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The medical management of Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy

Lim, W.; Torpy, D.; Jeffries, W.
Fonte: Elsevier Sci Ireland Ltd Publicador: Elsevier Sci Ireland Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
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Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy is a rare metabolic condition that is associated with high maternal and foetal morbidity. Clinical symptoms may mimic those of normal pregnancy. A diagnosis is best made based on clinical presentation, laboratory and imaging findings as well as a high index of suspicion. Medical management with anti-steroidogenic agents such as metyrapone has been shown to be effective, but surgery is usually the recommended treatment option. Its main limitation is optimal timing of the procedure in late first trimester or early second trimester to prevent spontaneous termination of pregnancy. We describe our experience and management of a 39-year-old patient with uncontrolled hypertension at 25 weeks gestation which was later diagnosed as ACTH independent Cushing's syndrome and had a favourable pregnancy outcome. The role of medical therapy and its challenges, as well as its impact on pregnancy outcomes, were explored by a literature search conducted through Pubmed and Medline databases. A total of 12 patients with Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy were reported to have been managed with metyrapone, with ketoconazole being studied to a significant degree in three cases. Of these women, 53% delivered close to term and 20% developed pre-eclampsia. Despite two neonatal deaths and one stillborn reported...

Clinical judgment to estimate pretest probability in the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome under a Bayesian perspective; Contribuição do julgamento clínico na estimativa da probabilidade pré-teste do diagnóstico da síndrome de Cushing sob a perspectiva Bayesiana

Cipoli, Daniel Eduardo; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Castro, Margaret de; Moreira, Ayrton Custodio
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia; SÃO PAULO Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia; SÃO PAULO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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66.65%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the pretest probability of Cushing's syndrome (CS) diagnosis by a Bayesian approach using intuitive clinical judgment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Physicians were requested, in seven endocrinology meetings, to answer three questions: "Based on your personal expertise, after obtaining clinical history and physical examination, without using laboratorial tests, what is your probability of diagnosing Cushing's Syndrome?"; "For how long have you been practicing Endocrinology?"; and "Where do you work?". A Bayesian beta regression, using the WinBugs software was employed. RESULTS: We obtained 294 questionnaires. The mean pretest probability of CS diagnosis was 51.6% (95%CI: 48.7-54.3). The probability was directly related to experience in endocrinology, but not with the place of work. CONCLUSION: Pretest probability of CS diagnosis was estimated using a Bayesian methodology. Although pretest likelihood can be context-dependent, experience based on years of practice may help the practitioner to diagnosis CS. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2012;56(9):633-7

Severe hypertension and hypokalemia as first clinical manifestations in ectopic Cushing's syndrome

Fernández-Rodríguez,Eva; Villar-Taibo,Rocío; Pinal-Osorio,Iria; Cabezas-Agrícola,José Manuel; Anido-Herranz,Urbano; Prieto,Alma; Casanueva,Felipe F; Araujo-Vilar,David
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2008 EN
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Ectopic ACTH production occurs in about 10% of all cases of Cushing's syndrome, and about 25% of cases of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. Diverse tumor types are able to produce ACTH ectopically, including small cell lung carcinoma. Ectopic ACTH secretion by malignant neoplasm has been reported to have earlier and more aggressive metabolic effects. We report a 59-year-old male patient with severe hypertension, metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia as the first clinical manifestations of an ACTH-secreting small cell lung carcinoma, although the typical phenotypic features of Cushing's syndrome were not present. Ectopic Cushing's syndrome should always be ruled out in patients with severe hypertension and hypokalemia.

