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Descentralização Federativa e Coordenação Intergovernamental: um estudo sobre a integração dos municípios brasileiros ao Sistema Nacional de Trânsito; Federative decentralization and intergovernmental coordination: a study on the integration of Brazilian municipal districts to the National Traffic System

Schmidt, Vera Viviane
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/03/2013 PT
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36.34%
A Constituição Federal de 1988 instaurou um novo pacto federativo no Brasil, redefinindo competências e declarando também os municípios como membros efetivos da Federação. A Carta e normatizações posteriores redesenharam políticas públicas de forma que sua implementação passasse a ser realizada de modo descentralizado. Esta tese objetiva contribuir para o debate sobre a importância relativa de estados e municípios para a descentralização da política de trânsito, a partir da promulgação do Código de Trânsito Brasileiro, em 1997. Os resultados indicam que, dada a prevalência do que denominamos de paradigma fiscalizatório e na ausência de políticas federais de indução à descentralização, os municípios adotaram diferentes estratégias para responder à diretiva da integração municipal ao Sistema Nacional de Trânsito. O tamanho da frota veicular local e as políticas dos governos estaduais orientadas a estimular a municipalização são fatores decisivos no cálculo dos governos municipais para integrar-se ao Sistema Nacional de Trânsito. Dada a ausência do governo federal e o controle sobre recursos-chave para o exercício da fiscalização, cabe aos estados papel preponderante na implementação da municipalização da política de trânsito no Brasil.; The Federal Constitution of 1988 established a new confederated pact in Brazil...

Centralization, Decentralization, and Conflict in the Middle East and North Africa

Tosun, Mehmet Serkan; Yilmaz, Serdar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This paper examines broadly the intergovernmental structure in the Middle East and North Africa region, which has one of the most centralized government structures in the world. The authors address the reasons behind this centralized structure by looking first at the history behind the tax systems of the region. They review the Ottoman taxation system, which has been predominantly influential as a model, and discuss its impact on current government structure. They also discuss the current intergovernmental structure by examining the type and degree of decentralization in five countries representative of the region: Egypt, Iran, West Bank/Gaza, Tunisia, and Yemen. Cross-country regression analysis using panel data for a broader set of countries leads to better understanding of the factors behind heavy centralization in the region. The findings show that external conflicts constitute a major roadblock to decentralization in the region.

Decentralization, Economic Development, and Growth in Turkish Provinces

Tosun, Mehmet Serkan; Yilmaz, Serdar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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36.42%
There have been important developments in the decentralization of the government structure in Turkey since the early 1980s. This paper examines economic development and growth in Turkish provinces. Although there is a rich literature on the economic effects of government decentralization from both developed and developing countries, these effects have not been examined widely in the context of Turkish local governments. The authors first describe changes since the early 1980s and recent reform efforts. They then provide an empirical analysis of the effects of decentralization in Turkish provinces using cross-sectional and panel data approaches. The panel dataset consists of 67 provinces from 1976 to 2001. The analysis examines whether variations in local decentralization across these provinces and across time have had a significant impact on economic development and growth in those provinces. The findings suggest a weak negative economic effect of decentralization through a number of municipalities per capita. However...

Sequencing Fiscal Decentralization

Bahl, Roy; Martinez-Vazquez, Jorge
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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While there is extensive knowledge about how to design fiscal decentralization policies, considerably less is understood about how a decentralization program should be sequenced and implemented. Countries embarking on decentralization often struggle with decisions about the essential components of decentralization, including the order of an introduction of decentralization policies, the number of years necessary to bring a full program on line, and the components of the transition strategy. The authors argue that the sequencing of decentralization policies is an important determinant of its success. The consequences of a poorly sequenced decentralization program can range from minor delays and complications to ineffectiveness and subsequent failing support of decentralization efforts, macroeconomic instability, and fundamental failure in public sector delivery. At a minimum, the strategy of "making it up as we go" will not lead to the same structure of decentralization as will a planned strategy. The paper raises two questions: First, is there an optimal sequencing for decentralization policies and implementation? The answer is that there is, and that following these sequencing rules can reduce the costs and risks of implementing fiscal decentralization. Second...

Decentralization and Service Delivery

Ahmad, Junaid; Devarajan, Shantayanan; Khemani, Stuti; Shah, Shekhar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Dissatisfied with centralized approaches to delivering local public services, a large number of countries are decentralizing responsibility for these services to lower-level, locally elected governments. The results have been mixed. The paper provides a framework for evaluating the benefits and costs, in terms of service delivery, of different approaches to decentralization, based on relationships of accountability between different actors in the delivery chain. Moving from a model of central provision to that of decentralization to local governments introduces a new relationship of accountability-between national and local policymakers-while altering existing relationships, such as that between citizens and elected politicians. Only by examining how these relationships change can we understand why decentralization can, and sometimes cannot, lead to better service delivery. In particular, the various instruments of decentralization-fiscal, administrative, regulatory, market, and financial-can affect the incentives facing service providers, even though they relate only to local policymakers. Likewise, and perhaps more significantly, the incentives facing local and national politicians can have a profound effect on the provision of local services. Finally...

