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Análise da volatilidade dos mercados de renda fixa e renda variável de países emergentes e desenvolvidos no período de 2000 a 2011; Analysis of volatility of fixed income market and stock market of emerging and developed countries in the period 2000-2011

Rossetti, Nara
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/08/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.96%
O presente trabalho analisou as volatilidades dos mercados de renda fixa e variável de onze países, sendo eles: Brasil, Rússia, Índia, China, África do Sul (neste país apenas renda fixa), Argentina, Chile, México, Estados Unidos, Alemanha e Japão no período de janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2011. Os indicadores utilizados para representar cada mercado foram os índices dos mercados de ações e as taxas de juros interbancárias. Para tanto, o estudo se utilizou de modelos de heterocedasticidade condicional auto-regressiva: ARCH, GARCH, EGARCH, TGARCH e PGARCH, verificando quais destes processos eram mais eficientes para modelagem da volatilidade dos mercados dos países da amostra. Esta pesquisa também verificou qual dos modelos (ARIMA ou modelos GARCH e suas extensões) conseguiria prever melhor as séries de tempo analisadas. Além disso, por meio dos índices de correlação, covariância e causalidade Granger, foram comparados os retornos e a volatilidade do mercado de ações entre os países BRIC, entre os países latinos americanos e entre os países desenvolvidos e o Brasil. Os resultados sugerem que a volatilidade, tanto do mercado de renda fixa quanto do mercado de renda variável, é mais bem modelada por processos GARCH assimétricos (EGARCH e TGARCH)...

Higher incidence of premenopausal breast cancer in less developed countries; myth or truth?

Ghiasvand, Reza; Adami, Hans-Olov; Harirchi, Iraj; Akrami, Rahim; Zendehdel, Kazem
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Background: Fundamental etiologic differences have been suggested to cause earlier onset of breast cancer in less developed countries (LDCs) than in more developed countries (MDCs). We explored this hypothesis using world-wide breast cancer incidence data. Methods: We compared international age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) of pre- (<50 years) and postmenopausal (≥50 years) breast cancers as well as temporal trends in ASRs of pre-and postmenopausal breast cancer among selected countries during 1975–2008. We used joinpoint log-linear regression analysis to estimate annual percent changes (APC) for premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer in the northern Europe and in Black and White women population in the US. Results: Premenopausal breast cancers comprised a substantially higher proportion of all incident breast cancers in LDCs (average 47.3%) compared to MDCs (average 18.5%). However, the ASR of premenopausal breast cancer was consistently higher in MDCs (29.4/100,000) than LDCs (12.8/100,000). The ASR of postmenopausal cancer was about five-fold higher in the MDCs (307.6/100,000) than the LDCs (65.4/100,000). The APC of breast cancer in Denmark was substantially higher in postmenopausal (1.33%) than premenopausal cancer (0.98%). Higher incidence of breast cancer among the white than black women in the US was pertained only to the postmenopausal cancer. Conclusion: The substantial and consistent lower age-specific incidence of breast cancer in LDCs than in MDCs contradicts the theory of earlier onset. Demographic differences with fewer old women in LDCs and lower prevalence of risk factors of postmenopausal cancer are the most likely explanation to the lower mean age at diagnosis in these countries.

Cross-over, thresholds, and interactions between science and technology: lessons for less-developed countries

Bernardes, Am?rico Trist?o; Albuquerque, Eduardo da Motta e
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto Publicador: Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto
Tipo: Artigo publicado em periodico
EN_US
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66.01%
Presently, science is an important precondition for the economic development of less-developed countries. This paper discusses the specific roles that science has at initial stages of development, pointing to its contributions for the countries? absorptive capability. Furthermore, this paper specifies the role of science for initiating a positive interaction with technological development, since initial stages of development and during catching up processes. For less-developed countries, neither the linear model of technology nor an ?inverted linear model? would take place: a more interactive approach is necessary for development. Using statistics of patents (USPTO) and scientific papers (ISI) for 120 countries (1974, 1982, 1990, and 1998), this paper analyses some evidences on thresholds levels of scientific production to originate an interactive relationship between science and technology. These data also document that the value of this threshold seems to double from one period to another. Although this paper presents tentative results, some policy implications are discussed: scientific institutional building must be seen as a component of modern industrial policies.