Clinical judgment to estimate pretest probability in the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome under a Bayesian perspective

Cipoli,Daniel E.; Martinez,Edson Z.; Castro,Margaret de; Moreira,Ayrton C.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 EN
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66.65%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the pretest probability of Cushing's syndrome (CS) diagnosis by a Bayesian approach using intuitive clinical judgment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Physicians were requested, in seven endocrinology meetings, to answer three questions: "Based on your personal expertise, after obtaining clinical history and physical examination, without using laboratorial tests, what is your probability of diagnosing Cushing's Syndrome?"; "For how long have you been practicing Endocrinology?"; and "Where do you work?". A Bayesian beta regression, using the WinBugs software was employed. RESULTS: We obtained 294 questionnaires. The mean pretest probability of CS diagnosis was 51.6% (95%CI: 48.7-54.3). The probability was directly related to experience in endocrinology, but not with the place of work. CONCLUSION: Pretest probability of CS diagnosis was estimated using a Bayesian methodology. Although pretest likelihood can be context-dependent, experience based on years of practice may help the practitioner to diagnosis CS. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2012;56(9):633-7

Screening and diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome

Castro,Margaret de; Moreira,Ayrton C.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2007 EN
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66.65%
Cushing's syndrome (CS) results from sustained pathologic hypercortisolism. The clinical features are variable and the most specific features for CS include abnormal fat distribution, particularly in the supraclavicular and temporal fossae, proximal muscle weakness, wide purple striae, and decreased linear growth with continued weight gain in a child. Clinical presentation of CS can be florid and in this case the diagnosis is usually straightforward. However, the diagnosis can be difficult particularly in states of mild or cyclical or periodical hypercortisolism. Several tests based on the understanding of the physiologic characteristics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis have been used extensively to confirm the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome, but none has proven fully capable of distinguishing all cases of CS from normal and/or pseudo-Cushing individuals. Three first-line diagnostic tests are currently used to screen for CS: measurement of free cortisol in 24-hour urine (UFC), cortisol suppressibility by low doses of dexamethasone (DST), and assessment of cortisol circadian rhythm using late-night serum and/or salivary cortisol. This paper discusses the effectiveness regarding best cut-off values, the sensitivity and the specificity of these tests to screen for CS. Late-night salivary cortisol appears to be the most useful screening test. UFC and DST should be performed to provide further confirmation of the diagnosis.

Differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome

Newell-Price,John; Grossman,Ashley B.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2007 EN
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The differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome requires careful multidisciplinary interaction with a number of specialities, co-ordinated through endocrine centres with good experience of this condition. It is essential that the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome be fully established before differential diagnosis is attempted. The endocrinologist needs to be aware of the pitfalls and advantages of the tests in use. We discuss the approach to the differential diagnosis of this challenging condition.

Pitfalls in the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome

Vilar,Lucio; Freitas,Maria da Conceição; Faria,Manuel; Montenegro,Renan; Casulari,Luiz Augusto; Naves,Luciana; Bruno,Oscar D.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2007 EN
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66.65%
Among endocrine disorders, Cushing's syndrome (CS) is certainly one of the most challenging to endocrinologists due to the difficulties that often appear during investigation. The diagnosis of CS involves two steps: confirmation of hypercortisolism and determination of its etiology. Biochemical confirmation of the hypercortisolaemic state must be established before any attempt at differential diagnosis. Failure to do so will result in misdiagnosis, inappropriate treatment, and poor management. It should also be kept in mind that hypercortisolism may occur in some patients with depression, alcoholism, anorexia nervosa, generalized resistance to glucocorticoids, and in late pregnancy. Moreover, exogenous or iatrogenic hypercortisolism should always be excluded. The three most useful tests to confirm hypercortisolism are the measurement of 24-h urinary free cortisol levels, low-dose dexamethasone-suppression tests, and determination of midnight serum cortisol or late-night salivary cortisol. However, none of these tests is perfect, each one has different sensitivities and specificities, and several are usually needed to provide a better diagnostic accuracy. The greatest challenge in the investigation of CS involves the differentiation between Cushing's disease and ectopic ACTH syndrome. This task requires the measurement of plasma ACTH levels...

Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease and Cushing's syndrome

Horvath,Anelia; Stratakis,Constantine
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2007 EN
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Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a form of bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia that is often associated with corticotrophin (ACTH)-independent Cushing's syndrome (CS) and is characterized by small to normal-sized adrenal glands containing multiple small cortical pigmented nodules (1,2). PPNAD may occur in an isolated form or associated with a multiple neoplasia syndrome, the complex of spotty skin pigmentation, myxomas, and endocrine overactivity, or Carney complex, in which Cushing's syndrome is the most common endocrine manifestation (3). Molecular studies have led to the identification of several genes, defects in which may predispose PPNAD formation; all of these molecules play important role for the cAMP signaling pathway. This review intends to present the most recent knowledge of the pathology and molecular genetics of the benign bilateral adrenocortical lesions, as well as to discuss the modern tools for diagnostics and treatment of this condition.

Unusual causes of Cushing's syndrome

Vassiliadi,Dimitra; Tsagarakis,Stylianos
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2007 EN
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Although in the majority of the patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS), hypercortisolism is due to ACTH hypersecretion by a pituitary tumour or to ectopic ACTH secretion from an extrapituitary neoplastic lesion or to autonomous cortisol secretion by an adrenal tumour, in occasional patients a much rarer entity may be the cause of the syndrome. Herein, we attempted to summarise and categorise these unusual causes according to their presumed aetiology. To this end, we performed a comprehensive computer-based search for unusual or rare causes of CS. The following unusual forms of CS were identified: (i) ACTH hyperesecretion due to ectopic corticotroph adenomas in the parasellar region or the neurohypophysis, or as part of double adenomas, or gangliocytomas; (ii) ACTH hypersecretion due to ectopic CRH or CRH-like peptide secretion by various neoplasms; (iii) ACTH-independent cortisol hypersecretion from ectopic or bilateral adrenal adenomas; (iv) glucocorticoid hypersensitivity; (v) iatrogenic, due to megestrol administration or to ritonavir and fluticasone co-administration. Such unusual presentations of CS illustrate why Cushing's syndrome represents one of the most puzzling endocrine syndromes.

Pediatric Cushing's syndrome: clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment

Chan,Li F.; Storr,Helen L.; Grossman,Ashley B.; Savage,Martin O.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2007 EN
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66.61%
Cushing's syndrome (CS) results from prolonged exposure to supraphysiological levels of circulating glucocorticoids, endogenously or exogenously derived. Although rare in childhood, CS remains a difficult condition to diagnose and treat. A multidisciplinary approach and close collaboration with adult colleagues is adopted at most large centres that manage pediatric CS patients. Although pediatric protocols are derived from adult data, significant differences exist between adult and childhood CS. Furthermore, long term outcome parameters including final height, bone mineral density, reproductive function, body composition and psychological health pose challenges for pediatric care. This article will aim to provide an overall view of pediatric CS highlighting some of the differences between adult and pediatric CS.

Cushing's syndrome in pregnancy: an overview

Vilar,Lucio; Freitas,Maria da Conceição; Lima,Lúcia Helena C.; Lyra,Ruy; Kater,Claudio E.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2007 EN
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66.7%
Cushing's syndrome (CS) during pregnancy is a rare condition with fewer than 150 cases reported in the literature. Adrenal adenomas were found to be the commonest cause, followed by Cushing's disease. The gestation dramatically affects the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, resulting in increased hepatic production of corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), increased levels of serum, salivary and urinary free cortisol, lack of suppression of cortisol levels after dexamethasone administration and placental production of CRH and ACTH. Moreover, a blunted response of ACTH and cortisol to exogenous CRH may also occur. Therefore, the diagnosis of CS during pregnancy is much more difficult. Misdiagnosis of CS is also common, as the syndrome may be easily confused with preeclampsia or gestational diabetes. Because CS during pregnancy is usually associated with severe maternal and fetal complications, its early diagnosis and treatment are critical. Surgery is the treatment of choice for CS in pregnancy, except perhaps in the late third trimester, with medical therapy being a second choice. There does not seem to be a rationale for supportive treatment alone.

