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The decline of large brazilian companies

Torres, Alexandre; Menezes, Emílio; Serra, Fernando; Ferreira, Manuel Portugal
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
This article focuses on the organizational decline and, more specifically, the evolution of a selected group of Brazilian companies that were included in the Largest and Best ranking of Exame magazine in the period between 1974 and 2006. Our descriptive analysis shows two main effects: firstly a high rate of decline among the largest Brazilian enterprises and secondly, that there is an acceleration of the decline process, that is: the companies have become gradually less capable of maintaining a superior level of competitiveness during an extended period of time. The study of the strategy, as a discipline, that seeks to understand and aid companies to capture and sustain a competitive advantage shall be reinforced by the understanding of the causes of unsuccessfulness and the loss of their ability to sustain competitiveness. Organizational Decline is, in this context, a process that warrants further analysis

Declínio cognitivo, funcionalidade e arranjos domiciliares entre os idosos do município de São Paulo.; Cognitive decline, functionality, and home living among senior citizens in São Paulo county.

Oliveira, Simone de Freitas Duarte
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/07/2006 PT
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O envelhecimento populacional no Brasil é um fenômeno que ocorre rapidamente, alterando o perfil de morbi-mortalidade da população, com conseqüente aumento das doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. Dentre essas doenças estão inseridas as demências, que produzem grande impacto para os indivíduos acometidos, tanto no que diz respeito à funcionalidade e manutenção da independência, como também a necessidade, muitas vezes, do auxílio de um cuidador para o desempenho das tarefas do cotidiano, afetadas pelo declínio cognitivo. Para conhecer as demandas de saúde que poderão emergir da população que se tornou rapidamente idosa, a Organização Pan-Americana de Saúde, desenvolveu em 2000, um estudo multicêntrico denominado Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento na América Latina e Caribe (SABE), realizado em sete países, entre eles o Brasil, sendo desenvolvido na área urbana do Município de São Paulo, com 2.143 idosos com 60 anos ou mais, divididos em duas partes: uma probabilística e uma intencional. Em todos os países envolvidos foi aplicado um instrumento único, padronizado, composto por onze seções. Para o estudo presente, a composição da amostra foi de idosos que, na avaliação do estado cognitivo, obtiveram uma pontuação de 12 ou menos no MEEM (Mini Exame do Estado Mental) e 6 ou mais no Questionário de Pfeffer para Atividades Funcionais (QPAF). O MEEM é um instrumento utilizado para avaliação das funções cognitivas e para o SABE utilizou-se uma versão modificada e validada do MEEM desenvolvido por Folstein. A combinação desses dois instrumentos indica uma maior especificidade para a medida de declínio cognitivo mais grave...

Uma proposta para o diagnóstico do declínio organizacional.; A proposal for organizational decline diagnosis.

Carvalho, Karine Lima de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/04/2013 PT
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36.55%
Ao longo das últimas décadas, o declínio organizacional despertou interesse de pesquisadores em função da necessidade de se compreender a dinâmica organizacional por uma perspectiva oposta ao crescimento. Esse desejo surge em função da crescente dificuldade das grandes organizações em conseguir manter sua posição competitiva: acredita-se que a perpetuação do bom desempenho depende cada vez mais de quão adaptáveis estas organizações são às turbulências do ambiente de negócios. Porém, esta flexibilidade não depende apenas da capacidade de antecipar as mudanças estratégicas, mas também de como a sua estrutura organizacional está estabelecida e da sua capacidade empreendedora. Assim, pelo fato da teoria do declínio organizacional ser relativamente recente, inúmeras definições taxonômicas ainda precisam ser debatidas, além de se ressaltar a necessidade de explorar melhor o próprio conceito do declínio e compreender sua origem. Considerando este contexto, o presente trabalho desenvolve um modelo de diagnóstico do declínio organizacional, cujo objetivo central é identificar o estágio de declínio das organizações. Para cumprir com este propósito, estudos de casos múltiplos foram aplicados em empresas do segmento automobilísticos (montadoras)...