Industrial Structure, Appropriate Technology and Economic Growth in Less Developed Countries

Lin, Justin Yifu; Zhang, Pengfei
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
The authors develop an endogenous growth model that combines structural change with repeated product improvement. That is, the technologies in one sector of the model become not only increasingly capital-intensive, but also progressively productive over time. Application of the basic model to less developed economies shows that the (optimal) industrial structure and the (most) appropriate technologies in less developed economies are endogenously determined by their factor endowments. A firm in a less developed country that enters a capital-intensive, advanced industry in a developed country would be nonviable owing to the relative scarcity of capital in the factor endowments of less developed countries.

Unemployment Insurance: Efficiency Effects and Lessons for Developing Countries

Vodopivec, Milan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Unemployment insurance (UI) is the most common public income support program for the unemployed in developed countries.1 In these countries, it typically offers good protection: it covers the majority of employed persons, irrespective of occupation or industry, and provides adequate smoothening of consumption patterns. For example, studies on the U.S. find that the welfare of benefit recipient households is on average only 3-8 percent lower than the welfare of otherwise identical households, and that in the absence of unemployment insurance, average consumption expenditures would fall by about 20 percent. In the last decade, UI programs have been introduced in transition countries, and their use in developing countries is on the rise as well.

Eliminating Excessive Tariffs on Exports of Least Developed Countries

Hoekman, Bernard; Ng, Francis; Olarreaga, Marcelo
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
Although average Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) tariffs on imports from the least developed countries are very low; tariffs above 15 percent have a disproportional effect on their exports. Products subject to tariff peaks tend to be heavily concentrated in agriculture and food products and labor intensive sectors, such as apparel and footwear. Although the least developed countries benefit from preferential access, preferences tend to be smallest for tariff peak products. A major exception is the European Union, so that the recent European initiative to grant full duty free and quota free access for the least developed countries will result in only a small increase in their exports of tariff peak items. However, as preferences are less significant in other major OECD countries, a more general emulation of the European Union initiative would increase the least developed countries total exports of peak products by US dollar 2.5 billion. Although almost half of this increase is at the expense of other developing country exports...

Trade Preferences to Small Developing Countries and the Welfare Costs of Lost Multilateral Liberalization

Limão, Nuno; Olarreaga, Marcelo
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.08%
The proliferation of preferential trade liberalization over the last 20 years has raised the question of whether it slows multilateral trade liberalization. Recent theoretical and empirical evidence indicates that this is the case even for unilateral preferences that developed countries provide to small and poor countries, but there is no estimate of the resulting welfare costs. This stumbling block effect can be avoided by replacing the unilateral preferences with a fixed import subsidy, which generates a Pareto improvement. More importantly, this paper presents the first estimates of the welfare cost of preferential liberalization as a stumbling block to multilateral liberalization. Recent estimates of the stumbling block effect of preferences with data for 170 countries and more than 5,000 products are used to calculate the welfare effects of the European Union, Japan, and the United States switching from unilateral preferences for least developed countries to an import subsidy scheme. In a model with no dynamic gains to trade...

Patient delays and system delays in breast cancer treatment in developed and developing countries

Freitas,Angela Gabrielly Quirino; Weller,Mathias
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
AbstractDelays in treating breast cancer have been associated with a more advanced stage of the disease and a decrease in patient survival rates. The scope of this integrative review was to analyze the main causal factors and types of patient and system delays. The underlying causal factors of delays were compared among studies conducted in developing and developed countries. Of the 53 studies selected, 24 were carried out in developing countries and 29 in developed countries, respectively. Non-attribution of symptoms to cancer, fear of the disease and treatment and low educational level were the most frequent causes of patient delay. Less comprehensive health insurance coverage, older/younger age and false negative diagnosis tests were the three most common causal factors of system delay. The effects of factors such as age were not decisive per se and depended mainly on the social and cultural context. Some factors caused both patient delay and system delay. Studies conducted in developing countries identified more causal factors of patient delay and had a stronger focus on patient delay or the combination of both. Studies conducted in developed countries had a stronger focus on aspects of system delay during treatment and guidance of breast cancer patients in the health care system.