On the Measurement and Impact of Fiscal Decentralization

Ebel, Robert D.; Yilmaz, Serdar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
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36.47%
The typical post-Bretton Woods era development approach that emphasized central government-led development efforts has changed dramatically, and local governments have clearly emerged as players in development policy. The thinking about what is important to achieve in development objectives is changing as fiscal decentralization reforms are being pursued by many countries around the world. In this context, a number of studies have attempted to quantify the impact of decentralization by relating some measure of it to economic outcomes of fiscal stability, economic growth, and public sector size. But decentralization is surprisingly difficult to measure. Nearly all cases examining the relationship between decentralization and macroeconomic performance have relied on the Government Finance Statistics (GFS) of the International Monetary Fund. However, despite its merits, GFS falls short in providing a full picture of fiscal decentralization. For some countries, however, there is data that more accurately captures fiscal responsibilities among different types of governments.

Achieving Accountability Through Decentralization: Lessons for Integrated River Basin Management

Mody, Jyothsna
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
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While decentralization holds out the promise of increased flexibility and efficiency, the preconditions for realizing it are daunting. To draw lessons for productive decentralization in integrated river basin management, this paper surveys the decentralization experience in education, health care, roads, irrigation, and public infrastructure services. Case studies reveal that the prime focus in the design of a decentralized structure must be accountability, based on principles of subsidiarity, transparency, and allocation of property rights. While some debates are sector-specific, others, such as the need for political and financial accountability, the related data requirements, educating stakeholders and potential beneficiaries of the new system, and ensuring effective participation are true of decentralization wherever it is to unfold. In turn, initial conditions and the adaptation of political leadership to suit the historical context determine the success of decentralization. Four issues demand high priority in integrated river basin management. These are (1) overcoming financial inadequacy at the local level; (2) commitment to upgrading skills...

Education Decentralization and Accountability Relationships in Latin America

di Gropello, Emanuela
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
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46.4%
The author analyzes decentralization reforms in the education sector in Latin America (their status, impact, and ongoing challenges) by making use of the accountability framework developed by the World Development Report 2004: Making Services Work for Poor People. She starts by identifying three main groups of models according to the subnational actors involved, the pattern adopted in the distribution of functions across subnational actors, and the accountability system central to the model. She then reviews the impact of these models according to the available empirical evidence, and explores determinants of this impact, extracting lessons useful to the design of future reforms. The author concludes that the single most important factor in ensuring the success or failure of a reform is the way the accountability relationships are set to work within each of the models and provides some lessons on how to get these relationships to work effectively. She also provides three main general lessons for selecting "successful" models: (1) avoid complicated models; (2) increase school autonomy and the scope for "client power...

Public Expenditures for Decentralized Governance in Honduras : Towards Restoring Fiscal Consolidation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.4%
Fiscal consolidation remains the central challenge facing Honduras, mainly due to increasing current expenditures. The widening fiscal deficit has been driven by a significant increase in current expenditures. These increased current expenditures, which add rigidity to the budget, have occurred at the expense of investments. The efficiency of spending remains a key constraint. Limited improvements, especially in health and education outcomes despite high allocations to these sectors, suggest the need to improve the efficiency and quality of expenditures. Increased public expenditures have not delivered in terms of growth and improved public services, and whether the country is ready for decentralization remains an open question. Growing fiscal deficits and weak public financial management practices have constrained the ability of the central government to implement and finance the decentralization process. Current decentralization targets would pose significant fiscal challenges to the central government. The deterioration of the fiscal deficit is not a result of fiscal decentralization. However...

Honduras Public Expenditure Review : Towards Restoring Fiscal Consolidation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.4%
Fiscal consolidation remains the central challenge facing Honduras, mainly due to increasing current expenditures. The widening fiscal deficit has been driven by a significant increase in current expenditures. These increased current expenditures, which add rigidity to the budget, have occurred at the expense of investments. The efficiency of spending remains a key constraint. Limited improvements, especially in health and education outcomes despite high allocations to these sectors, suggest the need to improve the efficiency and quality of expenditures. Increased public expenditures have not delivered in terms of growth and improved public services, and whether the country is ready for decentralization remains an open question. Growing fiscal deficits and weak public financial management practices have constrained the ability of the central government to implement and finance the decentralization process. Current decentralization targets would pose significant fiscal challenges to the central government. The deterioration of the fiscal deficit is not a result of fiscal decentralization. However...