The role of qualitative data and systems thinking in addressing service decline in market towns

Vieira, Ricardo Filipe Chorão da Silva
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em /12/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
Retail services are a main contributor to municipal budget and are an activity that affects perceived quality-of-life, especially for those with mobility difficulties (e.g. the elderly, low income citizens). However, there is evidence of a decline in some of the services market towns provide to their citizens. In market towns, this decline has been reported all over the western world, from North America to Australia. The aim of this research was to understand retail decline and enlighten on some ways of addressing this decline, using a case study, Thornbury, a small town in the Southwest of England. Data collected came from two participatory approaches: photo-surveys and multicriteria mapping. The interpretation of data came from using participants as analysts, but also, using systems thinking (systems diagramming and social trap theory) for theory building. This research moves away from mainstream economic and town planning perspectives by making use of different methods and concepts used in anthropology and visual sociology (photo-surveys), decision-making and ecological economics (multicriteria mapping and social trap theory). In sum, this research has experimented with different methods, out of their context, to analyse retail decline in a small town. This research developed a conceptual model for retail decline and identified the existence of conflicting goals and interests and their implications for retail decline...

Modifying Effects of the HFE Polymorphisms on the Association Between Lead Burden and Cognitive Decline

Wang, Florence T.; Hu, Howard; Spiro, Avron S.; Nie, Huiling; Schwartz, Joel David; Weuve, Jennifer Lynn; Sparrow, David; Silverman, Edwin Kepner; Weiss, Scott Tillman; Wright, Robert O.
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Background: As iron and lead promote oxidative damage, and hemochromatosis (HFE) gene polymorphisms increase body iron burden, HFE variant alleles may modify the lead burden and cognitive decline relationship. Objective: Our goal was to assess the modifying effects of HFE variants on the lead burden and cognitive decline relation in older adults. Methods: We measured tibia and patella lead using K-X-ray fluorescence (1991–1999) among participants of the Normative Aging Study, a longitudinal study of community-dwelling men from greater Boston. We assessed cognitive function with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) twice (1993–1998 and 1995–2000) and genotyped participants for HFE polymorphisms. We estimated the adjusted mean differences in lead-associated annual cognitive decline across HFE genotype groups (n = 358). Results: Higher tibia lead was associated with steeper cognitive decline among participants with at least one HFE variant allele compared with men with only wild-type alleles (p interaction = 0.03), such that a 15 μg/g increase in tibia lead was associated with a 0.2 point annual decrement in MMSE score among HFE variant allele carriers. This difference in scores among men with at least one variant allele was comparable to the difference in baseline MMSE scores that we observed among men who were 4 years apart in age. Moreover...

Physical stature decline and the health status of the elderly population in England

Fernihough, Alan; McGovern, Mark
Fonte: Elsevier BV Publicador: Elsevier BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Few research papers in economics have examined the extent, causes or consequences of physical stature decline in aging populations. Using repeated observations on objectively measured data from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA), we document that reduction in height is an important phenomenon among respondents aged 50 and over. On average, physical stature decline occurs at an annual rate of between 0.08% and 0.10% for males, and 0.12% and 0.14% for females—which approximately translates into a 2–4 cm reduction in height over the life course. Since height is commonly used as a measure of long-run health, our results demonstrate that failing to take age-related height loss into account substantially overstates the health advantage of older birth cohorts relative to their younger counterparts. We also show that there is an absence of consistent predictors of physical stature decline at the individual level. However, we demonstrate how deteriorating health and reductions in height occur simultaneously. We document that declines in muscle mass and bone density are likely to be the mechanism through which these effects are operating. If this physical stature decline is determined by deteriorating health in adulthood, the coefficient on measured height when used as an input in a typical empirical health production function will be affected by reverse causality. While our analysis details the inherent difficulties associated with measuring height in older populations...

