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A cross-sectional study on the clinical and immunological spectrum of human Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection in the Brazilian Amazon region

CRESCENTE, Jose Angelo B.; SILVEIRA, Fernando T.; LAINSON, Ralph; GOMES, Claudia M. C.; LAURENTI, Marcia D.; CORBETT, Carlos E. P.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.85%
The objectives of this study were to identify individuals with symptomatic and/or asymptomatic infection due to Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi; to study the two types of infection, both clinically and immunologically, and to determine the prevalence rate of infection at the beginning of the study. This was a cross-sectional study with a cohort of 946 individuals, of both genders, from the age of 1 year, living in the municipality of Barcarena, PA, Brazil, an area endemic for American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). The leishmanin skin test (LST) and the indirect fluorescent test (IFAT), were used for the diagnosis of infection. One hundred and twenty cases of infection were diagnosed, with a prevalence rate of 12.6%; eight cases showed high seroreactivity (1280-10240, IgG) in IFAT and no LST reaction; four of these cases were typical AVL and four had subclinical oligosymptomatic infection. Using two immunological methods with a clinical examination of the infected individuals enabled the identification of five clinical-immunological profiles which may promote a better understanding of the interaction between L. (L.) i. chagasi and the human immune response: asymptomatic infection (AI) 73.4%; subclinical resistant infection (SRI) 15%; subclinicat oligosymptomatic infection (SOI) 3%; symptomatic infection (AVL) 3% and indeterminate initial infection (III) 5%. (C) 2009 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; Instituto Evandro Chagas (Secretaria de Vigilancia em Saude...

Psicodinâmica e qualidade de vida do médico: um estudo transversal em Botucatu-SP; Psychodynamics and physician quality of life: a cross-sectional study in Botucatu-SP

Silva, Benedito Carlos Miranda da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/05/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.84%
INTRODUÇÃO: A Psicodinâmica é o estudo da interação das forças psíquicas que subsidiam o funcionamento mental. A dinâmica mental interfere na qualidade de vida de um indivíduo, na medida em que modifica a percepção que ele tem da própria existência. O papel da psicodinâmica sobre a qualidade de vida ainda é pouco estudado. OBJETIVOS: Estudar, de forma transversal, a relação entre psicodinâmica e qualidade de vida na população de médicos de Botucatu, para testar a hipótese de que quanto melhor a psicodinâmica do médico melhor a sua qualidade de vida. MÉTODOS: Foram enviados questionários, com carta-resposta, para 602 médicos (população referenciada). As variáveis independentes (Psicodinâmica) foram obtidas por meio de duas escalas: a) Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), que avalia e classifica os mecanismos de defesa do ego em maduros, neuróticos e imaturos; b) Bell Object Relations and Reality Test Inventory (BORRTI - Forma O), que avalia e classifica as relações objetais (alienação, egocentrismo, vinculação insegura e incapacidade social) em normais e patológicas. As variáveis dependentes (qualidade de vida) foram avaliadas pelo World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-Abreviado)...

Fatores associados à cesariana segundo fonte de financiamento na Região Sudeste: estudo transversal a partir dos dados de pesquisa 'Nascer no Brasil' Inquérito Nacional sobre Parto e Nascimento; Factors associated with caesarean section according to funding source in the Southeast: cross-sectional study from "Born in Brazil survey

Alonso, Bruna Dias
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/03/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.83%
Introdução: Sabe-se que a cesariana sem indicação clínica está associada a desfechos adversos para a saúde da mulher e de seus filhos a curto e longo prazos. A variação da proporção de cesáreas entre serviços e países não pode ser explicada somente por características inerentes à mulher. Fatores como a fonte de financiamento da assistência também têm forte influência sobre a via de nascimento. Objetivo: Descrever e comparar os fatores socioeconômicos, demográficos, clínicos e obstétricos associados à cesariana entre mulheres assistidas no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e no setor de saúde suplementar (SSS). Método: Estudo transversal, a partir dos dados do inquérito Nascer no Brasil, referentes à Região Sudeste. A amostra foi composta por puérperas que tiveram recém-nascidos vivos, natimortos (peso 500 gramas e/ou idade gestacional 22 semanas) e parto normal ou cesariana, em hospitais com 500 partos em 2007. A associação entre a cesariana e as variáveis estudadas foi verificada por meio de regressão logística binária univariada e múltipla. Calcularam-se odds ratios (OR) brutas e ajustadas e intervalos de confiança (IC) de 95 por cento . Resultados: A amostra foi composta por 9.828 mulheres. A taxa de cesariana foi de 52...