Decentralization and Deconcentration in Morocco : Cross-Sectoral Status Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report will look at how the Government of Morocco (GoM) has addressed the issues of decentralization and deconcentration in recent years. It discusses how these processes have affected public policies at the sub-national level and a number of strategic sectors, including agriculture, irrigation, water and waste water, health, education, energy, transport, urban, housing, and solid waste management. Specifically, the report will analyze the current legislative and institutional arrangements governing sub-national accountability, revenue and spending powers, and public service management at the sub-national level and within the strategic sectors. It is to serve as background input for the World Bank team preparing the new Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) 2010/2013. The Report builds on the findings from project appraisal documents, economic and sector work, policy notes, mission aide memoires, and implementation completion reports already completed by the World Bank.

Republic of Burundi Fiscal Decentralization and Local Governance : Managing Trade-Offs to Promote Sustainable Reforms

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Despite the remarkable progress achieved since the end of the conflict, Burundi still faces significant development challenges. Since 2005, the Government of Burundi has embarked on a potentially transformative process of decentralization, with the aim of strengthening social cohesion, improving local governance, and promoting access to basic infrastructure and service delivery. The weakness of the communal tax system, coupled with low mobilization of local revenue and nonexistent (current) or negligible (capital) transfers from the national budget threaten the financial viability of communes, which struggle to support even basic operating costs. Addressing a specific government request, the present study aims to provide concrete policy recommendations to help the Government of Burundi improve the financial and institutional sustainability of the decentralization reform process, while enabling communes to address popular demands and deliver better services. The report will also look at the implications of these macro-level challenges at the sectoral level...

Republic of Burundi Fiscal Decentralization and Local Governance

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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This study is highly selective and organized into four thematic chapters. Specifically, chapter 1 provides a snapshot of Burundi’s political and macroeconomic context, and reviews the evolution of the decentralization process to better understand how institutional, political, and bureaucratic dynamics have shaped the historical trajectory of decentralization and generated the outcomes observed today. Chapter 2 provides a systematic investigation of the status of fiscal decentralization in Burundi, and identifies key policy issues to be considered to ensure the medium-term sustainability of the reform process while at the same time addressing the short-term financial needs of communes. Chapter 3 provides an in-depth diagnostic of a key service delivery responsibility recently devolved to communes—the provision of land registration services—and discusses the challenges and opportunities related to ongoing efforts to scale up access to these land services across 116 rural communes and Bujumbura. Chapter 4 shifts the focus to the nature of statecitizen relations in an effort to better understand how citizen engagement in the decision-making process may be improved and local authorities held accountable for the provision of basic services.

Fiscal Decentralization and Development: An Analysis of City Governments in Argentina and Mexico, 1980–2010

Smith, Heidi Jane M.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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This dissertation examines local governments’ efforts to promote economic development in Latin America. The research uses a mixed method to explore how cities make decisions to innovate, develop, and finance economic development programs. First, this study provides a comparative analysis of decentralization policies in Argentina and Mexico as a means to gain a better understanding of the degree of autonomy exercised by local governments. Then, it analyzes three local governments each within the province of Santa Fe, Argentina and the State of Guanajuato, Mexico. The principal hypothesis of this dissertation is that if local governments collect more own-source tax revenue, they are more likely to promote economic development and thus, in turn, promote growth for their region. By examining six cities, three of which are in Santa Fe—Rosario, Santa Fe (capital) and Rafaela—and three in Guanajuato—Leon, Guanajuato (capital) and San Miguel de Allende, this dissertation provides a better understanding of public finances and tax collection efforts of local governments in Latin America. Specific attention is paid to each city’s budget authority to raise new revenue and efforts to promote economic development. The research also includes a large statistical dataset of Mexico’s 2...

Decentralization and Citizen Participation in Mexico

Albarran, Ilyana
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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During the past few decades, decentralization efforts in México have coincided with efforts to democratize the administrative decision-making process. Adopted in 1988, the Programa Nacional de Solidaridad (National Solidarity Program; PRONASOL) required citizen participation in decisions involving the use of federal resources for regional development and poverty alleviation projects. In 1998, Section 33 of the Ley de Coordinación Fiscal (Fiscal Coordination Law; LCF) placed Social Infrastructure Funds (SIF) directly under the supervision of municipalities and retained the requirement that citizens participate in decisions involving the allocation of funds. The present study seeks to understand the factors that affect the participation of citizen committees (composed of community members; organized to address a particular cause) in SIF allocation decisions and assess the impact of this form of citizen participation on government performance. To pursue this objective, the study analyzes the implementation of LCF with respect to the role of citizen committees in SIF allocation decisions at two different locations: the township of Santa Maria Tonantzintla, located in the municipality of San Andrés Cholula, in the state of Puebla, and the rural municipality of Tenango Del Aire...

