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Acesso a medicamentos: um estudo de caso sobre o cumprimento do Objetivo 8.E das Metas do Milênio em três países da Região da América Latina e Caribe; Access to medicines: a case study on the implementation of the Objective 8.E of the Millennium Development Goals in three countries in Latin

Matos, Mateus Falcão Martins
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/10/2013 PT
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INTRODUÇÃO: Promulgadas em 2000 as Metas de Desenvolvimento do Milênio destacam-se internacionalmente como importante política de cooperação para o desenvolvimento. Resultado do empenho da Organização das Nações Unidas caracteriza-se como uma tentativa de diminuir as disparidades sociais e econômicas no início do século XXI. Constituída por oito Metas, com prazo final para cumprimento em 2015. O objetivo 8.E da oitava Meta é definido como a cooperação com a indústria farmacêutica e visa, proporcionar o acesso a medicamentos essenciais com preços acessíveis nos países em desenvolvimento. OBJETIVOS: descreveu-se por meio das recomendações dos Relatórios da ONU o progresso do Objetivo 8.E e as políticas públicas de saúde no Brasil, Cuba e México. METODOLOGIA O estudo caracterizou-se por um estudo de caso descritivo e exploratório realizado por meio do estudo das recomendações governamentais estabelecidas nos relatórios da ONU relativos ao Objetivo 8.E, no período de 2000 a 2012, de documentos oficiais dos três países estudados e de revisão de literatura sobre o assunto. RESULTADOS: verificou-se que as propostas estabelecidas nos Relatórios da ONU para garantia do acesso a medicamentos apresentaram-se como políticas públicas nacionais executadas por meio dos sistemas de saúde dos três países estudados antes da promulgação das Metas do Milênio. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: em âmbito internacional As Metas do Milênio apresentam importância na cooperação para o desenvolvimento internacional observou-se...

Reaching the Millennium Development Goals : Mauritania Should Care

Magnoli Bocchi, Alessandro; Pontara, Nicola; Fall, Khayar; Tejada, Catalina M.; Gallego Cuervo, Pablo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Mauritania is a resource-rich developing country. As many other African nations, it will not reach most of the Millennium Development Goals, unless the authorities commit to accelerating progress. To succeed by 2015, the government needs to: mobilize additional financial resources, introduce policy changes at the sector level, and strengthen the links between strategic objectives and the budget. Adopting the Millennium Development Goals as the overarching development framework will keep policy-makers focused on concrete results and help them avoid the so-called "natural resource curse." This paper calculates the total cost of the Millennium Development Goals and financing gap (on aggregate and for each goal); recommends changes in domestic sector policies; and proposes ways to integrate the Millennium Development Goals into the budget process. Over 2008-2015, the total cost of reaching the goals in Mauritania and the resulting financing gap stand at, respectively, around 9 and 3 percent of non-oil gross domestic product on average per year. Education is the most expensive goal in absolute terms...

Aid, Service Delivery, and the Millennium Development Goals in an Economy-wide Framework

Bourguignon, Francois; Diaz-Bonilla, Carolina; Lofgren, Hans
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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In many developing countries, achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015 will require significant increases in expenditures on social services and in foreign assistance. It will also require careful planning of the sector allocation and sequencing of public spending. Especially for low-income countries, the challenges of the MDGs cannot be well understood unless sector issues are seen in the context of constraints at the macro level and in labor markets. To help countries analyze policies aimed at making progress toward the goals, the World Bank has developed a new tool, the Maquette for MDG Simulations (MAMS). Its originality is to fully integrate government services and their impact on the economy within an otherwise standard economy-wide dynamic framework. In comparison with existing approaches, MAMS offers three main advantages. First, the representation of the production of government services - such as health or education - takes into account demand as well as supply factors and the efficiency of these services. It also allows for interactions across the goals...

