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Global Development Finance 2012 : External Debt of Developing Countries

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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The data and analysis presented in this edition of global development finance are based on actual flows and debt related transactions for 2010 reported to the World Bank Debtor Reporting System (DRS) by 129 developing countries. The reports confirm that in 2010 international capital flows to developing countries surpassed preliminary estimates and returned to their pre-crisis level of $1.1 trillion, an increase of 68 percent over the comparable figure for 2009. Private capital flows surged in 2010 driven by a massive jump in short-term debt, a strong rebound in bonds and more moderate rise in equity flows. Debt related inflows jumped almost 200 percent compared to a 25 percent increase in net equity flows. The rebound in capital flows was concentrated in a small group of 10 middle income countries where net capital inflows rose by an average of nearly 80 percent in 2010, almost double the rate of increase (44 percent) recorded by other developing countries. These 10 countries accounted for 73 percent of developing countries gross national income (GNI)...

Combating Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism - A Comprehensive Training Guide : Workbook 1. Effects on Economic Development and International Standards

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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"Combating Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism: a Comprehensive Training Guide" is one of the products of the capacity enhancement program on Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Funding of Terrorism (AML/CFT), which has been co-funded by the Governments of Sweden, Japan, Denmark, and Canada. The program offers countries the tools, skills, and knowledge to build and strengthen their institutional, legal, and regulatory frameworks to successfully implement their national action plan on these efforts. This workbook includes seven training course modules: effects on economic development and international standards (module one); legal requirements to meet international standards (module two); regulatory and institutional requirements for AML/CFT (module three a ); compliance requirements for financial institutions (module three b); building an effective financial intelligence unit (module four); domestic (interagency) and international cooperation (module five); combating the financing of terrorism(module six); and investigating money laundering and terrorist financing (module seven).

Strengthening Caribbean Pensions : Improving Equity and Sustainability

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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66.13%
This report aims to provide additional insights to existing analyses of public pension and social security schemes in the Caribbean. Such analyses have been undertaken with the support of the Inter-American Development Bank, the Caribbean Development Bank, the Canadian International Development Agency, the Economic Commission for Latin America, and the Caribbean and the International Social Security Association. By making cross-country comparisons within the region and across the world, this report will review fiscal vulnerability, sustainability, labor market efficiency, migration, financial market development, and other pension-related areas. Finally, governance and investment management should be strengthened by: (i) strengthening the governance structure, including authority and accountability of Board members; (ii) improving governance mechanisms with the assistance of external oversight and improved information disclosure; (iii) introducing codes of conduct for the governing body and management; and (iv) introducing a number of measures to strengthen the investment policies...

Lessons from World Bank Research on Financial Crises

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
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66.18%
The benefits of financial development and globalization have come with continuing fragility in financial sectors. Periodic crises have had real but heterogeneous welfare impacts and not just for poor people; indeed, some of the conditions that foster deep and persistent poverty, such as lack of connectivity to markets, have provided a degree of protection for the poor. Past crises have also had longer-term impacts for some of those affected, most notably through the nutrition and schooling of children in poor families. As in other areas of policy, effective responses to a crisis require sound data and must take account of incentives and behavior. An important lesson from past experience is that the short-term responses to a crisis-macroeconomic stabilization, trade policies, financial sector policies and social protection-cannot ignore longer-term implications for both economic development and vulnerability to future crises.

Somalia Joint Needs Assessment : Macroeconomic Policy Framework and Data Development Cluster Report

World Bank; United Nations
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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66.16%
Since 1991, the Somali economy has suffered from droughts, the absence of government, and local conflicts. Unlike the 1970s and 1980s when most of the output of the small industrial sector and many services were provided by the public sector, there has been significant (but unmeasured) private investment in commercial ventures, including in trade and marketing; money transfer services; transport; communications; airlines; telecommunications; other services including construction and hotels; education and health; and fishery equipment. In regard to the macroeconomic policy framework, the short to medium-term objectives are to: establish and maintain macroeconomic stability; develop a stable currency and a sound and growing public revenues base; establish core civil service institutions along with accountable budgetary processes, public finance management, and revenue systems; and reestablish financial services. In addition, it is important to establish data systems to secure the data needed to monitor social and economic developments and to inform sound policy and institutional development.

Strategic Directions for Human Development in Papua New Guinea

Asian Development Bank; Australian Agency for International Development; World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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76.13%
There is an emerging consensus in Papua New Guinea (PNG) -- both at the governmental level and among civil society more generally -- that human development outcomes are far less than satisfactory and that service provision in many parts of the country is collapsing despite the significant level of both government and development partner financing of the human development sectors. In response, the government and the Joint Donors -- the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAid), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), and the World Bank -- embarked on a Human Development Review to suggest options for improving human development outcomes and government expenditure efficiency. In this review of strategy options for health, HIV/AIDS, and education, it is argued that human development sectors are at an important crossroad with a large unfinished agenda and a range of critical challenges.

