Um chocolate amargo com alto teor de cacau (71%) foi desenvolvido e codificado como D71. Previamente, foi realizada a seleção da amostra de liquor de cacau mais rica em polifenóis e flavonóides, dentre três amostras recebidas de fornecedores diferentes. Como comparativo, quatro variedades de vinho tinto foram estudadas (Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot-Noir e Tannat) e o vinho Tannat selecionado. Para caracterizar o produto D71 sua quantidade de polifenóis e flavonóides foi comparada a amostras de chocolate amargo comerciais contendo diferentes percentuais de cacau: 50%, 70%, 72%, 86% e 99%. Em um segundo passo, efetuou-se a comparação do D71 com diferentes tipos de chocolate comerciais: branco (WC), ao leite (MC) e meio amargo (D40). O produto D71 demonstrou menor quantidade de polifenóis em relação às amostras comerciais de chocolate amargo, porém similar quantidade de flavonóides. Quando as amostras de WC, MC e D40 foram comparadas ao D71, este produto mostrou superioridade significativa em relação aos teores de polifenóis e flavonóides. Comparando a quantidade de flavonóides presentes no D71 e no vinho tinto Tannat verificou-se que para obtenção da mesma quantidade de flavonóides de 196 mL deste vinho seria necessário o consumo de 49g do chocolate desenvolvido (D71). Esta relação foi utilizada para o ensaio in vivo com ratos da raça Wistar...
Mestre em Desenvolvimento, Diversidades Locais e Desafios Mundiais/ Classificação JEL: D71; D74; A necessidade de implementação de sistemas alternativos de desenvolvimento com
enfoque no local levou à criação de novas estruturas sociais que fossem capazes de enfrentar
os novos desafios da economia global. A economia solidária e os seus princípios assentes na
cooperação e na solidariedade impõem-se como uma importante ferramenta na sustentação
dessas estruturas. Um exemplo disso, são os sistemas de trocas locais que vêm, assim,
colmatar algumas das necessidades que as comunidades locais sente m através do
fortalecimento de laços sociais entre os seus membros.
Deste modo, partindo dos conceitos de desenvolvimento local e economia solidária,
procede-se à análise dos sistemas de trocas locais e solidárias, do ponto de vista teórico e
empírico, discutindo-se a sua viabilidade enquanto promotores de desenvolvimento local e
impulsionadores da solidariedade numa região.
O estudo empírico recaiu sobre o trabalho da associação AJP (Acção para a Justiça e
Paz) que abriu caminho para a implementação de mercados solidários na Granja do Ulmeiro,
localizada no concelho de Soure...
Mestrado em Marketing/ JEL Classification System: M31, I21, D71; Generation Z is the first generation growing up in a digitalized world, where Internet has
become a primary need. Growing up with touch screens, smartphones and tablets impacts the
development of this generation. They are born between mid 1990s and 2010.
This research will attempt to demonstrate and support the assumption that Generation Z
exhibits more Early adopters than the other adopter levels.
Analyses did confirm the assumption, which would supposedly lead to higher brand
expectations of highly innovative, quality products for the best price. However more
important for the respondents is customer service.
Mascarenhas,Hipólito Antonio Assunção; Bulisani,Eduardo Antonio; Bataglia,Ondino Cleante; Falivene,Sonia Maria Pierro
Fonte: Instituto Agronômico de CampinasPublicador: Instituto Agronômico de Campinas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista CientíficaFormato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1984PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
Um experimento com as linhagens isogênicas de soja D71.93.30, que nodula, e D71.93.31, que não nodula, foi conduzido em casa de vegetação para estudar o efeito da aplicação de nitrogênio em cobertura sobre o crescimento e produção de grãos. O ensaio foi conduzido em vasos com quatro tratamentos: 1) D71.93.30 + inoculante; 2) D71.93.30 + inoculante + N; 3) D71.93.31 e 4) D71.93.31 + N, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Na época do florescimento mediram-se a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e a concentração de nutrientes nas folhas. Quando da maturação das plantas, foi medida a produção de sementes e o seu teor de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Não houve grandes diferenças na produção de matéria seca por ocasião do florescimento devido aos tratamentos, porém a produção de grãos da linhagem que não nodula, D71.93.31, foi bastante afetada pela deficiência de N, mesmo no tratamento adubado. Na linhagem que nodula, D71.93.30, não houve resposta à aplicação de N em cobertura sobre a concentração desse nutriente nas folhas, nas sementes e na produção de grãos.