Imaging in Cushing's syndrome

Sahdev,Anju; Reznek,Rodney H.; Evanson,Jane; Grossman,Ashley B.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2007 EN
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66.61%
Once the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (CS) has been established, the main step is to differentiate between ACTH dependent and independent disease. In adults, 80% of CS is due to ACTH-dependent causes and 20% due to adrenal causes. ACTH-secreting neoplasms cause ACTH-dependent CS. These are usually anterior pituitary microadenomas, which result in the classic Cushing's disease. Non-pituitary ectopic sources of ACTH, such as a small-cell lung carcinoma or carcinoid tumours, are the source of the remainder of ACTH-dependent disease. In the majority of patients presenting with clinical and biochemical evidence of CS, modern non-invasive imaging can accurately and efficiently provide the cause and the nature of the underlying pathology. Imaging is essential for determining the source of ACTH in ectopic ACTH production, locating the pituitary tumours and distinguishing adrenal adenomas, carcinomas and hyperplasias. In our chapter we review the adrenal appearances in ACTH-dependent and ACTH-independent CS. We also include a discussion on the use of MRI and CT for the detection and management of pituitary ACTH secreting adenomas. CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis with intravenous injection of contrast medium is the most sensitive imaging modality for the identification of the ectopic ACTH source and detecting adrenal pathology. MRI is used for characterising adrenal adenomas...

Cushing's syndrome: aftermath of the cure

Pivonello,Rosario; De Martino,Maria Cristina; De Leo,Monica; Tauchmanovà,Libuse; Faggiano,Antongiulio; Lombardi,Gaetano; Colao,Annamaria
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2007 EN
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66.68%
Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a chronic and systemic disease caused by endogenous or exogenous hypercortisolism, associated with an increase of mortality rate due to the clinical consequences of glucocorticoid excess, especially cardiovascular diseases. After cure, usually obtained by the surgical removal of the tumor responsible for the disease, the normalization of cortisol secretion is not constantly followed by the recovery of the clinical complications developed during the active disease, and it is often followed by the development of novel clinical manifestations induced by the fall of cortisol levels. These evidences were mostly documented in patients with pituitary-dependent CS, after surgical resection of the pituitary tumor. Indeed, despite an improvement of the mortality rate, metabolic syndrome and the consequent cardiovascular risk have been found to partially persist after disease remission, strictly correlated to the insulin resistance. Skeletal diseases, mainly osteoporosis, improve after normalization of cortisol levels but require a long period of time or the use of specific treatment, mainly bisphosphonates, to reach the normalization of bone mass. A relevant improvement or resolution of mental disturbances has been described in patients cured from CS...

Adipose tissue expression of 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in cushing's syndrome and in obesity

Espíndola-Antunes,Daniela; Kater,Claudio E.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2007 EN
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66.6%
Glucocorticoids have a major role in determining adipose tissue metabolism and distribution. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1) is a NADPH-dependent enzyme highly expressed in the liver and adipose tissue. In most intact cells and tissues it functions as a reductase (to convert inactive cortisone to active cortisol). It has been hypothesized that tissue-specific deregulation of cortisol metabolism may be involved in the complex pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome (MS) and obesity. Transgenic mice overexpressing 11betaHSD1 in adipose tissue develop obesity with all features of the MS, whereas 11betaHSD1-knockout mice are protected from both. The bulk of evidences points to an overexpression and increased activity of 11betaHSD1 also in human adipose tissue. However, 11betaHSD1 seems to adjust local cortisol concentrations independently of its plasma levels. In Cushing's syndrome, 11betaHSD1 is downregulated and may not be responsible for the abdominal fat depots; it also undergoes downregulation in response to weight loss in human obesity. The nonselective 11betaHSD1 inhibitor carbenoxolone improves insulin sensitivity in humans, and selective inhibitors enhance insulin action in diabetic mice liver, thereby lowering blood glucose. Thus...