Post-Crisis Growth in Developing Countries : A Special Report of the Commission on Growth and Development on the Implications of the 2008 Financial Crisis

Commission on Growth and Development
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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66.14%
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In May 2008, the Commission released the growth report: strategies for sustained growth and inclusive development. At that time, the financial systems of the United States and Europe were under stress. Commodity prices were also spiking, posing particular difficulties for developing countries because of the impact on the poor and on potential future inflation. But no one foresaw the full magnitude of the crisis that erupted in the fall of 2008, more than a year ago. The crisis was a destructive malfunction of the financial sectors of the advanced economies, which spread rapidly to the real economy and to the rest of the globe. Even countries far from the source of the crisis had to cope with capital volatility, tight credit, and rapidly falling trade. At the request of several members of the Commission, Commission held a workshop on the crisis and its implications for developing countries. Commission followed standard procedure of asking for help and insight from a distinguished group of scholars, analysts, and practitioners. This report is an outgrowth of that process. It is an attempt to look at the crisis and its aftermath from the point of view of developing countries. Commission wanted to assess the impact of these events, and determine if the growth strategies recommended needed major revision...

Elements to Consider When Establishing the Envisaged Development Bank of Mozambique : Policy Note

Leonardo Vicente, Carlos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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76.16%
This note identifies elements to consider when establishing and operating the proposed Development Bank of Mozambique (MDB). It is motivated by the recently circulated draft National Development Strategy which calls for the creation of a development bank to promote economic development by mobilizing and allocating financial resources for long-term investment. The note neither endorses nor opposes the establishment of the proposed development bank in Mozambique. The note is organized as follows: following this introduction, section two highlights recent progress in outreach and access to finance in Mozambique and identifies three market gaps, limited availability of long-term finance, agricultural finance, and Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) finance, which are often cited as reasons for government intervention; section three assesses a potential role for the development bank in addressing these gaps; section four discusses elements to consider when establishing and operating such development bank; and section five concludes.

Public-Private Partnerships : Reference Guide, Version 2.0

World Bank; Asian Development Bank; Inter-American Development Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC; Asian Development Bank, Mandaluyong City, Philippines; Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC; Asian Development Bank, Mandaluyong City, Philippines; Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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66.15%
A growing number of developing country governments are interested in using public-private partnerships (PPPs) to provide public infrastructure assets and services. The PPP reference guide seeks to provide advice on what PPP practitioners should know, rather than provide advice on what to do. The guide sets out the main topics, looks at the key issues that must be addressed, and provides what one consider the most important references that PPP practitioners can turn to for answers and to enhance one knowledge and understanding. It is structured into separate sections that focus on three main areas, firstly what are PPPs, when may they be used and the advantages and disadvantages relative to public provision; secondly the policy, legal, and institutional frameworks that should be put into place to help improve effectiveness; and finally the ways in which PPP projects can be developed and implemented. It introduces key topics on PPP, sets out options, and directs readers to examples, and key references where one can find out more. This guide provides new resources and updated examples.

The Banking and Financial Sector of Lao PDR : Financial Sector Note

Asian Development Bank; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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During the second half of the 1980s, Lao PDR embarked on an ambitious program of economic reforms, called the New Economic Mechanism, whose main purpose was to gradually transform its centrally-planned economy into a market-oriented economy. The initial reform momentum lasted about one decade. The far-reaching reform program encompassed many critical components including: (a) promotion of private production through improved incentives; (b) institutional infrastructure to improve market economy operations; (c) the strengthening of Lao comparative advantages through trade liberalization and further specialization; and (d) the establishment of price stability through macroeconomic policy measures. The systemic changes introduced in Lao PDR have contributed to a significant transformation of the country s economic system, away from a rigorously centrally-planned economy and towards a form of market economy based on private ownership. The percentage of poor declined based on the national poverty line from 45 to 39 percent between 1992-93 and 1997-982. But the percentage of very poor did not decline and remained at slightly above 30 percent evidencing the need for even broader and faster growth. Moreover...