Sri Lanka : Attaining the Millennium Development Goals in Sri Lanka, How Likely and What Will it Take to Reduce Poverty, Child Mortality and Malnutrition, and to Increase School Enrollment and Completion?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report focuses on the attainment of five major human development-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by sub-national units in Sri Lanka relating to poverty, under-five and infant mortality, child malnutrition, schooling enrollment and completion, and gender disparities in schooling. The selection of these MDGs for detailed analysis was based in large part on the availability of reliable sub-national data. The report concludes that of these MDGs, Sri Lanka has already attained the numerical goals relating to universal primary enrollment and completion. Indeed, the country had almost met these goals as far back as 1990-91, and is far ahead o f the other countries of South Asia in terms of having reached near-universal primary enrollment and completion. Sri Lanka has also attained the MD goal of gender parity in primary and secondary school enrollments, again having met this target as early as 1990-91. However, Sri Lanka faces considerable challenges in ensuring good quality primary education, with substantial shortfalls in cognitive achievement in the country as a whole. Further, Sri Lanka experiences sharp regional disparities in learning outcomes. Improving the quality of primary education in the country, with special emphasis on educationally disadvantaged areas...

Agriculture and Achieving the Millennium Development Goals

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Given that the majority of poor people live in rural areas or rely on agriculture, and that agriculture paves the way for economic growth in the poorer nations, agricultural and rural development will underlie progress on the broad array of economic and social indicators emphasized by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The most effective strategy for making steady, sustainable progress toward the MDGs is to serve all the goals in an integrated way. While the agricultural sector provides critical inputs for attaining the MDG targets, the broad improvements in human capital needed to reach those targets will also result in a considerably more productive and resilient agricultural sector. There is a need to undertake a critical review of the pathways by which agriculture can contribute directly or indirectly to attaining the MDGs. This report centers on the first MDG, concerned with eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, but looks at the direct and indirect links between the MDGs and agriculture. Following an explanation of the MDGs and a discussion of their progress to date, the potential contributions of agriculture to achieving the MDGs are assessed goal by goal in the second chapter. The third chapter examines more closely how the targets of MDG 1 can be achieved in Sub-Saharan Africa (Ethiopia and Zambia)...

Africa : Social and Economic Development Goals - A Progress Report

Mattimore, Angel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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During the 1998 Second Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD II), a set of ambitious poverty reduction and human development goals were established for the Africa region, drawing on and reaffirming commitments made three years earlier at the First TICAD conference and at the United Nation (UN) Social Summit in Copenhagen. The Second TICAD Agenda for Action dealt with three broad areas: social development; economic development; and basic foundations for development (good governance, conflict prevention and post-conflict development). Nine time-bound social and economic development goals form a key part of the agenda: 1) Universal Primary Education (UPE) in Africa by 2015, with 80 percent completion by 2005; 2) halve the 1990 illiteracy rate by 2005, with an emphasis on improving female literacy rates; 3) gender equality in primary and secondary enrollments by 2005; 4) halve the 1990 maternal mortality rate by 2005, and by a further half by 2015; 5) reduce infant and child mortality rates to one-third of their 1990 levels by 2015; 6) universal access to reproductive health services by 2015; 7) halve the number of malnourished people by 2015; 8) safe water and sanitation for 80 percent of the population by 2005; and 9) reduce the number of women living in poverty by two-thirds by 2015.

Reaching the Millennium Development Goals in Latin America : Preliminary Results

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have been adopted by the international community as a series of development targets to be accomplished over the period 1990-2015. The MDGs are an expanded set of the original International Development Goals (IDGs), which were initially put forward by the Development Assistance Committee of the OECD. The present set of MDGs consists of 8 broad goals, with 18 targets and 48 indicators (see box). In this note, we assess the feasibility of reaching these goals in Latin America using SimSIP Goals, a simulator part of a broader set of tools originally designed to help Governments prepare Poverty Reduction Strategies. In order to compute future values for poverty and social indicators, the simulator takes into account projections for future GDP growth, population growth, and urbanization, and elasticities of poverty and social indicators to these variables. The elasticities for social indicators are based on regressions from world-wide panel data, while those for poverty and extreme poverty are based on data for Latin America. For non-monetary indicators...