Using fossil crustacean zooplankton remains to explore calcium decline in the Experimental Lakes Area (North Western Ontario)

Watson, Ian
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 883907 bytes; application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
Research over the last few decades has made it clear that anthropogenic sources of sulphur and nitrogen oxides have influenced the acidity of precipitation, resulting in consequences for acid-sensitive aquatic systems. Since the 1990s, increasingly strict legislation has sought to reduce acid deposition and aid the recovery of lakes. Unfortunately, many lakes have not experienced the expected recovery. This trend has been linked to declines in base cations, including calcium (Ca) – a process commonly caused by acid leaching and timber harvesting. This decline in Ca cations has been observed in the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) of Ontario, Canada, but this region receives little acid rain and is largely protected from timber harvesting. As of yet, the mechanism driving Ca decline in the ELA is unknown. However, it is hypothesised that decreases in Ca-rich atmospheric dust due to changing farming practices may be the cause of this observed decline. This paleolimnological study examined the assemblage composition of fossil zooplankton remains in the recent (i.e. top) and pre-industrial (bottom) sediment cores taken from ten strategically chosen ELA lakes. Daphnia spp. was used as a proxy for aquatic Ca concentrations because laboratory studies have shown that Daphnia pulex suffers performance decreases below Ca concentrations of 1.5 mg/L. I found that fossil cladoceran populations were quite similar between top (recent) and bottom (pre-industrial) sediment samples in the 10 study lakes. Daphnia spp. was only found in the tops and bottom sediment samples of three lakes. These results indicate that current Ca conditions may be similar to those of pre-industrial times. This is consistent with the hypothesis that pre-industrial levels were initially low and that Ca-rich dust caused Ca levels to rise in the last century. If this is the case...

Trajectories of terminal decline in the well-being of older women: The DYNOPTA Project

Burns, Richard A; Mitchell, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan; Anstey, Kaarin J
Fonte: American Psychological Association Publicador: American Psychological Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 13 pages
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Terminal decline in well-being is well established. However, the examination of covarying physical health and functioning on mortality-related well-being decline is limited. This study tested the effect of physical health changes on mortality-related well-being decline and examined the extent to which mortality-related trajectories of different well-being dimensions are similar. Participants comprised 1,862 decedent Australian females (aged M 69.59 years; SD 8.08 years at baseline) from the Dynamic Analyses to Optimize Ageing (DYNOPTA) Study who were observed on up to 4 occasions for up to 16 years (M = 6.04 years; SD = 2.14 years) prior to death, and who provided data on 2 well-being indices, vitality and mental health. Although between and within-person change in physical health fully accounted for mortality-related well-being decline, further analysis indicated that prior level of physical health reported only small effects on subsequent level of well-being and was wholly unrelated to well-being change. Conversely, only prior vitality reported significant effects on the level of, and change in, physical health. In conclusion, terminal decline in vitality and mental health appears to be an artifact of within-person physical health change and not prior level of physical health. Future areas of research should focus on identifying other significant predictors of physical health change which subsequently impact on well-being decline. There is also a need to discriminate between different indices of well-being as mortality-related changes and associations with physical function are not consistent.; This work was supported by a National Health and Mental Medical Research Council grant (# 410215). Burns is supported by the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Population Ageing Research (project #: CE110001029). Anstey is funded by an NHMRC Fellowship #1002560.

Reducing functional decline of older people in an acute-care setting: are we providing adequate care to maintain/optimise the functional status of our elder patients?