Daily blood pressure profile in Cushing's syndrome before and after surgery

Kreze,A.; Mikulecky,M.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/1999 EN
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66.84%
No significant difference has been demonstrated in the altered circadian blood pressure pattern between the pituitary-dependent and adrenal forms of Cushing's syndrome before surgery. The effect of therapy, however, proved to be different. The mesor was normalized in the pituitary-dependent Cushing's syndrome more conspicuously for systolic than for diastolic blood pressure. In Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal adenoma, systolic and diastolic blood pressure mesors have been even significantly "overnormalized" after treatment, being 11 to 27 and 2 to 13 mmHg (95% confidence) lower than corresponding mesors in controls. There was no difference between forms in the effect of treatment on blood pressure amplitudes, which remained significantly lower than in controls. Finally, acrophase patterns were partly normalized after treatment of the pituitary-dependent form only for diastolic blood pressure, while both systolic and diastolic blood pressure acrophases were normalized in the treated adrenal form. In conclusion, complete normalization of the pattern of daily blood pressure profile has not been achieved in either form of the syndrome. This may be one of the reasons for the reduced long-term survival after surgical cure of hypercortisolism...

The diversity of abnormal hormone receptors in adrenal Cushing's syndrome allows novel pharmacological therapies

Lacroix,A.; N'Diaye,N.; Mircescu,H.; Tremblay,J.; Hamet,P.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2000 EN
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66.75%
Recent studies from several groups have indicated that abnormal or ectopic expression and function of adrenal receptors for various hormones may regulate cortisol production in ACTH-independent hypercortisolism. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP)-dependent Cushing's syndrome has been described in patients with either unilateral adenoma or bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia; this syndrome results from the large adrenal overexpression of the GIP receptor without any activating mutation. We have conducted a systematic in vivo evaluation of patients with adrenal Cushing's syndrome in order to identify the presence of abnormal hormone receptors. In macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, we have identified, in addition to GIP-dependent Cushing's syndrome, other patients in whom cortisol production was regulated abnormally by vasopressin, ß-adrenergic receptor agonists, hCG/LH, or serotonin 5HT-4 receptor agonists. In patients with unilateral adrenal adenoma, the abnormal expression or function of GIP or vasopressin receptor has been found, but the presence of ectopic or abnormal hormone receptors appears to be less prevalent than in macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. The identification of the presence of an abnormal adrenal receptor offers the possibility of a new pharmacological approach to control hypercortisolism by suppressing the endogenous ligands or by using specific antagonists for the abnormal receptors.

Screening for Cushing's syndrome in obese patients

Tiryakioglu,Ozay; Ugurlu,Serdal; Yalin,Serap; Yirmibescik,Sibel; Caglar,Erkan; Yetkin,Demet Ozgil; Kadioglu,Pinar
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
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66.86%
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of Cushing's syndrome (CS) in obese patients devoid of specific clinical symptoms of Cushing's syndrome. METHODS: A total of 150 obese patients (129 female, 21 male; mean age 44.41 ± 13.34 yr; mean BMI 35.76 ± 7.13) were included in the study. As a first screening step, we measured 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC). An overnight 1-mg dexamethasone suppression test was also performed on all patients. Urinary free cortisol levels above 100 μg/24 h were considered to be abnormal. Suppression of serum cortisol <1.8 μg/dL after administration of 1 mg dexamethasone was the cut-off point for normal suppression. The suppression of the serum cortisol levels failed in all of the patients. RESULTS: Measured laboratory values were as follows: ACTH, median level 28 pg/ml, interquartile range (IQR) 14-59 pg/ml; fasting glucose, 100 (91-113) mg/dL; insulin, 15.7 (7.57-24.45) mU/ml; fT4, 1.17 (1.05-1.4) ng/dL; TSH, 1.70 (0.91-2.90) mIU/L; total cholesterol, 209 (170.5-250) mg/dL; LDL-c, 136 (97.7-163) mg/dL; HDL-c, 44 (37.25-50.75) mg/dL; VLDL-c, 24 (17-36) mg/dL; triglycerides, 120.5 (86-165) mg/dL. The median UFC level of the patients was 30 μg/24 h (IQR 16-103). High levels of UFC (>100 μg/24 h) were recorded in 37 patients (24%). Cushing's syndrome was diagnosed in 14 of the 150 patients (9.33%). Etiologic reasons for Cushing's syndrome were pituitary microadenoma (9 patients)...