Reducing Agricultural Tariffs versus Domestic Support : What's More Important for Developing Countries?

Hoekman, Bernard M.; Ng, Francis; Olarreaga, Marcelo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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High levels of protection and domestic support for farmers in industrial countries significantly affect many developing countries, both directly and through the price-depressing effect of agricultural support policies. High tariffs--in both rich and poor countries--and domestic support may also lower the world price of agricultural products, benefiting net importers. The authors assess the impact of reducing tariffs and domestic support in a sample of 119 countries. Least developed countries (LDCs) are disproportionately affected by agricultural support policies. More than 18 percent of LDC exports are subject to domestic support in at least one World Trade Organization (WTO) member, as compared to only 9 percent of their imports. For other developing countries the figures are around 4 percent for both their exports and imports. So, the prevailing pattern of trade suggests the world price-reducing effect of agricultural domestic support policies may induce a welfare loss in LDCs. The authors develop a simple partial equilibrium model of global trade in commodities that benefit from domestic support in at least one WTO member. The simulation results suggest there will be large differences between LDCs and other developing economies in terms of the impact of a 50 percent cut in tariffs as compared to a 50 percent cut in domestic support. Developing countries as a group would suffer a welfare loss from a cut in support...

The Role of Special Differential Treatment for Developing Countries in GATT and the World Trade Organization

Michalopoulos, Constantine
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The author analyzes how changes in thinking about the role trade plays in economic development have been reflected in provisions affecting developing countries in the GATT and the WTO. He focuses on the provisions calling for the special and differential treatment of developing countries. The WTO's special, and differential treatment has been extended to include measures of technical assistance, and extended transition periods to enable countries to meet their commitments in new areas agreed on in the Uruguay round of negotiations. At the same time, many WTO provisions encourage industrial countries to give developing countries preferential treatment, through a variety of measures, none of them legally enforceable. The author concludes that weaknesses in the institutional capacity of many developing countries, provide a conceptual basis for continuing special, and differential treatment in the WTO, but that the benefits should be targeted only to low-income developing countries, and those that need help becoming integrated with the international trading system. In addition...

Tax Expenditures--Shedding Light on Government Spending through the Tax System : Lessons from Developed and Transition Economies

Polackova Brixi, Hana; Valenduc, Christian M.A.; Swift, Zhicheng Li
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Recently developing countries have focused attention on the usefulness of tax expenditures' in shaping prudent and transparent fiscal policy. In adopting a market economy, developing countries commonly use tax expenditures as major fiscal policy instruments. However, with limited theoretical understanding of, and ad hoc experience with, applying tax expenditures, developing countries now confront not only revenue losses higher than they had anticipated but also the erosion of their tax bases in systems that generally have been in existence fewer than 10 years. Fortunately, the experience and practice of developed countries offer insights into understanding and applying tax expenditures. Most developed countries have established tax reporting systems, which provide empirical information on their tax expenditures. Such tax reporting systems tend to be part of a country's overall fiscal system for strengthening government finance and contribute significantly to fiscal transparency. Using the information available...

Clothing and Export Diversification : Still a Route to Growth for Low-Income Countries?

