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Consumo abusivo e dependência de álcool em população adulta no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil; Alcohol abuse and dependence in adults in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

GUIMARÃES, Vanessa Valente; FLORINDO, Alex Antônio; STOPA, Sheila Rizzato; CÉSAR, Chester Luiz Galvão; BARROS, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; CARANDINA, Luana; GOLDBAUM, Moisés
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Pós -Graduação em Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Pós -Graduação em Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
OBJETIVO: Descrever as prevalências de consumo abusivo e dependência de álcool em população adulta de 20 a 59 anos no Estado de São Paulo, e suas associações com variáveis demográficas e socioeconômicas. MÉTODOS: Inquérito domiciliar do tipo transversal (ISA-SP), em quatro áreas do Estado de São Paulo: a) Região Sudoeste da Grande São Paulo, constituída pelos Municípios de Taboão da Serra, Itapecerica da Serra e Embu; b) Distrito do Butantã, no Município de São Paulo; c) Município de Campinas e; d) Município de Botucatu. Foi considerado consumo abusivo de álcool a ingestão em dia típico de 30 gramas ou mais de etanol para os homens, e 24 gramas ou mais para as mulheres. A dependência de álcool foi caracterizada pelo questionário CAGE. Análises bivariadas e multivariadas dos dados foram realizadas a partir de Modelos de Regressão de Poisson. Todas as análises foram estratificadas por sexo. RESULTADOS: Em 1.646 adultos entrevistados, a prevalência de consumo abusivo de álcool foi de 52,9% no sexo masculino e 26,8% no sexo feminino. Quanto à dependência de álcool, foram observadas duas ou mais respostas positivas no teste CAGE em 14,8% dos homens e em 5,4% das mulheres que relataram consumir álcool. Isto corresponde a uma prevalência populacional de dependência de 10...

Contribuição para a análise de teletráfego com dependência de longa duração.; Contribution to the analysis of network traffic with long-range dependence.

Lipas Augusto, Marcelo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/04/2009 PT
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A utilização de modelos de teletrafego que contemplem caractersticas tais como autossimilaridade e dependencia de longa duraçao tem se mostrado cada vez mais como sendo ponto-chave na correta caracterizaçao do teletrafego Local Area Network (LAN) e Wide Area Network (WAN) [1, 2]. Tal caracterizaçao e necessaria para o monitoramento e controle de teletrafego em redes convergentes [3]. Nesse contexto, a questão da estimaçao precisa do parâmetro de autossimilaridade, denominado de parâmetro de Hurst, torna-se essencial. Entretanto, estudos comprovam que, alem da dependência de longa duraçao, redes WAN podem, não raramente, apresentar caractersticas mistas de dependência de longa e de curta duraçao [4, 5]. Enquanto vasta literatura cientca, tanto teorica como pratica, tem abordado com anco a questão da acuracia de diversos estimadores para o parâmetro de Hurst [6, 7, 8, 9], pouca atenção tem sido dada a questão da estimação deste parâmetro na presenca de dependência de curta duração. O presente trabalho de pesquisa concentrou-se no estudo dos metodos de estimaçao do parametro de Hurst baseados no espectro wavelet, em particular atraves do metodo de Abry-Veitch [10] { baseado na transformada Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) { e atraves do espectro obtido atraves da transformada Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform (DWPT). Os resultados baseados no metodo de Abry-Veitch demonstram que...