Who Would Gain Most from Efforts to reach the Millennium Development Goals for Health? An Inquiry into the Possibility of Progress that Fails to Reach the Poor

Gwatkin, Davidson R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This paper is an inquiry into the possibility of progress toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) targets for health that does not significantly benefit the disadvantaged people whom the MDGs are intended to serve. The possibility arises because the MDGs health targets, unlike most other prominent MDGs targets, are stated in terms of improvement in societal averages rather than in terms of gains among poor groups within societies. Since improvements in any group, including the better-off, would produce improvements in societal averages, progress toward targets expressed in those terms does not necessarily reflect improvements in conditions among the poor. The inquiry begins by examining the implications of two alternative scenarios for progress toward the MDGs under-five mortality target: a "top-down" scenario, with gains highly concentrated among the better-off; and a converse, "bottom-up" scenario, under which gains flow primarily to the poor. The second part of the inquiry examines the plausibility the two scenarios. The conclusion is that...

The Millennium Development Goals for Health : Rising to the Challenges

Wagstaff, Adam; Claeson, Mariam
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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The extent of premature death and ill health in the developing world is staggering. In 2000 almost 11 million children died before their fifth birthday, an estimated 140 million children under five are underweight, 3 million died from HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis claimed another 2 million lives, and 515,000 women died during pregnancy or child birth in 1995, almost all of them in the developing world. Death and ill health on such a scale are matters of concern in their own right. They are also a brake on economic development. These concerns led the international community to put health at the center of the Millennium Development Goals when adopting them at the Millennium Summit in September 2000. This report focuses on the health and nutrition Millennium Development Goals agreed to by over 180 governments. It assesses progress to date and prospects of achieving the goals. The report identifies what developing country governments can do to accelerate the pace of progress while ensuring that benefits accrue to the poorest and most disadvantaged households. It also pulls together the lessons of development assistance and country initiatives and innovations to improve the effectiveness of aid...

Efficiency in Reaching the Millennium Development Goals

Jayasuriya, Ruwan; Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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To improve the likelihood of reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), or more generally to improve their social indicators, countries (or states and provinces within countries) basically have two options: increasing the inputs used to "produce" the outcomes measured by the MDGs, or increasing the efficiency with which they use their existing inputs. The four papers presented in this study look at whether improvements in efficiency could bring gains in outcomes. The first two papers use world panel data in order to analyze country level efficiency in improving education, health, and GDP indicators (GDP is related to the MDGs because a higher level of income leads to a reduction in poverty). The other two papers use province and state level data to analyze within-country efficiency in Argentina and Mexico for "producing" good education and health outcomes. Together, the four papers suggest that apart from increasing inputs, it will be necessary to improve efficiency in order to reach the MDGs. While this conclusion is hardly surprising...

Global Monitoring Report 2015/2016; Development Goals in an Era of Demographic Change

World Bank; International Monetary Fund
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Book; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Publication
EN_US
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The Global Monitoring Report 2015/2016, produced by the World Bank Group in partnership with the International Monetary Fund, comes at an inflection point in both the setting of global development goals and the demographic trends affecting those goals. This year marks the end of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the launching of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), while the World Bank Group has in parallel articulated the twin goals of sustainably ending extreme poverty and sharing prosperity. This report presents the latest global poverty numbers, based on the 2011 purchasing power parity (PPP) data, and examines the pace of development progress through the lens of the evolving global development goals. The special theme of this year’s report examines the complex interaction between demographic change and development. With the number of children approaching a global ceiling of two billion, the world’s population is growing slower. It is also aging faster, with the share of people of working age starting a decline in 2013. But the direction and pace of these trends vary starkly across countries, with sizeable demographic disparities between centers of global poverty (marked by high fertility) and drivers of global growth (marked by rapid aging). These demographic disparities are expected to deeply affect the pursuit of the post-2015 agenda...

An integrated framework for sustainable development goals

Griggs, David; Stafford Smith, Mark; Rockström, Johan; Öhman, Marcus C.; Gaffney, Owen; Glaser, Gisbert; Kanie, Norichika; Noble, Ian; Steffen, Will; Shyamsundar, Priya
Fonte: Resilience Alliance Publicador: Resilience Alliance
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 24 pages
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The United Nations (UN) Rio+20 summit committed nations to develop a set of universal sustainable development goals (SDGs) to build on the millennium development goals (MDGs) set to expire in 2015. Research now indicates that humanity’s impact on Earth’s life support system is so great that further global environmental change risks undermining long-term prosperity and poverty eradication goals. Socioeconomic development and global sustainability are often posed as being in conflict because of trade-offs between a growing world population, as well as higher standards of living, and managing the effects of production and consumption on the global environment. We have established a framework for an evidence-based architecture for new goals and targets. Building on six SDGs, which integrate development and environmental considerations, we developed a comprehensive framework of goals and associated targets, which demonstrate that it is possible, and necessary, to develop integrated targets relating to food, energy, water, and ecosystem services goals; thus providing a neutral evidence-based approach to support SDG target discussions. Global analyses, using an integrated global target equation, are close to providing indicators for these targets. Alongside development-only targets and environment-only targets...