The sodium-driven motor consists of the products of at least four genes, pomA, pomB, motX, and motY, in Vibrio alginolyticus. PomA and PomB, which are homologous to the MotA and MotB components of proton-driven motors, have four transmembrane segments and one transmembrane segment, respectively, and are thought to form an ion channel. In PomA, two periplasmic loops were predicted at positions 21 to 36 between membrane segments 1 and 2 (loop1-2) and at positions 167 to 180 between membrane segments 3 and 4 (loop3-4). To characterize the two periplasmic loop regions, which may have a role as an ion entrance for the channel, we carried out cysteine-scanning mutagenesis. The T186 residue in the fourth transmembrane segment and the D71, D148, and D202 residues in the predicted cytoplasmic portion of PomA were also replaced with Cys. Only two mutations, M179C and T186C, conferred a nonmotile phenotype. Many mutations in the periplasmic loops and all of the cytoplasmic mutations did not abolish motility, though the five successive substitutions from M169C to K173C of loop3-4 impaired motility. In some mutants that retained substantial motility, motility was inhibited by the thiol-modifying reagents dithionitrobenzoic acid and N-ethylmaleimide. The profiles of inhibition by the reagents were consistent with the membrane topology predicted from the hydrophobicity profiles. Furthermore...
So far, four RNA:pseudouridine (Ψ)-synthases have been identified in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Together, they act on cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs, U2 snRNA and rRNAs from cytoplasmic ribosomes. However, RNA:Ψ-synthases responsible for several U→Ψ conversions in tRNAs and UsnRNAs remained to be identified. Based on conserved amino-acid motifs in already characterised RNA:Ψ-synthases, four additional open reading frames (ORFs) encoding putative RNA:Ψ-synthases were identified in S.cerevisiae. Upon disruption of one of them, the YLR165c ORF, we found that the unique Ψ residue normally present in the fully matured mitochondrial rRNAs (Ψ2819 in 21S rRNA) was missing, while Ψ residues at all the tested pseudouridylation sites in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs and in nuclear UsnRNAs were retained. The selective U→Ψ conversion at position 2819 in mitochondrial 21S rRNA was restored when the deleted yeast strain was transformed by a plasmid expressing the wild-type YLR165c ORF. Complementation was lost after point mutation (D71→A) in the postulated active site of the YLR165c-encoded protein, indicating the direct role of the YLR165c protein in Ψ2819 synthesis in mitochondrial 21S rRNA. Hence, for nomenclature homogeneity the YLR165c ORF was renamed PUS5 and the corresponding RNA:Ψ-synthase Pus5p. As already noticed for other mitochondrial RNA modification enzymes...
D values (decimal reduction time; the time required to kill 1 log concentration of bacteria) were determined for both human and bovine strains (Dominic, Ben, BO45, and ATCC 19698) of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in 50 mM lactate solution (pH 6.8) and in milk at four temperatures (62, 65, 68, and 71°C). Viable M. paratuberculosis organisms were quantified by a radiometric culture method (BACTEC). Thermal death curves for the M. paratuberculosis strains tested were generally linear, with R2 of ≥0.90, but a few curves (R2, 0.80 to 0.90) were better described by a quadratic equation. The human strains (Dominic and Ben) had similar D values in milk and in lactate solution. However, D values for the bovine strains (BO45 and ATCC 19698) were significantly different depending on the menstruum. D values for low-passage clinical strains (Dominic, Ben, and BO45) were lower than those of the high-passage laboratory strain (ATCC 19698). The D value based on pooled data for clinical strains of M. paratuberculosis in milk at 71°C (D71°C) was 11.67 s. Pooled D62°C, D65°C, and D68°C of clinical M. paratuberculosis strains in milk were 228.8, 47.8, and 21.8 s, respectively. The Z value (the temperature required for the decimal reduction time to traverse 1 log cycle) of clinical strains in milk was 7.11°C. The D values of clumped and single M. paratuberculosis cells were not significantly different. The D values of all M. paratuberculosis strains tested were considerably higher than those published for Listeria...