Reconceitualizando o Institucionalismo Histórico: path dependence, agencia e mudança institucional; Reconceptualizing the Historical Institutionalism: path dependence, agency and institutional change

Cesaris, Luis Enrique Urtubey de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/10/2009 PT
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O núcleo desta dissertação é desenvolver um conceito de path dependence mais parcimonioso, coerente e útil, seja teoricamente ou em estudos empíricos. Neste sentido, o insight fundamental é que se partimos de uma conceitualização mais dinâmica, baseada mais em externalidades negativas do que em rendimentos crescentes, o conceito de path dependence pode ser inerentemente mais operacionalizável, robusto e ressoar melhor com a literatura e os estudos Institucionalistas Históricos. O conceito de path dependence pode também ser mais compatível com várias elaborações realizadas dentro do próprio Institucionalismo Histórico sobre questões como mudança institucional, mecanismos explicativos, complementaridade, idéias e agência, e, portanto, enriquecer-se graças aos mesmos.; The objective of this dissertation is to develop a more parsimonious, coherent and useful concept of path dependence, both theoretically and empirically. Its fundamental insight is that with a more dynamic conceptualization, based more in negative externalities than in increasing returns, the concept of path dependence can be inherently more robust and resonate better with the literature and Historical Institutionalist studies. The concept of path dependence can also be more compatible with several theoretical developments which have arisen within Historical Institutionalism regarding questions such as institutional change...

Estudo de validação de instrumentos de rastreamento para transtornos depressivos, abuso e dependência de álcool e tabaco; Validation of screening instruments for depressive disorders and alcohol and tobacco dependence and abuse.

Gaya, Carolina de Meneses
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/08/2011 PT
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Os transtornos depressivos, a dependência de tabaco e os transtornos relacionados ao uso de álcool (TRUA) são altamente prevalentes e estão associados a diversas comorbidades. Todavia, permanecem subdiagnosticados e subtratados em diversos contextos de saúde. Dessa forma, o presente estudo teve por objetivos: a) avaliar parâmetros de fidedignidade e validade de instrumentos de rastreamento para transtornos depressivos (Patient Health Questionnaire - two itens [PHQ-2] e Well-Being Index - five itens [WHO-5]), dependência de tabaco (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence [FTND] e Heaviness of Smoking Index [HSI]) e de álcool (Fast Alcohol Screening Test [FAST], CAGE, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT] e suas versões breves); b) realizar a análise fatorial do WHO-5, FTND e do AUDIT; c) avaliar a comorbidade entre os transtornos supracitados. Participaram dos estudos da fidedignidade teste-reteste 429 universitários e da fidedignidade interavaliadores 41 pacientes do Centro de Atenção Psicossocial - Álcool e Drogas (CAPS-AD). Os estudos da validade preditiva, consistência interna, comorbidade e análise fatorial utilizaram uma amostra de 530 pacientes do Pronto Socorro e do CAPS-AD. A fidedignidade foi estimada por meio do kappa e do coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI). Nos estudos da validade preditiva...

Estratégias de diversificação de carteiras de ações com dependência assimétrica; Strategies to diversify portfolios with asymmetric dependence

Bergmann, Daniel Reed
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/03/2013 PT
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DeMiguel, Garlappi e Uppal (2009) fizeram a comparação da regra 1/N ou de Talmud com 14 modelos de otimização que vieram depois do trabalho de Markowitz (1952). As conclusões mostraram que todos os modelos de alocação ótima analisados tiveram um desempenho inferior ao da regra de Talmud. Tu e Zhou (2011) propuseram uma combinação entre Markowitz e Talmud para que tal modelo superasse Talmud. Os resultados obtidos foram satisfatórios. A desconsideração dos eventos extremos (dependência assimétrica ou caudal) durante o processo de construção de carteiras poderá diminuir as habilidades dos gestores de ativos em reduzir o risco através da diversificação. A modelagem de cópulas sobre os retornos dos ativos nos permite calcular uma alternativa para medir a dependência dos ativos em eventos extremos através do índice de dependência caudal inferior. Hatherley e Alcock (2007) relataram que o modelo de Markowitz tende a subestimar as perdas potenciais que venham a ocorrer na presença de eventos extremos de mercado (crashes) para um determinado nível de retorno esperado. Verificamos se as estratégias com dependência caudal superaram Talmud, o modelo de Markowitz e o modelo de Tu e Zhou (2011) através da simulação de 1.000 carteiras com 3...