Miniatlas of Millennium Development Goals : Building a Better World

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a challenge the global community has set for itself. They are a challenge to poor countries to demonstrate good governance and a commitment to poverty reduction. And they are a challenge to wealthy countries to make good on their promise to support economic and social development. The MDGs have captured the world's attention, in part because they can be measured, as this little book demonstrates. More important, the goals address our most human concerns for the welfare of everyone with whom we share this planet. The authors are now one third of the way to the target date of 2015, and there are 100 million fewer people living in extreme poverty than in 1990. By 2015, 500 million more will have achieved at least a minimally acceptable standard of living- the greatest decrease in poverty since the beginning of the industrial revolution. But progress has been uneven, and many of the poorest countries, especially in Africa, lag behind. Extreme poverty means having less than $1 to meet your daily needs. But poverty is not measured in money alone. Poor people lack education...

Strategic Planning for Poverty Reduction in Vietnam : Progress and Challenges for Meeting the Localized Millennium Development Goals

Swinkels, Rob; Turk, Carrie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This paper discusses the progress that Vietnam has made toward meeting a core set of development goals that the government recently adopted as part of its Comprehensive Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy (CPRGS). These goals are strongly related to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), but are adapted and expanded to reflect Vietnam's national challenges and the government's ambitious development plans. For each Vietnam Development Goal, the authors describe recent trends in relation to the trajectories implied by the MDGs, outline the intermediate targets identified by the government, and discuss the challenges involved in meeting these. Relative to other countries of similar per capita expenditures, Vietnam has made rapid progress in a number of key areas. Poverty has halved over the 1990s, enrollment rates in primary education have risen to 91 percent (although there is a quality problem), indicators of gender equity have been strengthened, child mortality has been reduced, maternal health has improved...

Global Monitoring Report 2012 : Food Prices, Nutrition, and the Millennium Development Goals

World Bank; International Monetary Fund
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Every year, the Global Monitoring Report (GMR) gauges progress across the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), so we can better understand whether we are delivering on basic global needs. These needs include affordable, nutritious food; access to health services and education; and the ability to tap natural resources sustainably whether clean water, land for urban expansion, or renewable energy sources. We assess how well the world is doing by looking at income poverty, schooling levels, the health of mothers and children, and inroads in treating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, as well as assessing how the international development community delivers aid. We also try to measure levels of malnutrition and hunger in the world. Food prices can affect all these indicators. For these reasons, the Global Monitoring Report 2012 takes the theme of 'food prices, nutrition, and the MDG.' This year's edition highlights the need to help developing countries deal with the harmful effects of higher and more volatile food prices. The 2012 GMR addresses these basic questions. It summarizes effects of food prices on several MDGs. It reviews policy responses including domestic social safety nets...

MDGs That Nudge : The Millennium Development Goals, Popular Mobilization, and the Post-2015 Development Framework

Gauri, Varun
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The Millennium Development Goals, which expire in 2015, were a global agreement to promote human development and reduce poverty. But they did not create a legalized institutional regime, in which precise obligations would be delegated to specific actors, nor were they, in many respects, compatible with the incentives of the countries whose heads of state endorsed them. They most resembled international human rights treaties, which are also not legally coercive, and which achieve their effects largely through their role in social and political mobilization. But unlike human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals' targets and goals were not psychologically, morally, and politically salient. The goals and targets for the proposed second round of Millennium Development Goals should be easier to grasp and embed within them a causal narrative about the causes and remedies of global poverty. Their formulation and implementation should also draw on national institutions and processes, which most people find more persuasive than discussions at the international level. The paper develops these ideas and presents examples for how post-2015 development goals and targets might be presented in ways that are more compelling.