The effect of prior heat shock (48 degrees C for 15 min) on the thermotolerance of Listeria monocytogenes at the minimal high-temperature, short-time (71.7 degrees C for 15 s) parameters required by the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance was examined. The mean D71.7 degrees C value for heat-shocked L. monocytogenes was 4.6 +/- 0.5 s (control D = 3.0 +/- 1.0 s); the ratio of D to control D was 1.5. The increased thermotolerance of heat-shocked Listeria cells was not significant and appeared unlikely to have practical implications, in terms of risk assessment, for the safety of pasteurized milk.
The thermal resistance of Listeria monocytogenes associated with a milk-borne outbreak of listeriosis was determined in parallel experiments by using freely suspended bacteria and bacteria internalized by phagocytes. The latter inoculum was generated by an in vitro phagocytosis reaction with immune-antigen-elicited murine peritoneal phagocytes. The heat suspension medium was raw whole bovine milk. Both suspensions were heated at temperatures ranging from 52.2 to 71.7 degrees C for various periods of time. Mean D values for each temperature and condition of heated suspension revealed no significant differences. The extrapolated D71.7 degrees C (161 degrees F) value for bacteria internalized by phagocytes was 1.9 s. Combined tube and slug-flow heat exchanger results yielded an estimated D71.7 degrees C value of 1.6 s for freely suspended bacteria. The intracellular position did not protect L. monocytogenes from thermal inactivation.
This paper revisits Diamond’s classical impossibility result regarding the ordering of infinite utility streams. We show that if no representability condition is imposed, there do exist strongly Paretian and finitely anonymous orderings of intertemporal utility streams with attractive additional properties. We extend a possibility theorem due to Svensson to a characterization theorem and we provide characterizations of all strongly Paretian and finitely anonymous rankings satisfying the strict transfer principle. In addition, infinite horizon extensions of leximin and of utilitarianism are characterized by adding an equity preference axiom and finite translation-scale measurability, respectively, to strong Pareto and finite anonymity.
Consistency, a natural weakening of transitivity introduced in a seminal contribution by Suzumura (1976b), has turned out to be an interesting and promising concept in a variety of areas within economic theory. This paper summarizes its recent applications and provides some new observations in welfarist social choice and in population ethics. In particular, it is shown that the conclusion of the welfarism theorem remains true if transitivity is replaced by consistency and that an impossibility result in variable-population social-choice theory turns into a possibility if transitivity is weakened to consistency.
We study the implications of two solidarity conditions on the efficient location of a public good on a cycle, when agents have single-peaked, symmetric preferences. Both conditions require that when circumstances change, the agents not responsible for the change should all be affected in the same direction: either they all gain or they all loose. The first condition, population-monotonicity, applies to arrival or departure of one agent. The second, replacement-domination, applies to changes in the preferences of one agent. Unfortunately, no Pareto-efficient solution satisfies any of these properties. However, if agents’ preferred points are restricted to the vertices of a small regular polygon inscribed in the circle, solutions exist. We characterize them as a class of efficient priority rules.
This paper makes some steps toward a formal political economy of environmental policy. Economists' quasi-unanimous preferences for sophisticated incentive regulation is reconsidered. First, we recast the question of instrument choice in the general mechanism literature and provide an incomplete contract approach to political economy. Then, in various settings, we show why constitutional constraints on the instruments of environmental policy may be desirable, even though they appear inefficient from a purely standard economic viewpoint.
In a linear production model, we characterize the class of efficient and strategy-proof allocation functions, and the class of efficient and coalition strategy-proof allocation functions. In the former class, requiring equal treatment of equals allows us to identify a unique allocation function. This function is also the unique member of the latter class which satisfies uniform treatment of uniforms.; Dans le cadre d'une économie de production à technologie linéaire, nous caractérisons les règles d'allocation efficaces et non manipulables, tant au sens individuel que coalitionnel. Différentes propriétés de symétries nous permettent ensuite d'isoler une règle unique.