Facial pain associated with fibromyalgia can be marked by abnormal neuromuscular control: A cross-sectional study

Gui, Maísa Soares; Pedroni, Cristiane Rodrigues; Aquino, Luana M. Martins; Pimentel, Marcele Jardim; Alves, Marcelo Correa; Rossini, Sueli; Reimão, Rubens; Berzin, Fausto; Marques, Amélia Pasqual; Rizzatti-Barbosa, Célia Marisa
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1092-1101
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.91%
Background. Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) development in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is not yet fully understood, but altered neuromuscular control in FMS may play a role in triggering TMD. Objective. The purpose of this study was to verify the association between neuromuscular control and chronic facial pain in groups of patients with FMS and TMD. Design. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Methods. This study involved an analysis of facial pain and electromyographic activity of the masticatory muscles in patients with FMS (n=27) and TMD (n=28). All participants were evaluated according to Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders and surface electromyography (SEMG). Myoelectric signal calculations were performed using the root mean square and median frequency of signals. Results. The data revealed premature interruption of masticatory muscle contraction in both patient groups, but a significant correlation also was found between higher median frequency values and increased facial pain. This correlation probably was related to FMS because it was not found in patients with TMD only. Facial pain and increased SEMG activity during mandibular rest also were positively correlated. Limitations. Temporal conclusions cannot be drawn from the study. Also...

A comparative cross-sectional study on the prevalence and morbidity of schistosomiasis in a community in northeastern Brazil (1979-2010)

Melo,Eric Vinaud de; Costa,Walfredo da; Conceição,Maria José; Coura,José Rodrigues
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.84%
A cross-sectional study on the prevalence and morbidity of schistosomiasis was conducted in the main settlement of the municipality of Alhandra, in the southern coastal region of the state of Paraíba, in 2010. The results of this study were compared with the results of a previous study conducted in the same area in 1979. The systematic sampling per family conglomerate included approximately 10% of the resident population in the urban area of Alhandra. Faecal examinations were performed using the Kato-Katz method. The clinical forms of the disease were classified in accordance with FS Barbosa as Type I - intestinal form, Type II - hepatointestinal form and Type III - hepatosplenic form. The prevalence of the infection in 2010 was 10.05%, whereas in 1979 it was 46.6% among untreated patients. The percentages of the three clinical forms in 2010 were as follows: 95.3% Type I, 4.6% Type II and 0% Type III; in 1979, the percentages were 94.4%, 3% and 2.6% for Types I, II and III, respectively. In 1979, 6.07% of the Biomphalaria glabrata specimens (the intermediate host in this area) excreted cercariae, where in 2010 only 1.27% of the specimens caught excreted the parasite.

Epidemiology of total hip and knee replacement: a cross-sectional study

Lenza,Mario; Ferraz,Silvia de Barros; Viola,Dan Carai Maia; Garcia Filho,Reynaldo Jesus; Cendoroglo Neto,Miguel; Ferretti,Mario
Fonte: Instituto Israelita de Ensino e Pesquisa Albert Einstein Publicador: Instituto Israelita de Ensino e Pesquisa Albert Einstein
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.81%
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiologic characteristics and adverse events of patients submitted to total hip and total knee replacement. METHODS: A cross-sectional study retrospectively assessing medical chart data of all total hip and total knee replacements performed at a private hospital, between January 2007 and December 2010 Patients submitted to total hip and total knee replacement, with consent of surgeons were included. Incomplete records and/or missing data of the hospital database were excluded. The categorical variables analyzed were age, gender, type of arthroplasty (primary or secondary), type of procedure, duration of surgery, use of drains, risk of infection, compliance to protocol for prevention of deep venous thrombosis and embolism pulmonary, and compliance to the protocol for prevention of infection. The outcomes assessed were adverse events after surgery. RESULTS: A total of 510 patients were included; in that, 166 admissions for knee replacements (92 male) and 344 admissions for hip replacements (176 female). The mean age of patients was 71 years (range 31-99 years). Adverse events were reported in 76 patients (14.9%); there was no correlation between assessed variables and number of complications. CONCLUSION: The results showed no individual factors favoring complications in patients submitted to total hip and total knee replacement; hence...