Financial Sector Development and the Millennium Development Goals

Claessens, Stijn; Feijen, Erik
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This study investigates the relationship between financial sector development and progress in reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It assesses the contribution of countries' financial sector development to achieving the MDGs. The focus is on the relationships between financial development and economic welfare and growth, and the following four MDG-themes: Poverty, Education, Health, and Gender Equality. In doing so, the book reviews the theoretical channels, surveys existing empirical evidence - both cross-country and case study evidence, and provides new evidence. Financial Sector Development and the Millennium Development Goals finds that financial development is an important driver for economic welfare in that it reduces the prevalence of income poverty and undernourishment. In addition, new evidence is provided of a positive association between financial development and health, education, and gender equality.

Global Monitoring Report 2005 : Millennium Development Goals— From Consensus to Momentum; Informe sobre seguimiento mundial 2005 : objetivos de desarollo del milenio - del consenso a uno accion mas dinamica

World Bank; International Monetary Fund
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Monterrey Consensus have created a powerful global compact for development. But the continued credibility of this compact hinges on fostering momentum in its implementation. With the five-year stocktaking of the implementation of the Millennium Declaration focusing increased global attention on development, 2005 is a crucial year to build momentum. The MDGs set clear targets for eradicating poverty and related human deprivations, and for promoting sustainable development. The Monterrey Consensus created a framework of mutual accountability between developing, and developed countries in the quest for these goals, calling on developing countries to improve their policies and governance, and, developed countries to open their markets and provide more and better aid. With consensus on the goals and responsibilities for action, the focus was on implementation. As reviewed in this report, both groups of countries have made progress on needed policies and actions...

Integrating the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals with Ocean Businesses

Robinson, Katelyn
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 23/04/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The United Nations (UN) is in the process of launching the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). These 17 aspirational goals, which replace the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), seek to alleviate poverty and promote sustainable development from 2016 to 2030. Under the proposed SDG framework there is a stand-alone goal on oceans. This Ocean SDG along with many other SDGs has numerous implications for the ocean business community. This analysis assesses the potential opportunities and risks for ocean industry involvement with the SDGs. It identifies which goals are relevant to the ocean business community, evaluates which ocean industry sectors will be most affected, and provides suggestions for ocean business community involvement. To determine the opportunities and risks associated with the SDGs for ocean industries, this analysis was conducted in partnership with the World Ocean Council. The World Ocean Council is a consortium of ocean businesses that seeks to ensure “a healthy and productive global ocean and its sustainable use, development, and stewardship by a responsible ocean business community.” It engages a wide range of ocean industries on issues spanning from ocean policy to marine spatial planning.

Os Objetivos de Desenvolvimento do Milênio (ODMs) - uma avaliação crítica; The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) – a critical evaluation

Mibielli, Paulo; IBGE; Barcellos, Frederico Cavadas; IBGE
Fonte: Editora de Livros IABS Publicador: Editora de Livros IABS
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/12/2014 POR
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Os Objetivos do Desenvolvimento do Milênio (ODM) foram aprovados na 56° Sessão da Assembleia Geral das Nações Unidas 2001 como um desdobramento da Cúpula do Milênio sendo considerado o mais bem-sucedido esforço de combate à pobreza. Não há dúvida que os ODM foram um sucesso do ponto de vista político, em especial para a ONU que alcançou uma projeção na área social que nunca havia obtido antes. Os Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável não estariam em pauta se os ODM fossem considerados uma experiência fracassada. O paradoxo é que sua proposta de alcançar um conjunto de metas de desenvolvimento humano até 2015 fracassou, apesar de todos os esforços. Este texto tem como objetivo fazer um balanço crítico dos ODM quanto a sua formulação e implementação, destacando questões metodológicas e empíricas.; The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) were adopted during the 56th Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations in 2001 as an offshoot of the Millennium Summit is considered the most successful effort the combating poverty. There is no doubt that the MDG were a success from the political point of view, especially for the UN that reached a projection in this area that has never been achieved before. The Sustainable Development Goals would not be on the agenda if the MDG were considered a failed experiment. The paradox is that its proposal to achieve a set of human development goals by 2015 was failed...