Gordge, L.; De Young, J.; Wiechula, R.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Asia Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
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36.55%
Aims: To improve practice in the care of the older person to ensure their functional status has not declined at the point of discharge by: determining available standards of care in relation to assessment of functional ability in the elderly; measuring current practice against standards of care based on the best available evidence; establishing priority areas for practice/improvement; implementing the practice/improvement plan; measuring practice to determine improvement in the management of functional decline in older patients and identifying further areas for investigation. Methods: A multidisciplinary team used a range of knowledge translation tools and strategies in order to reduce functional decline of the older person in the acute-care setting. Audit was used to determine compliance with best practice standards and to determine the level of functional decline. A novel intervention was introduced in the form of a communal dining room and this was evaluated by the project team. The project was part of a program of seven projects (The Older Person and Improving Care) facilitated by a team with expertise in knowledge translation. Facilitation was provided though a structured education program and ongoing support. Results: It was identified for this organisation that it was necessary to develop specific standards of care for the elderly in relation to functional decline. It was confirmed that there were unacceptable levels of functional decline in the elderly particularly in relation to mobility. The project team were able to show the feasibility and potential benefits of a communal dining room in reducing functional decline. Conclusions: It has been recognised that practice improvement activities are complex and that despite good planning and facilitation things do not always go to plan. This stated...

Nutritional screening tools as predictors of mortality, functional decline, and move to higher level care in older people: a systematic review

Dent, E.; Visvanathan, R.; Piantadosi, C.; Chapman, I.
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
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This systematic review assessed whether nutritional screening tools (NSTs) predict mortality, functional decline, and move to higher level care in older adults residing in the community or in institutions. In total, 37 prospective studies published between 1999 and 2012 met inclusion criteria and were included in this review. The most commonly used NST in these studies was the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Comparison of NSTs was limited by variation in follow-up time, lack of uniform definition of functional decline, and biases in many studies. Results of MNA, MNA-Short Form (MNA-SF), and Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index (GNRI) assessments were significantly associated with subsequent mortality, with good negative predictive power (~0.83), but only modest positive predictive power (PPV~0.32). MNA-SF and MNA results had a low to moderate association with functional decline (PPV~0.34). Move to higher level care was less strongly associated with NST scores (PPV~0.25). Overall, there is evidence that NSTs can predict those at low risk of mortality, functional decline, and, to a lesser extent, move to higher level care in older people; Elsa Dent, Renuka Visvanathan, Cynthia Piantadosi and Ian Chapman

Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 is associated with cognitive impairment and predicts cognitive decline - the Sydney memory and aging study

Fuchs, T.; Trollor, J.; Crawford, J.; Brown, D.; Baune, B.; Samaras, K.; Campbell, L.; Breit, S.; Brodaty, H.; Sachdev, P.; Smith, E.
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
Higher levels of macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1, also known as growth differentiation factor 15 (MIC-1/GDF15), are associated with adverse health outcomes and all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels and global cognition, five cognitive domains, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), at baseline (Wave 1) and prospectively at 2 years (Wave 2), in nondemented participants aged 70-90 years. Analyses were controlled for age, sex, education, Framingham risk score, history of cerebrovascular accident, acute myocardial infarction, angina, cancer, depression, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins 6 and 12, and apolipoprotein ε4 genotype. Higher MIC-1/GDF15 levels were significantly associated with lower global cognition at both waves. Cross-sectional associations were found between MIC-1/GDF15 and all cognitive domains in Wave 1 (all P < 0.001) and between processing speed, memory, and executive function in Wave 2 (all P < 0.001). Only a trend was found for the prospective analyses, individuals with high MIC-1/GDF15 at baseline declined in global cognition, executive function, memory, and processing speed. However, when categorizing MIC-1/GDF15 by tertiles...

Self-reported history of chemotherapy and cognitive decline in adults aged 60 and older: The PATH Through Life Project.