Maximizing the World Bank Group’s Impact in the Middle East and North Africa

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
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66.13%
This report provides an overview of the World Bank Group’s engagement in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, highlighting the new operating model of the World Bank Group. In particular, the report provides insight on the key challenges and strategic engagement of each sector (Global Practice) in MENA and details some of the key cross-cutting challenges that countries face. This report serves as a basis to convene international thought leaders, as well as internal and external stakeholders, in the context of developing a new strategy for the Middle East and North Africa region later this year. The region faces three challenges in particular: (a) long-standing distortions that have generated jobless growth and poor service delivery as well as low financial access and inclusion; (b) severe imbalances that threaten macroeconomic stability; and (c) deep political and social tensions, at times escalating into violent conflict. The World Bank Group’s current engagement supports four key pillars: (a) strengthening governance; (b) ensuring economic and social inclusion; (c) creating jobs; and (d) accelerating sustainable growth. Progress on these pillars can be made through a two-pronged approach focused on addressing the immediate needs arising from humanitarian crises throughout the region while also giving sustained attention to the investments and reforms needed for medium- and long-term development. This two-pronged approach is necessary to help governments cope with immediate pressures on already fragile institutions and at the same time develop long-term strategies to address deep-seated issues that have hindered inclusive growth and prosperity for decades. This report details nine specific cross-cutting challenges: climate change; decentralization; disaster risk management; fragility...

Mexico : Capital Market Development

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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66.16%
Securities markets in Mexico are orderly and relatively innovative; however, corporate markets lag behind those in comparator countries. The government bond market accounts for the bulk of the fixed-income segment, and is well developed and active. While financial savings rates have been growing, little has been transformed into long-term investments. Most of the savings remain in traditional savings accounts. Institutional investors still hold the bulk of their assets in government bonds. Mexico will need to find solutions to further develop its capital market to fund its development needs. In the infrastructure sector alone, the country needs approximately US$230 billion of new investments. In the corporate sector, provision of financing by banks fare well below peers, especially for small and medium enterprises. Meanwhile, the pension fund industry, growing at about US$20-US$30 billion annually, requires sound investment outlets. The large concentration in the control of financial intermediaries raises complex issues and may stunt market development. The investor base in the equity market lacks diversity...

Jordan : Supporting Stable Development in a Challenging Region, A Joint World Bank-Islamic Development Bank Evaluation

Hassan, Fareed M. A.; Al-Saci, Djelloul
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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66.19%
This evaluation, prepared in collaboration with the Islamic Development Bank, looks at the effectiveness of Bank assistance to Jordan during the 1990s, from three perspectives: an analysis of the Bank's services and products, development impact, and the contribution of the Bank and its development partners, to development outcomes. The Bank's strategy since 1990, based on wide-ranging and influential analytic and advisory activities, was to support macroeconomic stabilization and pro-market structural reforms to foster growth. The increased focus on the social sectors was aligned with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The strategy was relevant to the government's priorities outlined in a series of five-year economic and social development plans. The Bank's programs, in particular, were successful in promoting policy reforms. Substantial tariff, trade and financial sector reforms, together with the removal of disincentives for investment and the privatization of government enterprises, were achieved. Bank assistance also contributed to significant progress in the agriculture...

Joint Social and Economic Assessment for the Republic of Yemen

World Bank; United Nations; European Union; Islamic Development Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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76.15%
This Joint Social and Economic Assessment (JSEA) has been prepared in response to a request from the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation (MoPIC), and was undertaken jointly by the World Bank, the United Nations, the European Union, and the Islamic Development Bank. The JSEA's main purpose is to assess the social and economic impact of the crisis in Yemen, and to identify challenges and key priorities for early interventions, primarily for the transition period, which is expected to stretch into the first half of 2014. Putting Yemen on a path of recovery to prosperity will not only require a strong commitment and ownership from the Government and People of Yemen, but also coordinated support and significant financial resources from all partners and friends of Yemen. While the JSEA provides analysis of Yemen's most pressing needs, it is the Government's Transition Plan that will offer the roadmap by which Yemen can emerge from crisis stronger and better able to ensure equitable and sustainable development for its people. The implementation of the Transition Plan and donor support should balance humanitarian assistance...

Republic of Burundi - Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) : The Challenge of Achieving Stable and Shared Growth

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum
ENGLISH
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This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) is the first for Burundi since the 1980s. It has been developed in collaboration with the government of Burundi. The CEM has been prepared in cooperation with the African development bank and the U.K. department for international development. Burundi is one of the poorest countries in the world, and has suffered from many years of civil conflict and its consequences. In the last years, peace has been established and a promising recovery of the economy has started. Economic growth rates, however, are not in line with what has been projected in the latest poverty reduction strategy paper (September 2006). Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth had been projected to average almost 7 percent between 2006 and 2009 in that strategy paper, but actual growth will average just above 4 percent for the same period. The report reviews the economic developments in the past and tries to identify the most binding constraints to growth. The CEM then sets out a strategy to address these constraints to promote increased and participatory growth...