Brenton, Paul; Hoppe, Mombert
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.99%
Can the clothing sector be a driver of export diversification and growth for today's low-income countries as it was in the past for countries that have graduated into middle income? This paper assesses this issue taking into account key changes to the market for clothing: the emergence of India and especially China as exporting countries; the rise of global production chains; the removal of quotas from the global trading regime but the continued presence of high tariffs and substantial trade preferences; the increasing importance of large buyers in developed countries and their concerns regarding risk and reputation; and the increasing importance of time in defining sourcing decisions. To assess the importance of the factors shaping the global clothing market, the authors estimate a gravity model to explain jointly the propensity to export clothing and the magnitude of exports from developing countries to the E U and US markets. This analysis identifies the quality of governance as an important determinant of sourcing decisions and that there appears to be a general bias against sourcing apparel from African countries...

Integrating the Least Developed Countries into the World Trading System : The Current Impact of EU Preferences under Everything but Arms

Brenton, Paul
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.96%
Trade preferences are a key element in industrial countries' efforts to assist the integration of least developed countries (LDCs) into the world economy. Brenton provides an initial evaluation of the impact of the European Union's recently introduced "Everything but Arms" (EBA) initiative on the products currently exported by the LDCs. He shows that the changes introduced by the EBA initiative in 2001 are relatively minor for currently exported products, primarily because over 99 percent of EU imports from the LDCs are in products which the EU had already liberalized, and the complete removal of barriers to the key remaining products-rice, sugar, and bananas-has been delayed. Brenton looks at the role EU preferences to LDCs in general have been playing and could play in assisting the integration of the LDCs. He shows that there is considerable variation across countries in the potential impact that EU preferences can have given current export structures. There is a group of LDCs for whom EU trade preferences on existing exports are not significant since these exports are mainly of products where the most-favored-nation duty is zero. Export diversification is the key issue for these countries. For other LDCs...

More Favorable and Differential Treatment of Developing Countries : Toward a New Approach in the World Trade Organization

Hoekman, Bernard; Michalopoulos, Constantine; Winters, L. Alan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.02%
The authors discuss options that could be considered in the World Trade Organization (WTO) to provide more favorable treatment-so-called special and differential treatment (SDT)-to small and low-income countries. They argue that there is a need both for differentiation across WTO members and for steps that would benefit all developing countries. The authors suggest the following to make the Doha Round more supportive of development: 1) A binding commitment by industrial countries to abolish export subsidies and nontariff barriers (tariff quotas) and to reduce most-favored-nation tariffs on labor-intensive products of export interest to developing countries to no more than 5 percent in 2010, and to no more than 10 percent for agricultural products. All tariffs on manufactures should go to zero by 2015, the target date for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Liberalization should also be undertaken by developing countries on the basis of a formula approach. 2) A binding commitment by industrial countries on services to expand temporary access for service providers by a specific amount-for example...

Eliminating Excessive Tariffs on Exports of Least Developed Countries

Hoekman, Bernard; Ng, Francis; Olarreaga, Marcelo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.06%
Most goods imported from developing countries, enter Quad markets duty-free, and, average tariffs in Quad markets are very low. But tariffs for some commodities are over one hundred percent. Such "tariff peaks" are often concentrated in products developing countries want to export: agricultural, and food products - especially such staples as sugar, cereals, and fish; fruits and vegetables; food products with a high sugar content; and, tobacco, and alcoholic beverages - and products from such labor-intensive sectors as apparel, and footwear. Giving least developed countries full duty- and quota-free access in the Quad for peak-tariff products would increase their total annual exports by eleven percent - or roughly $ 2.5 billion. Exports to Quad countries of peak-tariff products, would expand by 30-60 percent. Considering that peak-tariff items account for only a small share of developing countries' exports, granting lest developed countries duty-free access, would have only a negligible impact on other developing countries. For the same reason...

Tobacco use and the risk of cardiovascular diseases in developed and developing countries

Alexander, Myriam
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Public Health and Primary Care; Queens' College Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Public Health and Primary Care; Queens' College
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The association between cigarette smoking and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is well established. However, the effect of other, less common, types of smoking on CVD risk, such as pipes and cigars in developed countries, remains uncertain. By contrast, in developing countries, a large panel of smokeless tobacco products are consumed alongside smoking products, with unknown effects on the risk of CVD. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the association between various forms of tobacco use with the risk of CVD in the setting of developed countries and of a developing country with a large population, Pakistan.; This work was supported by Marie Curie scholarship NETSIM-Bloodomics funded by the European Union.