Anstey, Kaarin J; Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Sachdev, Perminder S
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 8 pages
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Background. There is a lack of data from cohort studies assessing cognitive function prior to and after chemotherapy. We evaluated the effect of self-reported cancer chemotherapy on cognitive function in a cohort assessed at baseline, 4 and 8 years. Methods. Participants were from the population-based PATH Through Life Study. Of the 2,551 participants aged 60–64 at baseline without cognitive impairment, 1,949 completed wave 3 and had data on cancer and chemotherapy and cognitive function. Linear mixed models were used to analyze the data. Results. At wave 3, participants reporting history of chemotherapy (n = 76) had lower scores on memory, processing speed, and executive function compared with those reporting cancer without chemotherapy (n = 289) and no cancer history (n = 1508). After adjustment for depression and disability, effects remained for processing speed and memory. Chemotherapy prior to the study commencement (n = 24), but not between waves 1 and 3 (n = 81), was associated with greater decline in delayed recall (β = −.21 [95% CI −0.38, −.03], p = .02) and digits backwards β = −.05 [95% CI −0.09, −.01], p = .02) over 8 years compared with those with no cancer history (n = 1562). Women reporting chemotherapy for breast cancer after wave 1 (n = 26) had slower choice reaction time (−0.81 (95% CI −1.28...

Fertility decline in Bangladesh: toward an understanding of major causes

Barkat-e-Khuda; Hossain, Mian Bazle
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 57788 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
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Bangladesh has undergone a considerable decline in fertility, despite the absence of conditions believed to be necessary for such reproductive changes. Indeed, Bangladesh is the only one among the world’s twenty poorest countries where such a change has occurred. The paper examines the nature of fertility transition in Bangladesh, looks at the trends in contraceptive use and fertility, and identifies the major factors accounting for the fertility decline, despite poor socio-economic conditions. Two types of factors in the decline are: (a) positive factors which encourage eligible couples to contracept, and (b) negative factors which compel women to contracept, for spacing or limiting births. The effects of positive and negative factors on contraceptive use and fertility are analysed with data from a rural sample of 4,194 women from the 1993-94 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), 2,597 women from the MCH-FP Extension Project area, and 8,110 women from the Matlab MCH-FP Project area. Logistic regression is used in the analysis. Strong and highly significant effects of female education, female employment and access to media on contraceptive use and fertility have been found.; no

Interactive effect of APOE genotype and blood pressure on cognitive decline: the PATH through life study

Andrews, Shea; Das, Debjani; Anstey, Kaarin J; Easteal, Simon
Fonte: IOS Press Publicador: IOS Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 12 pages
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36.5%
The apolipoprotein E (APOE) *ε4 allele and hypertension are two of the most prevalent risk factors for cognitive decline in later life. Here we investigate whether cognitive decline is affected by interaction between these two risk factors. Specifically, we examine whether APOE*ε4 moderates the association between high blood pressure and cognition in later life. Cognitive function was assessed at three time points over a period of 8 years in 1,474 cognitively normal, community-dwelling adults aged 60-64 years at baseline. Blood pressure and APOE genotype were assessed at baseline. Blood pressure was measured categorically as 'Hypertension' and continuously as 'Mean Arterial Pressure' (MAP). Multilevel models were used to investigate main and interactive effects of APOE genotype and both hypertension and MAP on the rate of change of episodic memory, working memory, verbal ability, perceptual speed, and global cognition. The APOE-hypertension interaction was associated with a small but statistically significant increase in the rate of decline of episodic memory, verbal ability, and global cognition. However, its inclusion in the model did not increase the amount of outcome variation explained beyond that already explained by the effect of time. In contrast...

Essays on Organizational Decline

Hayne, CHRISTIE
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
The purpose of this thesis is to understand how organizations manage decline, focusing on the role of management accounting. In the first study, I investigate the role of management accounting in organizations that experience decline. Through a field study in five private sector organizations and one public sector organization, I offer a theory-based explanation for why some organizations use management accounting, while others do not. I find that, when decline arises from discontinuous and unpredictable environmental change, the shock drives organizational members to first convince themselves that their accounting systems and reports can be relied upon and to then use this accounting information to manage decline. In contrast, without any significant discontinuity at the onset of decline, organizational members question the “truth and value” of accounting and, as a result, are not driven to mobilize it to manage decline. In the second study, I conduct additional field work in the public sector organization from the first study to more closely examine how management accounting is used to manage decline and pursue a performance turnaround. I find that leaders actively use management accounting practices to construct an understanding of their organization’s decline through sensemaking and persuade employees to become involved in turnaround efforts through sensegiving. Further...