Joint Association of Dietary Pattern and Physical Activity Level with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study

Wang, Dong; He, Yuna; Li, Yanping; Luan, Dechun; Zhai, Fengying; Yang, Xiaoguang; Ma, Guansheng
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.83%
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the joint associations of physical activity level (PAL) and dietary patterns in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Chinese men. The study population consisted of 13 511 Chinese males aged 18–59 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey. Based on dietary data collected by a food frequency questionnaire, four dietary patterns were identified and labeled as “Green Water” (high consumption of rice, vegetables, seafood, pork, and poultry), “Yellow Earth” (high consumption of wheat flour products and starchy tubers), “New Affluent” (high consumption of animal sourced foods and soybean products), and “Western Adopter” (high consumption of animal sourced foods, cakes, and soft drinks). From the information collected by a 1-year physical activity questionnaire, PAL was calculated and classified into 4 categories: sedentary, low active, active, and very active. As compared with their counterparts from the New Affluent pattern, participants who followed the Green Water pattern had a lower likelihood of abdominal obesity (AO; 50.2%), hypertension (HT; 37.9%), hyperglycemia (HG; 41.5%), elevated triglyceride (ETG; 14.5%)...

Homocysteine and Carotid Plaque Stability: A Cross-Sectional Study in Chinese Adults

Yang, Xin; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Chao; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Anxin; Guo, Yuming; Li, Wen; Zhao, Xingquan; Liang, Wannian
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.83%
Background and Purpose This study aimed to explore the possible association of plasma total homocysteine with carotid plaque stability. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2010 to 2011. A stratified random sample of 2,919 Chinese participants aged 40 years or older was enrolled. Plasma total homocysteine levels were measured and carotid plaques were evaluated by ultrasonography. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the association of homocysteine levels to the progression of carotid plaque development, while adjusting for demographics and vascular risk factors. Results: The mean level of plasma homocysteine in the subjects was 14.9 µmol/l. Along with increase in homocysteine level, the risk of advanced carotid plaque elevated (odds ratio = 1.28; 95% confidence interval = 1.09–1.51) after adjusting for age, sex, and other potential confounders. Stratified by sex, higher homocysteine level was strongly associated with advanced carotid plaque in men (OR = 1.41; 95% confidence interval = 1.17–1.70), but not in women. Conclusion: The findings suggest that plasma level of homocysteine may be associated with advanced carotid plaque, which constitutes high risks of stroke, in male Chinese adults.

A cross-sectional survey of supports for evidence-informed decision-making in healthcare organisations: a research protocol

Ouimet, Mathieu; Lavis, John N; Léon, Grégory; Ellen, Moriah E; Bédard, Pierre-Olivier; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.93%
Background: This protocol builds on the development of a) a framework that identified the various supports (i.e. positions, activities, interventions) that a healthcare organisation or health system can implement for evidence-informed decision-making (EIDM) and b) a qualitative study that showed the current mix of supports that some Canadian healthcare organisations have in place and the ones that are perceived to facilitate the use of research evidence in decision-making. Based on these findings, we developed a web survey to collect cross-sectional data about the specific supports that regional health authorities and hospitals in two Canadian provinces (Ontario and Quebec) have in place to facilitate EIDM. Methods/design This paper describes the methods for a cross-sectional web survey among 32 regional health authorities and 253 hospitals in the provinces of Quebec and Ontario (Canada) to collect data on the current mix of organisational supports that these organisations have in place to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making. The data will be obtained through a two-step survey design: a 10-min survey among CEOs to identify key units and individuals in regard to our objectives (step 1) and a 20-min survey among managers of the key units identified in step 1 to collect information about the activities performed by their unit regarding the acquisition...