Influence of depression and early adverse experiences on illicit drug dependence : a case-control study; Influência de depressão e experiências adversas na dependência de drogas ilícitas : um estudo de caso-controle

Ferigolo, Maristela; Stein, Airton Tetelbom; Fuchs, Flávio Danni; Barros, Helena Maria Tannhauser
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a associação entre depressão e dependência de drogas ilícitas entre a população Latino-Americana. Método: Indivíduos dependentes de drogas ilícitas (n = 137) e controles (n = 274) foram entrevistados pela Entrevista Diagnóstica para Estudos Genéticos para investigar desordem depressiva corrente, ou durante sua vida, e dependência de drogas ilícitas (cocaína, maconha ou inalantes). Análise de regressão logística foi usada para estimar a razão de chances para dependência de drogas levando em conta o diagnóstico de depressão. Resultados: O diagnóstico de depressão durante sua vida (p = 0,001; OR = 4,9; 95% CI, 1,9-12,7) prediz a dependência de drogas ilícitas. Os dados sociodemográficos sexo masculino (p < 0,001; OR = 36,8; 95% CI, 11,8-114) e situação ocupacional (p = 0,002; OR = 5,0; 95% CI, 1,8-13), e a dependência de álcool (p = 0,01; OR = 3,4; 95% CI, 1,3-8,7) influenciam significativamente a depressão e a dependência de drogas. Ainda, outros fatores importantes que influenciam são ter pais (p = 0,006; OR = 18,9; 95% CI, 2,3-158) ou amigos (p < 0,001; OR = 64,4; 95% CI, 6,5-636) dependentes de drogas ilícitas. Conclusão: O delineamento utilizado não possibilitou evidenciar a seqüência de eventos no processo de causalidade. No entanto...

The duration of business cycle expansions and contractions : are there change-points in duration dependence?

Castro, Vítor
Fonte: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas (NIPE) Publicador: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas (NIPE)
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2010 ENG
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The issue of whether the likelihood of an expansion or contraction ending is dependent on its age, i.e whether they are duration dependent, is widely addressed in the business cycles literature and evidence of positive duration dependence is found in several studies. However, there is an important issue that has not been explored in this literature yet: the presence of change-points in duration dependence. All the studies in this field depart from the assumption that the magnitude of duration dependence is the same over time. However, we conjecture that the degree of likeliness of an expansion or contraction ending as it gets older might change after a specific duration. To test for that possibility, this paper will allow for the presence of a change-point in the analysis of the duration of expansions and contractions for a group of 13 European and Non-European industrial countries over the period 1948-2009. The evidence provided by the estimation of a continuous-time Weibull duration model shows strong support for the presence of positive duration dependence, which is stronger for contractions than for expansions. Results also show that contractions have become longer over time and that their length is negatively a¤ected by the length of the previous expansion. Most importantly...

Risk of dependence associated with health, social support, and lifestyle

Alcañiz,Manuela; Brugulat,Pilar; Guillén,Montserrat; Medina-Bustos,Antonia; Mompart-Penina,Anna; Solé-Auró,Aïda
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
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OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of individuals at risk of dependence and its associated factors. METHODS The study was based on data from the Catalan Health Survey, Spain conducted in 2010 and 2011. Logistic regression models from a random sample of 3,842 individuals aged ≥ 15 years were used to classify individuals according to the state of their personal autonomy. Predictive models were proposed to identify indicators that helped distinguish dependent individuals from those at risk of dependence. Variables on health status, social support, and lifestyles were considered. RESULTS We found that 18.6% of the population presented a risk of dependence, especially after age 65. Compared with this group, individuals who reported dependence (11.0%) had difficulties performing activities of daily living and had to receive support to perform them. Habits such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being sedentary were associated with a higher probability of dependence, particularly for women. CONCLUSIONS Difficulties in carrying out activities of daily living precede the onset of dependence. Preserving personal autonomy and function without receiving support appear to be a preventive factor. Adopting an active and healthy lifestyle helps reduce the risk of dependence.