The Urban Development Investment Corporations (UDICs) in Chongqing, China

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Urban Study
ENGLISH
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66.13%
Urban Development Investment Corporations (UDICs) have over the years become the central pillar in the local government drive to build infrastructure in China, where local governments are not allowed to engage in direct market borrowing. UDICs were established during the early 1990s when local governments were under great pressure to both build municipal infrastructure and to reform the role of the government in infrastructure development. The UDIC model provided the local governments with a corporate government structure to borrow from the market and quickly develop infrastructure. They are treated as municipal corporations under the Company Law of the Peoples' Republic of China (PRC). The law does not clarify the relationship between UDICs and the local government, including the limits of the financial liability of the local governments vis-a-vis UDICs. The Government of China (GOC) agencies expect that the World Bank (WB) Technical Assistance Report (TAR), based on the detailed analysis of the financial operations of a selected UDIC in Chongqing...

Myanmar Agricultural Development Bank : Initial Assessment and Restructuring Options

World Bank
Fonte: Bangkok Publicador: Bangkok
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.21%
Myanmar is an agricultural country. It is estimated that the agriculture sector represents between 35 to 40 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) and that up to 70 percent of the labor force (of 32.5 million) is directly or indirectly engaged in agricultural activities or depend on agriculture for their income. Given agriculture's important contribution to the economy, the modernization of the agriculture sector is a top priority in the economic and social development agenda of the Government of Myanmar. Among the government institutions supporting the agriculture sector, the Myanmar Agriculture Development Bank (MADB) plays an important role. MADB was established in June 1953 by the Government of Myanmar to support the development of agriculture, livestock, and rural enterprises in Myanmar. MADB is currently the largest financial institution serving the rural areas and financing agriculture activities. At the end of 2012, MADB served 1.87 million customers, mostly farmers, and had a network of 206 branches (which accounted for 23 percent of all banks' branches in Myanmar). Since its creation...

Improving the World Bank's Development Effectiveness : What Does Evaluation Show?

World Bank Operations Evaluation Department
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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66.18%
The pace of change in the overall performance of the developing world has not altered markedly over the past 20 years. The number of people living in extreme poverty declined from 1.5 billion in 1980 (40 percent of population), to 1.2 billion in 1990 (28 percent of population), to 1.1 billion in 2001 (21 percent of population). Growth per capita has followed much the same profile. In the 1980s, only about two-thirds of developing countries showed positive per capita income growth, and this percentage remains unchanged. Life expectancy and literacy indicators show overall improvements, but some regions show worrisome trends. There has been slow and steady progress in overall development outcomes during the period, but the speed and scale of change remain static. These averages, of course, mask huge differences across regions, with very worrisome increases in poverty and continued low growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Bank has transformed itself significantly in the past 10 years, and should be ready for further adjustments to current climate of rapid change. Greater selectivity...

Connecting East Asia : A New Framework for Infrastructure

Asian Development Bank; World Bank; Japan Bank for International Cooperation
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.17%
Infrastructure development has made a major contribution to East Asia's enviable record on growth and poverty reduction. However, substantial new investments in infrastructure and service delivery improvements will be required to sustain progress in the future, and to address new challenges posed by urbanization, decentralization, and regional integration. At the same time, questions have often been raised about the impact of infrastructure on the environment and local communities, about waste through corruption in public spending and private contracts, and about the appropriate roles of the public and private sectors in infrastructure financing, ownership, and management. These questions are the motivation for this study by the Asian Development Bank, the Japan Bank for International Cooperation, and the World Bank. The three agencies support infrastructure development through project financing and guarantees, as well as by assisting governments to put in place policies to improve public sector performance...

Tunisia : Understanding Successful Socioeconomic Development, A Joint World Bank–Islamic Development Bank Evaluation of Assistance

World Bank; Islamic Development Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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76.17%
Tunisia has successfully shifted from resource-based exports dominated by oil and gas to manufactures and services. The economy is now driven mainly by textile, electrical, mechanical, and food processing exports; tourism and related activities; and production of olives and cereals. Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth has been rising consistently, increasing from 3 percent annually over 1985-90 to more than 5 percent annually over 1996-02. Today, with a per capita income of US$2,000, Tunisians enjoy more than two-and-a-half times the real incomes that their parents had 30 years ago. Tunisia signed an association agreement with the European Union (EUAA) that provides for free trade in manufacturing by 2008. The European Union (EU) has been Tunisia's dominant trading partner; the region is the source of 67 percent of capital flows into Tunisia, accounts for a large share of Tunisia's tourism market, and is the region with the largest community of expatriate Tunisians. This dominance renders Tunisia's economy vulnerable to adverse developments in the EU.