Moving beyond essential interventions for reduction of maternal mortality (the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health): a cross-sectional study

Souza, J.; Crowther, C.
Fonte: Lancet Ltd Publicador: Lancet Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.81%
BACKGROUND We report the main findings of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS), which aimed to assess the burden of complications related to pregnancy, the coverage of key maternal health interventions, and use of the maternal severity index (MSI) in a global network of health facilities. METHODS In our cross-sectional study, we included women attending health facilities in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East that dealt with at least 1000 childbirths per year and had the capacity to provide caesarean section. We obtained data from analysis of hospital records for all women giving birth and all women who had a severe maternal outcome (SMO; ie, maternal death or maternal near miss). We regarded coverage of key maternal health interventions as the proportion of the target population who received an indicated intervention (eg, the proportion of women with eclampsia who received magnesium sulphate). We used areas under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUROC) with 95% CI to externally validate a previously reported MSI as an indicator of severity. We assessed the overall performance of care (ie, the ability to produce a positive effect on health outcomes) through standardised mortality ratios. RESULTS From May 1...

The prevalence and correlates of supportive care needs in testicular cancer survivors: a cross-sectional study

Smith, A.; King, M.; Butow, P.; Luckett, T.; Grimison, P.; Toner, G.; Stockler, M.; Hovey, E.; Stubbs, J.; Hruby, G.; Gurney, H.; Turner, S.; Alam, M.; Cox, K.; Olver, I.
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons Ltd Publicador: John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.81%
OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence and correlates of supportive care needs in testicular cancer (TC) survivors. METHODS: Men who had completed active anti-cancer treatment for TC between 6 months and 5 years previously showing no evidence of recurrence were recruited from 14 Australian cancer centers (September 2009-February 2011). Participants completed a self-report questionnaire measuring sociodemographics, disease, and treatment information, supportive care needs (CaSUN), psychological distress (DASS21) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL; SF36v2). RESULTS: Of the 486 eligible TC survivors invited to participate, 244 completed the questionnaire. Sixty-six percent reported one or more unmet supportive care needs. The mean number of unmet needs was 4.73 (SD = 7.0, Range = 0-34). The most common unmet needs related primarily to existential survivorship issues (e.g., life stress) and relationships (e.g., sex life). Younger age and presence of chronic illness other than TC were significantly associated with higher number of unmet needs. The number of unmet needs was more highly correlated with psychological distress and HRQoL than unmet need strength. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of TC survivors reported one or more unmet needs. Unmet needs regarding existential survivorship issues were frequently reported by TC survivors despite their favorable prognosis. Relationships unmet needs were less prevalent but still more common than in breast and gynecological cancer survivors. These findings appear to be related to the young age of TC survivors. As a higher number of unmet needs is significantly associated with psychological morbidity and impaired HRQoL...

Statin prescribing in Australia: socioeconomic and sex differences - A cross-sectional study

Stocks, N.; Ryan, P.; McElroy, H.; Allan, J.
Fonte: Australasian Med Publ Co Ltd Publicador: Australasian Med Publ Co Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.81%
OBJECTIVE: To assess if there are any differences in statin prescribing across Australia by socioeconomic status or sex and to relate prescribing rates to coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using data on statin prescribing by age, sex and patient postcode for the period May to December 2002. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The Australian population, stratified by sex and quintile of Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage (IRSD). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age-standardised rates of statin scripts per 1000 population per month for each sex and IRSD quintile. RESULTS: 9.1 million prescriptions for statins were supplied between May and December 2002, for a total cost of $570 million. The age-standardised rates for statin prescribing in women varied from 56.9 (95% CI, 56.6–57.2) scripts per 1000 population per month in the most disadvantaged socioeconomic quintile through 53.4 (95% CI, 53.0–53.7), 50.3 (95% CI, 50.0–50.6), 48.4 (95% CI, 48.1–48.7) to 46.3 (95% CI, 46.0–46.6) in the least disadvantaged quintile. For men the figures were 52.6 (95% CI, 52.3–52.9), 50.9 (95% CI, 50.6–51.2), 48.8 (95% CI, 48.6–49.1), 47.7 (95% CI, 47.4–47.9), and 51.9 (95% CI, 51.6–52.2). There was a significant linear association between statin prescribing and CHD mortality by quintile of socioeconomic disadvantage in women (weighted least squares slope...