Influence of depression and early adverse experiences on illicit drug dependence: a case-control study

Ferigolo,Maristela; Stein,Airton T.; Fuchs,Flavio D.; Barros,Helena M. T.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between depression and illicit drug dependence among a Latin-American population. METHOD: illicit drug dependent patients (n = 137) and controls (n = 274) were interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, in order to detect lifetime and current depressive disorder and illicit (cocaine, cannabis or inhalants) substance dependence. A regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio for drug dependence according to the diagnosis of depression. RESULTS: The lifetime diagnosis of depression (p = 0.001; OR = 4.9; 95% CI, 1.9-12.7) predicts illegal drugs dependence. Sociodemographic variables such as male gender (p < 0.001; OR = 36.8; 95% CI, 11.8-114) and occupational situation (p = 0.002; OR = 5.0; 95% CI, 1.8-13) as well as alcohol dependence (p = 0.01; OR = 3.4; 95% CI, 1.3-8.7) significantly influenced depression and drug dependence. Additional influent factors detected were having parents (p = 0.006; OR = 18.9; 95% CI, 2.3-158) or friends (p < 0.001; OR = 64.4; 95% CI, 6.5-636) who are illicit drugs dependents. CONCLUSION: although a causal relationship between dependence on illicit drugs and depression cannot be determined, comparison of the sequence of events point to the occurrence of depression later in life than dependence. It remains to be determined whether depression is a comorbidity of dependence...

A cross-sectional study on tobacco use and dependence among women: Does menthol matter?

Rosenbloom, Judith; Rees, Vaughan Wallis; Reid, Kathleen; Wong, Jeannie; Kinnunen, Taru Hannele
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Background: The question of whether mentholation of cigarettes enhances tobacco dependence has generated conflicting findings. Potential mediating factors in a putative relationship between menthol use and tobacco dependence may include race and gender. While an association between menthol use and dependence is mixed, research on the role of race solely among women smokers is scarce. This study examined whether women menthol smokers have higher tobacco use and dependence than non-menthol smokers. Further, the study investigated differences between White and African American smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 928 women seeking tobacco dependence treatment in Boston, Massachusetts. Measures obtained included preferred brand and menthol content, dependence markers (cigarettes per day (CPD); time to first cigarette in the morning; number of and longest previous quit attempts) and smoking history (age of initiation; years smoking; menthol or non-menthol cigarette preference). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to detect interactions between menthol preference by race for continuous variables, and Pearson’s chi-squared test was used for analyses with dichotomous variables. Results: A greater proportion of menthol smokers smoked their first cigarette within five minutes of waking (p < 0.01) and were less likely to have a previous quit attempt longer than 90 days (p < 0.01). ANOVAs revealed no main effects for menthol preferences. However...

Two essays on the implications of demand state dependence on pricing decisions

Pavlidis, Polykarpos (1977 - ); Horsky, Dan
Fonte: University of Rochester Publicador: University of Rochester
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Number of Pages:x, 127 leaves; Illustrations:ill. (some col.)
ENG
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Rochester. William E. Simon Graduate School of Business Administration, 2012.; Marketing strategies that firms adopt are based on consumers’ response in the marketplace when they face and interact with these strategies. This dissertation examines the tendency of consumers to repeat their last purchase choices and the implications of this type of behavior on pricing related strategies of consumer packaged goods brand manufacturers. The first essay is a theory based empirical investigation about the commonly observed practice of brands offering temporary price promotions. There have been many theories that attempt to explain the popularity of price promotions as a marketing tool but with very few exceptions they are disconnected from choice dynamics. We examine the empirical support of a recent theory that connects price promotions with demand state dependence. In our investigation we measure how much each brand benefits from the consumers’ tendency to repeat purchase and we examine the connection between this measure (AMEL) and the brands’ price promotional frequencies. Our extensive sample includes all major brands from twenty product categories of frequently purchased goods and twenty stores in two separate geographical markets. Our empirical model accounts explicitly for the dependence of price promotions on demand response and vice versa. In summary...