Florbetapir F 18 amyloid PET and 36-month cognitive decline:a prospective multicenter study

Doraiswamy, P M; Sperling, R A; Johnson, K; Reiman, E M; Wong, T Z; Sabbagh, M N; Sadowsky, C H; Fleisher, A S; Carpenter, A; Joshi, A D; Lu, M; Grundman, M; Mintun, M A; Skovronsky, D M; Pontecorvo, M J; Duara, Ranjan; Sabbagh, Marwan; Lawrence Ahern, Ge
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
This study was designed to evaluate whether subjects with amyloid beta (Aβ) pathology, detected using florbetapir positron emission tomorgraphy (PET), demonstrated greater cognitive decline than subjects without Aβ pathology. Sixty-nine cognitively normal (CN) controls, 52 with recently diagnosed mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 31 with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia were included in the study. PET images obtained in these subjects were visually rated as positive (Aβ+) or negative (Aβ−), blind to diagnosis. Fourteen percent (10/69) of CN, 37% (19/52) of MCI and 68% (21/31) of AD were Aβ+. The primary outcome was change in ADAS-Cog score in MCI subjects after 36 months; however, additional outcomes included change on measures of cognition, function and diagnostic status. Aβ+ MCI subjects demonstrated greater worsening compared with Aβ− subjects on the ADAS-Cog over 36 months (5.66±1.47 vs −0.71±1.09, P=0.0014) as well as on the mini-mental state exam (MMSE), digit symbol substitution (DSS) test, and a verbal fluency test (P<0.05). Similar to MCI subjects, Aβ+ CN subjects showed greater decline on the ADAS-Cog, digit-symbol-substitution test and verbal fluency (P<0.05), whereas Aβ+ AD patients showed greater declines in verbal fluency and the MMSE (P<0.05). Aβ+ subjects in all diagnostic groups also showed greater decline on the CDR-SB (P<0.04)...

Evaluación de la mortalidad de bosques de ñirre (Nothofagus antarctica) en la Patagonia chilena mediante imágenes Landsat TM y ETM+; Forest decline evaluation in Antarctic Beech Forests (Nothofagus antarctica) in Chilean Patagonia by using Landsat TM and ETM+

Pérez Aranda, Jaime; Guzmán, José R.; Padrón, Eva; González, Luis; Rosenfeld, Mauricio; Hernández Clemente, Rocío; Navarro Cerrillo, Rafael M.
Fonte: Universidade do Chile Publicador: Universidade do Chile
Tipo: Artículo de revista
ES
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36.42%
Antarctic beech forests (Nothofagus antarctica (G. Forst.) Oerst.) have shown a major decline process in the past few decades, together with an important lack of specific studies on this type of forest. The aim of this work was to create cartography of the surface of Antarctic beech forests and to evaluate decline levels in the XII Region of Chile. A study area was selected between the cities of Puerto Natales and Punta Arenas (latitudes 50º40’S to 52º40’S) and from latitudes 60º15’W to 74º15’W, where a random stratified sampling was carried out in 68 plots, in which the forest cover, mortality, height, normal diameter and regeneration were measured. Using two Landsat images (1986-2002), the study area was classified in terms of vegetation cover and forest mortality, by means of the normalized vegetation index (NDVI). The forests in this study area are characterized by their high density, and, in over half their surface (27,873 ha) they exhibit some degree of mortality, with 7,585 ha of forest completely affected. The distribution of the mortality in Antarctic beech on the period 1986-2002 showed an improvement on forests condition, which seems to corroborate the hypothesis of a change on perturbation pattern as the major reason for this forest decline process.