Sierra Leone - The Role of the Rapid Results Approach in Decentralization and Strengthening Local Governance; Sierra Leone : le role de la methode de decentralisation et de renforcement de la gouvernance locale fondee sur les resultats rapides

Matta, Nadim; Hassanali, Zahra; Balasubramaniam, Rashmir
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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Although Sierra Leone is endowed with rich natural resources, it is one of the poorest countries in the world. An eleven-year war over the period 1991-2002 destroyed the country's infrastructure and social fabric. The concentration of political power and public resources in the capital city Freetown, and the marginalization of the provinces were perceived as one of the root causes of the war. In 2004, Sierra Leone ranked bottom in the United Nations Human Development Indicators, and 70 percent of the population is said to be under the poverty line. To support the decentralization process, following the Local Council Election of May-June 2004, the councils were encouraged to adopt the Rapid Results Approach (RRA), which became an important driver in building a culture of performance, accountability and results. The initial efforts have also unleashed implementation capacity within the newly-created local councils that delivered measurable improvements in public services over a short period. The note further examines the first wave of rapid results initiatives...

More Than You Can Handle : Decentralization and Spending Ability of Peruvian Municipalities

Loayza, Norman V.; Rigolini, Jamele; Calvo-Gonzalez, Oscar
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
In the past three decades, emerging countries have gone through extensive decentralization reforms. Yet, there are no studies assessing quantitatively the relative importance of various factors known to affect the success of decentralization. This paper builds on a comprehensive dataset the authors constructed for Peru, which merges municipal fiscal accounts with information about municipalities' characteristics such as population, poverty, education, and local politics. The paper then analyzes the leading factors affecting the ability of municipalities to execute the allocated budget using complementary methodologies, from least squares to quantile regression analyses. According to the existing literature and the Peruvian context, the analysis divides these factors into four categories: the budget size and allocation process; local capacity; local needs; and political economy constraints. Although all four factors affect decentralization, the largest determinant of spending ability is the adequacy of the budget with respect to local capacity. The results confirm the need for decentralization to be implemented gradually over time in parallel with strong capacity building efforts.

Service Delivery with More Districts in Uganda : Fiscal Challenges and Opportunities for Reforms

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
Ugandan decentralization efforts of the 1990s represented an unusually authentic and powerful local government reform, compared to similar efforts pursued in many other low-income countries. However, over time the changing interests of the central agencies, dissatisfaction with service outcomes, and the overall dynamics of the country's governance resulted in the adoption of a number of re-centralizing policies. The objective of this report is to take stock of the fiscal and institutional arrangements for service delivery by local governments in the context of district proliferation and in view of recent trends in national public finance, as well as to identify policy options that could facilitate improved service delivery. The report finds that, while district proliferation has not had any major effect on public finances so far, it may have serious adverse effects in the future if the institutional structures and funding mechanisms of district governments are not adjusted to the new realities. Its effect on public expenditure has been rather small since an increasing number of positions in district governments remain vacant...

Decentralization, Democracy, and Development : Recent Experience from Sierra Leone

Zhou, Yongmei
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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36.44%
In 2004, the government of Sierra Leone opted for a rethink of its national governance arrangement by embarking on the resuscitation of democratically elected local government after 32 years experimenting with central government appointed district and municipal governments. The decision by the government and the people of Sierra Leone was driven by a primary consideration to address the country's seeming nonperformance in the areas of citizens' participation in governance and responding to the needs of citizens as it relates to attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as well as ensuring poverty reduction in the country. This book is a retrospective of the decentralization reform process in Sierra Leone from 2003-07. During this period, the Government of Sierra Leone (GoSL) reestablished elected district and urban councils across the country, transferred certain responsibilities for primary services and local investment and some financial resources to the new councils, and invested heavily in building the administrative infrastructure and capacity of the local councils. The author is partners who were intimately involved in the reform. Through recording various aspects of the process and reflecting on the observations and learning during that time...

Slovak Republic : Development Policy Review, Volume 1. Summary Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.37%
Although the unsustainably high external current account, and fiscal deficits may be financed with the country's capital account surplus (twenty percent of GDP), such situation is not likely to last. The country's policy impact on the real exchange rate, undermines the employability of large segments of the population, which will ultimately hamper growth. The study proposes an agenda on key issues, such as curtailing enterprise subsidies, and other guarantee payments, redirecting, rather than expanding, existing expenditure programs to meet the eligibility criteria for structural funds financing. In addition, further increasing the retirement age, would put public pensions on a sustainable footing, and avoid the massive fiscal deficits the demographic transition is bringing, and, postponing the revenue reduction (from 38 percent of GDP in 2000 to a projected 35 percent in 2002, to a target of 33 percent of GDP in 2004) until such time as the expected cutback in expenditure has actually materialized, should be part of the development agenda. The tax burden should be balanced away from payroll taxes...