Public policies often involve choices of alternatives in which the size and the composition of the population may vary. Examples are the allocation of resources to prenatal care and the design of aid packages to developing countries. In order to assess the corresponding feasible choices on normative grounds, criteria for social evaluation that are capable of performing variable-population comparisons are required. We review several important axioms for welfarist population principles and discuss the link between individual well-being and the desirability of adding a new person to a given society.; Dans l'évaluation des politiques économiques, il est nécessaire d'utiliser des critères qui sont capables de faire des comparaisons de bien-être social entre des sociétés avec des populations différentes. Nous analysons plusieurs propriétés de tels critères et discutons des liens entre le bien-être individuel et la désirabilité de l'ajoût d'une nouvelle personne dans une société donnée.
This paper provides new versions of Harsanyi’s social aggregation theorem that are formulated in terms of prospects rather than lotteries. Strengthening an earlier result, fixed-population ex-ante utilitarianism is characterized in a multi-profile setting with fixed probabilities. In addition, we extend the social aggregation theorem to social-evaluation problems under uncertainty with a variable population and generalize our approach to uncertain alternatives, which consist of compound vectors of probability distributions and prospects.
A group of agents located along a river have quasi-linear preferences over water and money. We ask how the water should be allocated and what money transfers should be performed. We are interested in efficiency, stability (in the sense of the core), and fairness (in a sense to be defined). We first show that the cooperative game associated with our problem is convex : its core is therefore large and easily described. Next, we propose the following fairness requirement : no group of agents should enjoy a welfare higher than what it could achieve in the absence of the remaining agents. We prove that only one welfare vector in the core satisfies this condition : it is the marginal contribution vector corresponding to the ordering of the agents along the river. We discuss how it could be decentralized or implemented.; Un groupe d'agents doit partager l'eau d'un fleuve le long duquel il est situé. Les compensations monétaires sont autorisées. Nous montrons que le jeu coopératif associé à ce problème de partage est convexe : son noyau est donc grand et facile à décrire. Nous proposons le critère d'équité suivant : aucun groupe d'agents ne devrait obtenir un bien-être supérieur à celui qu'il pourrait atteindre en l'absence des autres. Nous montrons qu'une seule distribution dans le noyau satisfait ce critère.
We provide a characterization of selection correspondences in two-person exchange economies that can be core rationalized in the sense that there exists a preference profile with some standard properties that generates the observed choices as the set of core elements of the economy for any given initial endowment vector. The approach followed in this paper deviates from the standard rational choice model in that a rationalization in terms of a profile of individual orderings rather than in terms of a single individual or social preference relation is analyzed.; Dans les économies d'échange à deux agents, nous caractérisons les correspondances de choix qui peuvent être rationalisées au sens du noyau.
In spatial environments, we consider social welfare functions satisfying Arrow's requirements. i.e., weak Pareto and independence of irrelevant alternatives. When the policy space os a one-dimensional continuum, such a welfare function is determined by a collection of 2n strictly quasi-concave preferences and a tie-breaking rule. As a corrollary, we obtain that when the number of voters is odd, simple majority voting is transitive if and only if each voter's preference is strictly quasi-concave. When the policy space is multi-dimensional, we establish Arrow's impossibility theorem. Among others, we show that weak Pareto, independence of irrelevant alternatives, and non-dictatorship are inconsistent if the set of alternatives has a non-empty interior and it is compact and convex.; Dans des environnements spatiaux, nous considérons des fonctions de bien-être social satisfaisant les hypothèses d’Arrow, i.e. la faiblesse au sens de Pareto et l’indépendance des alternatives non pertinentes. Lorsque l’espace des politiques est un continuum unidimensionnel, une telle fonction de bien-être est déterminée par une collection de 2 N préférences strictement quasi-concaves et une règle de bris d’égalité. Comme corollaire, nous obtenons que...