Regional Multiple Pathology Scores Are Associated with Cognitive Decline in Lewy Body Dementias

Howlett, David R.; Whitfield, David; Johnson, Mary; Attems, Johannes; O?Brien, John T.; Aarsland, Dag; Lai, Mitchell K. P.; Lee, Jasinda H.; Chen, Christopher; Ballard, Clive; Hortob?gyi, Tibor; Francis, Paul T.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
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This is the final published version. It first appeared at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bpa.12182/abstract.; Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson?s disease dementia (PDD) are characterized by the presence of ?-synuclein-containing Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. However, both dementias also show variable degrees of Alzheimer?s disease (AD) pathology (senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles), particularly in areas of the cortex associated with higher cognitive functions. This study investigates the contribution of the individual and combined pathologies in determining the rate of cognitive decline. Cortical ?-synuclein, phosphorylated tau (phosphotau) and A? plaque pathology in 34 PDD and 55 DLB patients was assessed semi-quantitatively in four regions of the neocortex. The decline in cognition, assessed by Mini Mental State Examination, correlated positively with the cortical ?-synuclein load. Patients also had varying degrees of senile A? plaque and phosphotau pathology. Regression analyses pointed to a combined pathology (A? plaque plus phosphotau plus ?-synuclein-positive features), particularly in the prefrontal cortex (BA9) and temporal lobe neocortex with the superior and middle temporal gyrus (BA21...

Demanda referida e auxílio recebido por idosos com declínio cognitivo no município de São Paulo; Demands reported and help received among elderly people with cognitive decline at Sao Paulo municipality

Oliveira, Simone de Freitas Duarte; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Laurenti, Ruy
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2007 POR
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36.46%
O envelhecimento populacional no Brasil vem acompanhado pelo aumento das doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis, dentre elas as demências, que produzem grande impacto entre os indivíduos acometidos e seus familiares. Este estudo é parte do Estudo SABE (Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento na América Latina e Caribe). A amostra foi composta pelos idosos que obtiveram 12 ou menos pontos no MEEM (Mini Exame do Estado Mental) e 6 ou mais no Questionário de Pfeffer para Atividades Funcionais (QPAF). A combinação desses instrumentos indica maior especificidade para a medida de declínio cognitivo mais grave, sugerindo a presença de demência ou outros transtornos associados. Os objetivos deste estudo são apresentar os resultados do SABE no que se refere ao desempenho de atividades de vida diária e aos arranjos domiciliares dos idosos com declínio cognitivo no Município de São Paulo e verificar de que forma esses arranjos contribuem para suprir as demandas assistenciais desses idosos com dependência. A limitação funcional ocorre principalmente em relação às atividades instrumentais de vida diária (AIVD). A maioria reside em arranjos domiciliares com presença de filhos, mas há uma parcela considerável que mora só. A ajuda oferecida pela maioria dos arranjos domiciliares chega muitas vezes a 100% em AIVD...

Factors Associated with Cognitive Decline in a Population Less than 65 Years Old. A Systematic Review

Aguirre-Acevedo,Daniel Camilo; Henao,Eliana; Tirado,Victoria; Muñoz,Claudia; Giraldo Arango,Diana; Lopera Restrepo,Francisco; Jaimes Barragán,Fabián
Fonte: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría Publicador: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2014 EN
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Introduction: Cognitive decline could begin 20 years before the diagnosis of dementia. Besides age, several factors related to medical, socioeconomic, and behavioral and genetic condition may be associated with cognitive decline. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize evidence on the risk and protective factors for cognitive decline in people under 65 years old. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using a search strategy in MEDLINE and Embase, including longitudinal studies to analyze the effect of protective or risk factors on cognitive decline in a population under 65 years old. Results: A total of 22 studies were included in this review. Factors such as diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, overweight or obesity, metabolic syndrome, education, physical activity, cognitive stimulation, marital status and diet, could be related to cognitive decline before 65 years of age. Conclusions: Cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle conditions may be associated with cognitive decline before 65 years of age. However, the quality of the evidence was low.