Cushing's syndrome in a clinic population with diabetes

Newsome, S; Chen, K; Hoang, J; Wilson, James Dennis; Potter, Julia; Hickman, Peter
Fonte: Blackwell Science Asia Publicador: Blackwell Science Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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66.6%
Background: A recent report has suggested that occult Cushing's syndrome (CS) may be present in a significant number of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to determine whether any patients in our clinic population with diabe

Screening for Cushing's syndrome in obese patients

Tiryakioglu, Ozay; Ugurlu, Serdal; Yalin, Serap; Yirmibescik, Sibel; Caglar, Erkan; Yetkin, Demet Ozgil; Kadioglu, Pinar
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.86%
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of Cushing's syndrome (CS) in obese patients devoid of specific clinical symptoms of Cushing's syndrome. METHODS: A total of 150 obese patients (129 female, 21 male; mean age 44.41 ± 13.34 yr; mean BMI 35.76 ± 7.13) were included in the study. As a first screening step, we measured 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC). An overnight 1-mg dexamethasone suppression test was also performed on all patients. Urinary free cortisol levels above 100 μg/24 h were considered to be abnormal. Suppression of serum cortisol ;100 μg/24 h) were recorded in 37 patients (24%). Cushing's syndrome was diagnosed in 14 of the 150 patients (9.33%). Etiologic reasons for Cushing's syndrome were pituitary microadenoma (9 patients), adrenocortical adenoma (3 patients), and adrenocortical carcinoma (1 patient). CONCLUSION: A significant proportion (9.33%) of patients with simple obesity were found to have Cushing's syndrome. These findings argue that obese patients should be routinely screened for Cushing's syndrome.

Effect of hypercortisolism control on high blood pressure in Cushing's syndrome

Gómez,Reynaldo M.; Albiger,Nora M.E.; Díaz,Adriana G.; Moncet,Daniel; Pitoia,Fabián A.; Bruno,Oscar D.
Fonte: Medicina (Buenos Aires) Publicador: Medicina (Buenos Aires)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2007 EN
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66.73%
Many hypertensive patients affected by endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS) persist with high blood pressure (HBP) despite good control of cortisol excess. We assessed the effect of preoperative ketoconazole administration and of definitive treatment of CS on arterial hypertension and analysed the factors involved in the persistence of hypertension. We assessed retrospectively 71 patients with CS and HBP (60 women, 11 men; 50 pituitary, 21 adrenal) successfully treated by surgery and/or radiotherapy; 19 of them received ketoconazole (KNZ) before surgery. After treatment, patients were divided into those with persistent high blood pressure (PHBP) and those with normal blood pressure (NBP). As possible predictive factors for PHBP we analysed age, duration and family history of HBP, pre-treatment 24 hour urinary free cortisol (24h-UFC) and body mass index (BMI). HBP normalized in 53 out of 71 patients (74.6%), regardless of the origin of Cushing's syndrome. PHBP patients were older (p=0.003), had longer duration (p=0.007) and higher systolic blood pressure before treatment (p=0.046) than NBP patients. Thirteen out of 19 patients (68.4%) treated with ketoconazole, normalized their hypertension and remained normotensive after successful surgery. Five patients became normotensive only after surgery. In conclusion: a) blood pressure levels normalized in most patients after remission of CS; b) ketoconazole was effective for the control of HBP...