional environments, but there is little evidence that differences in environmental policies across countries has led to significant 'pollution havens.' Trade policies to 'level the playing field' would be ineffective and result in destructive conflicts in the World Trade Organization. Lack of progress at the Doha Round suggests the need to modify the current system of global policy making.

Cambodia : Rural Sector Strategy Note, Towards a Strategy for Rural Growth and Poverty Reduction

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Rural Development Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.98%
Recovering from three decades of conflict, over this last decade, Cambodia has undergone dramatic economic, political, and social transitions. Cambodia experienced rapid institutional changes as it restored peace, moved from a centrally planned to a market-oriented economy, and moved from isolation to regional and global integration. Cambodia has achieved political and macroeconomic stability, and has initiated key structural reforms. Nevertheless, Cambodia's economy remains vulnerable, and economic growth has not translated into widespread poverty reduction. With a GDP per capita of US$280, and social indicators showing little progress since the 1960s, Cambodia remains one of the poorest countries in the world. The legacies of war - the losses in physical and social capital, depleted human capital, and the remaining land mines - will continue to challenge the country's overall development in the short, and medium terms. In addition, the country's small and open economy is faced with the challenge of establishing institutions and infrastructure that will allow it to realize the benefits, and mitigate the risks of regional and global integration, in an increasingly competitive regional environment. To a great extent, progress will depend on achievements in rural areas. The purpose of this Note is to provide a broad framework to explore options for Cambodia's future directions for rural development with the government...

Urbanization and Urban-Rural Inequality in China: A New Perspective from the Government's Development Strategy; Frontiers of Economics in China

Lin, Justin Yifu; Chen, Binkai
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.95%
This paper offers a novel explanation for the lower urbanization rate and great urban-rural inequality in China. Our study reveals that, heavy-industry-oriented development strategy will result in lower urbanization rate and higher urban-rural inequality. The greater the degree of heavy-industry-oriented development strategy is, the lower the urbanization rate is, and the higher the urban-rural inequality is. From a dynamic perspective, heavy-industry-oriented development strategy reduces the capital accumulation rate, which results in a slower progress of urbanization and a highly persistent urban-rural inequality. The higher the degree of heavy-industry-oriented development strategy, the slower the progress of urbanization, and the longer the urban-rural inequality will last. This mechanism can potentially explain the lower urbanization rate and higher urban-rural inequality in China under a unified framework.

MOVING TOWARDS A LOW CARBON ECONOMY: AN ANALYSIS OF THE METHODOLOGY FOR CREATING A U.S. LOW-CARBON DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

Nichols, Sara; Travis, Cassidy; Tynan, Matthew
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 26/04/2012 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.86%
At the 2009 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Copenhagen, the U.S. committed to reducing national emissions 17% by 2020, and 83% by 2050. In 2010 the U.S. made further international commitments to create a low-carbon development strategy (LCDS)—a national plan to achieve emission reduction targets. However, a comprehensive strategy to achieve those emissions reductions has yet to be developed. World Wildlife Fund (WWF) is interested in ensuring that the U.S. meets these obligations by creating an LCDS that results in federal action on climate change. This master’s project examines twenty-two international and domestic low-carbon strategies to determine best practices for creating an accurate and robust LCDS for the U.S. in light of the current political context. Recommendations are presented for an LCDS methodology that could be both effective and politically persuasive, and allow WWF to leverage its role as a conservation leader.