Association of IL-1B genetic polymorphisms with an increased risk of opioid and alcohol dependence

Liu, L.; Hutchinson, M.; White, J.; Somogyi, A.; Coller, J.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between genetic variability of IL-1B, which encodes for the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta and the risk of developing opioid dependence. To confirm a previous study, we also examined the association between the IL-1B genetic polymorphism and alcohol dependence. METHODS: Genomic DNA was isolated from 60 opioid-dependent, 99 alcohol-dependent patients and 60 healthy nondependent controls. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism were used to determine the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms at positions -511, -31 and 3954 of IL-1B. RESULTS: IL-1B -511C and -31T alleles were more frequent in both the opioid-dependent and alcohol-dependent patients compared with the control group: odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence interval) P values corrected for false discovery rate=1.91 (1.14-3.20), P=0.043 and 1.89 (1.19-2.99), P=0.014, respectively, for IL-1B -511C>T; and OR=1.74 (1.02-2.97), P=0.066 and 1.80 (1.13-2.88), P=0.017, respectively, for IL-1B -31T>C. In contrast, no association was observed between opioid dependence and the IL-1B 3954C>T single nucleotide polymorphism [OR=1.60 (0.84-3.02), P=0.15]. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the previous finding that IL-1B polymorphism is associated with altered risk of alcohol dependence. IL-1B single nucleotide polymorphisms at position -511 and -31...

Dependence for functional data

Valencia García, Dalia Jazmín
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
ENG
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Measuring dependence is a basic question when dealing with functional observations. It is of great interest to know the effect that one or more functional variables can have on other ones, and even predict values of one variable from another. Although, in the functional context, this theory has not been as extensively studied,some techniques to measure dependence in functional data have already been implemented, providing a single value which represents the degree of relation between the sets of curves. However,these measures ar eusually not robust, which makes them less stable in the presence of outliers. Therefore, it is interesting to develop robust techniques that ensure high stability of the statistics. This thesis is motivated by the above issues and aims to provide measures of dependence for sets ofcurves that are more robust than those used so far. Hence, we extend non-parametric bivariate coefficients,such as Kendall’s τ and Spearman’s coefficient,to functions,i.e.to situations where the observed data are curves generated by a stochastic process. These coefficients are based on the natural data ordering, but when we work in the context of functional data,there is no such thing as a natural order between functions, meaning that we need to provide for an ordering of curves. Thus...

Long-Range Dependence: Now you see it now you don't!

Karagiannis , Thomas; Faloutsos , Michalis; Riedi, Rudolf H.; Karagiannis , Thomas; Faloutsos , Michalis; Riedi, Rudolf H.
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Conference paper; Text; Text
ENG
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Conference Paper; Over the last few years, the network community has started to rely heavily on the use of novel concepts such as self-similarity and Long-Range Dependence (LRD). Despite their wide use, there is still much confusion regarding the identification of such phenomena in real network traffic data. In this paper, we show that estimating Long Range Dependence is not straightforward: there is no systematic or definitive methodology. There exist several estimating methodologies, but they can give misleading and conflicting estimates. More specifically, we arrive at several conclusions that could provide guidelines for a systematic approach to LRD. First, long-range dependence may exist even, if the estimators have different estimates in value. Second, long-range dependence is unlikely to exist, if there are several estimators that do not ``converge'' statistically to a value. Third, we show that periodicity can obscure the analysis of a signal giving partial evidence of long range dependence. Fourth, the Whittle estimator is the most accurate in finding the exact value when LRD exists, but it can be fooled easily by periodicity. As a case-study, we analyze real round-trip time data. We find and remove a periodic component from the signal...