Do advertisements for antihypertensive drugs in Australia promote quality prescribing? A cross-sectional study

Montgomery, B.; Mansfield, P.; Spurling, G.; Ward, A.
Fonte: BioMed Central Ltd. Publicador: BioMed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.83%
Background Antihypertensive medications are widely prescribed by doctors and heavily promoted by the pharmaceutical industry. Despite strong evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of thiazide diuretics, trends in both promotion and prescription of antihypertensive drugs favour newer, less cost-effective agents. Observational evidence shows correlations between exposure to pharmaceutical promotion and less ideal prescribing. Our study therefore aimed to determine whether print advertisements for antihypertensive medications promote quality prescribing in hypertension. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 113 advertisements for antihypertensive drugs from 4 general practice-oriented Australian medical publications in 2004. Advertisements were evaluated using a quality checklist based on a review of hypertension management guidelines. Main outcome measures included: frequency with which antihypertensive classes were advertised, promotion of thiazide class drugs as first line agents, use of statistical claims in advertisements, mention of harms and prices in the advertisements, promotion of assessment and treatment of cardiovascular risk, promotion of lifestyle modification, and targeting of particular patient subgroups. Results Thiazides were the most frequently advertised drug class (48.7% of advertisements)...

The evaluation of higher dental education in Brazil: A cross-sectional study

Grazziotin-Soares,Renata; Reichert,Leandro de Azambuja; Busato,Adair Luiz Stefanello; Mattos,Airton Pozo de; Barbosa,Alcebíades Nunes; Fontanella,Vania Regina Camargo
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.83%
PURPOSE: In Brazil, the SINAES is a process that is currently used to assess higher education institutions, undergraduate programs and students' performance on the ENADE national exam. This study aimed at assessing the Brazilian undergraduate programs in Dentistry, inquiring if the evaluation results induced to changes to improve the teaching-learning process. METHODS: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire that was e-mailed to 165 professors/coordinators of undergraduate programs in Dentistry in Brazil in 2003/2004. The data analysis was based on the themes of the various open- and closed-ended questions: questions 1, 2, 3 and 4 referred to the evaluation of each institution and its undergraduate program, whereas questions 5, 6 and 7 referred to the ENADE. RESULTS: Changes to improve the quality of teaching in Dentistry and the education of new professionals were driven by the results of the evaluation. These changes were implemented at all institutions that returned the completed questionnaires. CONCLUSION: Improvements in the quality of Brazilian Dentistry will only be possible if the education of the students and the professors is improved.

Burnout syndrome and weekly workload of on-call physicians: cross-sectional study

Barbosa,Fabiano Timbó; Leão,Bruna Acioly; Tavares,Gisélia Maria Sales; Santos,João Gustavo Rocha Peixoto dos
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.83%
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Burnout syndrome (BS) is characterized by three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal fulfillment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate a possible association between BS and weekly workload, and to describe the prevalence of BS and the sociodemographic and occupational profile of on-call physicians in Maceió. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in intensive care units (ICU) at public and private hospitals in Maceió. METHODS: A self-administered form was used to evaluate sociodemographic characteristics and BS through the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) among 67 on-call physicians at ICUs in Maceió. Pearson's R correlation test was used to compare workload and emotional exhaustion. For other dimensions, Spearman's S test was used (P < 0.05). Other variables were represented by simple frequencies. The 95% confidence interval was calculated for each variable. RESULTS: Among the physicians studied, 55.22% were female and the mean age was 43.9 ± 8.95 years. The mean weekly workload on call was 43.85 ± 24.49 hours. The frequency of high scores in at least one of the three dimensions of MBI was 70.14%. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high prevalence of BS, especially among physicians who did not practice regular physical activity...