An index of maternal and child health in the least developed countries of Asia

Rodríguez Martín,José Antonio; Salinas Fernández,José Antonio
Fonte: Gaceta Sanitaria Publicador: Gaceta Sanitaria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.94%
In this article, we propose a new index to measure maternal and child health in the least developed countries (LDCs) of Asia. This new index is applied to a group of countries particularly affected by poverty, which, in the terminology of the United Nations' Conference on Trade and Development, are the poorest of the poor. Our index has been designed by including the variables defined in the Goals of the Millennium Declaration. For this purpose, we used the P2 distance method for 2008, the last year for which data were available. This index integrates variables of maternal and child health that allow territorial ordering of the LDCs in terms of these partial indicators. This analysis is particularly useful in a scenario such as the LDCs of Asia, which are beset by profound social and economic inequalities.

An index of maternal and child health in the least developed countries of Asia

Rodríguez Martín,José Antonio; Salinas Fernández,José Antonio
Fonte: Ediciones Doyma, S.L. Publicador: Ediciones Doyma, S.L.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.94%
In this article, we propose a new index to measure maternal and child health in the least developed countries (LDCs) of Asia. This new index is applied to a group of countries particularly affected by poverty, which, in the terminology of the United Nations' Conference on Trade and Development, are the poorest of the poor. Our index has been designed by including the variables defined in the Goals of the Millennium Declaration. For this purpose, we used the P2 distance method for 2008, the last year for which data were available. This index integrates variables of maternal and child health that allow territorial ordering of the LDCs in terms of these partial indicators. This analysis is particularly useful in a scenario such as the LDCs of Asia, which are beset by profound social and economic inequalities.

Patient delays and system delays in breast cancer treatment in developed and developing countries

Freitas,Angela Gabrielly Quirino; Weller,Mathias
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
AbstractDelays in treating breast cancer have been associated with a more advanced stage of the disease and a decrease in patient survival rates. The scope of this integrative review was to analyze the main causal factors and types of patient and system delays. The underlying causal factors of delays were compared among studies conducted in developing and developed countries. Of the 53 studies selected, 24 were carried out in developing countries and 29 in developed countries, respectively. Non-attribution of symptoms to cancer, fear of the disease and treatment and low educational level were the most frequent causes of patient delay. Less comprehensive health insurance coverage, older/younger age and false negative diagnosis tests were the three most common causal factors of system delay. The effects of factors such as age were not decisive per se and depended mainly on the social and cultural context. Some factors caused both patient delay and system delay. Studies conducted in developing countries identified more causal factors of patient delay and had a stronger focus on patient delay or the combination of both. Studies conducted in developed countries had a stronger focus on aspects of system delay during treatment and guidance of breast cancer patients in the health care system.

Community-based noncommunicable disease interventions: lessons from developed countries for developing ones

Nissinen,Aulikki; Berrios,Ximena; Puska,Pekka
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.89%
Community-based programmes for prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) started in Europe and the USA in the early 1970s. High mortality from CVD in Finland led to the start of the North Karelia Project. Since then, a vast amount of scientific literature has accumulated to present results and discuss experience. The results indicate that heart health programmes have a high degree of generalizability, are cost-effective and can influence health policy. In the 1980s the focus of programmes expanded from CVD to noncommunicable diseases (NCD), mainly because of the common risk factors. Attention has now turned to promoting this approach in developing countries, where the prevalence of NCD is growing. Theory and experience show that community-based NCD programmes should be planned, run and evaluated according to clear principles and rules, collaborate with all sectors of the community, and maintain close contact with the national authorities. In view of the burden of disease they represent and of globalization, there is a great need for international collaboration. Practical networks with common guidelines but adaptable to local cultures in a flexible way have proved to be very useful.