Psychological profile and nicotine dependence in smoking undergraduate students of UFMT

Rondina,Regina de Cássia; Botelho,Clovis; Silva,Ageo Mário Cândido da; Gorayeb,Ricardo
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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INTRODUCTION: Data on the relationship between personality profile and nicotine dependence may help health professionals to design and improve programs for the treatment and prevention of this dependence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between personality profile and nicotine dependence in a group of smoking undergraduate students. METHODS: A total of 1,245 undergraduate students were randomly selected among 10,500 students enrolled at the Cuiabá campus of UFMT in 2001. A standard questionnaire was applied for social characterization and for the determination of the tobacco consumption pattern, comprising 80 students considered as smokers. These students were then submitted to the Fagerström Test (1978) for nicotine dependence and to the reduced version of the Comrey Personality Scale (CPS), that determines personality dimensions. RESULTS: Analysis of the mean scores (Student's t test) revealed an inversely proportional borderline association between dependence and the Order x Lack of Compulsion scale (p = 0.06), and a negative or inversely proportional association between the CPS Extroversion x Introversion (p = 0.002) and Control of Validity scales (p = 0.04). Linear regression analysis of the Fagerström Test points confirmed the inversely proportional borderline association between dependence and the Order x Lack of Compulsion (p = 0.06) and CPS Extroversion x Introversion scales (p = 0.02). However...

Use of cocaine by heavy drinkers increases vulnerability to developing alcohol dependence: a 4-year follow-up study

Rubio, Gabriel; Manzanares, Jorge; Jiménez, Mónica; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Roberto; Martínez, Isabel; Iribarren, Miguel M.; Jiménez-Arriero, Miguel A.; Ponce, Guillermo; Palomo, Tomás
Fonte: Physicians Postgraduate Press Publicador: Physicians Postgraduate Press
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 141452 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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36.28%
8 pages.-- PMID: 18373382 [PubMed].-- Printed version published on Apr 2008.; Presented in part at the 11th Congress of the European Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism, Berlin, Germany, September 23-26, 2007.; [Objective] The development of alcohol dependence is associated with specific individual personality traits and previous consumption of other drugs of abuse. However, there is little information on these risk factors in heavy drinkers before and after they meet the criteria for alcohol dependence. This study examined the influence of cocaine use and the role of impulsivity in the development of DSM-IV alcohol dependence in nondependent drinkers in a 4-year follow-up study.; [Method] A prospective cohort study was conducted to establish the risk factors associated with DSM-IV alcohol dependence. Four hundred seventy-one (nondependent) heavy drinkers were enrolled in a prospective study. At baseline, 280 were classified as heavy drinkers (HD) and 191 as heavy drinkers who also used cocaine (HD + Co). Clinical variables related to alcohol and cocaine use were assessed at 2 years and at the end of the 4-year follow-up period. The study was conducted from September 2001 until September 2006 in Madrid, Spain.; [Results] At the 4-year follow-up assessment...

Frequency dependence of seismic wave attenuation in the upper mantle beneath the Australian region

Cheng, H.-X.; Kennett, Brian
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The differential attenuation for upper-mantle paths beneath northern Australia has been estimated using spectral ratio methods, both in a narrow frequency band near 0.6 Hz to obtain stable estimates for subsequent inversion and also over a broad frequency band up to 3-6 Hz to look at the frequency dependence of attenuation. The frequency dependence of the differential attenuation between P- and S-wave arrivals is estimated using a spectral ratio technique based on a power-law relationship between Q and frequency. This approach isolates the intrinsic Q rather than any scattering component. By exploiting nearly 2000 paths crossing the Australian region, which provide a good coverage of the mantle, the geographical variation of the frequency dependence of attenuation for body waves can be mapped. The differential attenuation (δ1*sp) between P and S waves in the 0.6 Hz band varies between close to zero for paths wholly within the shield lithosphere to nearly 4 for paths with a long asthenospheric component. A measure of frequency dependence is obtained by fitting the spectral ratio information as a function of frequency using a single power-law relation for the average dependence of the whole path. The estimates of power-law exponents show a strong correlation with qualitative measures of attenuation based on the relative frequency content of P and S. There is a weak frequency dependence in the northwestern part of Australia...

On the Concepts of Function and Dependence; Sobre os conceitos de função e dependência

Bazzoni, André; University of California Berkeley
Fonte: Federal University of Santa Catarina – UFSC Publicador: Federal University of Santa Catarina – UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/09/2015 ENG
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2015v19n1p1This paper briefly traces the evolution of the function concept until its modern settheoretic definition, and then investigates its relationship to the pre-formal notion of variable dependence. I shall argue that the common association of pre-formal dependence with the modern function concept is misconceived, and that two different notions of dependence are actually involved in the classic and the modern viewpoints, namely effective and functional dependence. The former contains the latter, and seems to conform more to our pre-formal conception of dependence. The idea of effective dependence is further investigated in connection with the notions of function content and intensionality. Finally, the relevance of the distinction between the two kinds of dependence to mathematical practice is considered.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2015v19n1p1Este artigo investiga brevemente a evolução do conceito de função até sua definição teórica moderna estabelecida, e, em seguida, investiga sua relação com a noção pré-formal de dependência variável. Argumentarei que a associação comum de dependência pré-formal com o conceito moderno de função está errada, e que duas noções diferentes de dependência estão na verdade envolvidas nos pontos de vistas clássico e modernos...

The complex interplay of genetics, epigenetics, and environment in the predisposition to alcohol dependence

Díaz-Anzaldúa,Adriana; Díaz-Martínez,Alejandro; Díaz-Martínez,Leonila Rosa
Fonte: Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Publicador: Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2011 EN
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36.28%
Alcohol dependence is a major global problem, associated with lower quality of physical and mental health, higher mortality and an enormous familial and social cost. Prevention strategies and treatment of this condition are therefore crucial. Success of psychosocial programs and pharmacological treatments has been frequently reported, but a better understanding of the etiology of this chronic disease is needed. For this purpose, the identification of associated factors in different populations is of great significance. It has been clearly demonstrated by twin and adoption studies and supported by animal models that both genetic and environmental components play a substancial role in alcohol dependence. Heritabil ity estimates range from 40 to 60%, depending on the specific analyzed sample. Several coexisting genetic variants in each affected individual, rather than a single gene transmitted in a Mendelian manner, may be the rule in alcohol dependence. Similarly, many environmental factors can increase susceptibility, and because of their diversity, they do not have to be the same in every affected person. Environmental contribution may be linked to epigenetics, which refers to chemical processes that can modify gene activity without changing the sequence of DNA. In humans...

Risk of dependence associated with health, social support, and lifestyle

Alcañiz,Manuela; Brugulat,Pilar; Guillén,Montserrat; Medina-Bustos,Antonia; Mompart-Penina,Anna; Solé-Auró,Aïda
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of individuals at risk of dependence and its associated factors.METHODS The study was based on data from the Catalan Health Survey, Spain conducted in 2010 and 2011. Logistic regression models from a random sample of 3,842 individuals aged ≥ 15 years were used to classify individuals according to the state of their personal autonomy. Predictive models were proposed to identify indicators that helped distinguish dependent individuals from those at risk of dependence. Variables on health status, social support, and lifestyles were considered.RESULTS We found that 18.6% of the population presented a risk of dependence, especially after age 65. Compared with this group, individuals who reported dependence (11.0%) had difficulties performing activities of daily living and had to receive support to perform them. Habits such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being sedentary were associated with a higher probability of dependence, particularly for women.CONCLUSIONS Difficulties in carrying out activities of daily living precede the onset of dependence. Preserving personal autonomy and function without receiving support appear to be a preventive factor. Adopting an active and healthy lifestyle helps reduce the risk of dependence.