Unintended pregnancy among female sex workers in Mekelle city, northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

Weldegebreal, R.; Melaku, Y.A.; Alemayehu, M.; Gebrehiwot, T.G.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.83%
BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancy is a significant public health concern in the world. Particularly, female sex workers are exposed to the risk of unintended pregnancy, abortion and their consequences. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess unintended pregnancy and associated factors among female sex workers in Mekelle city, northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 346 female sex workers from five Kebelles (smallest administrative units in Ethiopia) of Mekelle city from March-April, 2014. Sex workers were selected with simple random sampling technique using sampling frame obtained from urban health extension program. Epi-data version 3.1 was used to enter data and analysis was done using SPSS version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify factors associated with unintended pregnancy using odds ratio and 95% confidence interval with P-value of 0.05. RESULTS: The magnitude of unintended pregnancy among female sex workers in the past two years was 28.6%. During this period, 59 women had abortion which represents three-fifths, (59.6%), of those who had unintended pregnancies, and 17.1% of all female sex workers. Female sex workers who gave birth and had history of abortion formerly had 3.1 (AOR = 3.07...

Sexual and reproductive health communication and awareness of contraceptive methods among secondary school female students, northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

Melaku, Y.A.; Berhane, Y.; Kinsman, J.; Reda, H.L.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.84%
BACKGROUND: Adolescent girls continue to fall victim to unintended pregnancy and its consequences, with particular problems arising in low income countries. Awareness about methods of contraception is an important step towards gaining access and using suitable contraceptive methods. However, studies assessing the relationship between sexual and reproductive health communication and awareness of contraceptive methods among secondary school female students are lacking. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 807 female students in six secondary schools in Mekelle town, Ethiopia. Study participants were selected with a stratified cluster sampling technique. Data collection was carried out using a structured, self-administered questionnaire, and data entry was done using EPI Info Version 3.3.2 software. The data were then cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine factors associated with awareness of female students on methods of contraception. RESULT: Of all the students, 127(15.8%) reported ever having had sex, of whom 109(85.8%) had ever used contraceptives. Twenty (16%) of the sexually active students reported having been pregnant, of whom 18(90%) terminated their pregnancies with induced abortion. Discussion on sexual and reproductive health matters with their parent/s and peer/s in the six months prior to the study was reported by 351(43.5%) and 493(61.1%) of the students respectively. 716(88%) students were aware of different methods of contraception. Discussing sexual and reproductive health issues with parents (AOR=2.56(95% CI: 1.45...

Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Patterns of Dedifferentiation in Late-Life Cognitive and Sensory Function: The Effects of Age, Ability, Attrition, and Occasion of Measurement

Anstey, Kaarin; Hofer, Scott; Luszcz, Mary A
Fonte: American Psychological Association Publicador: American Psychological Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.89%
The dedifferentiation hypothesis is examined with respect to age-group differences, ability-group differences, attrition-group differences, and time. Cognitive and sensory data were analyzed from individuals (n = 1,823) who completed a clinical assessment on at least 1 of 3 occasions of measurement in the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Inconsistent dedifferentiation effects were associated with low ability and early attrition from the study, but age-related dedifferentiation was not found. Longitudinal analyses confirmed the cross-sectional analyses. Even though instances of dedifferentiation were identified between pairs of sensory and cognitive variables, consistent patterns of dedifferentiation were not found. These results do not support the view that shared biological factors become increasingly important for explaining within-individual change in cognitive and sensory function in later life.

QUARA Project – Prevalence of abuse, mistreatment and other forms of aggression during medical education: a cross-sectional study in São Paulo, Brazil, 2013; Projeto QUARA - Prevalência de abusos, maus-tratos e outras agressões durante a formação médica: um estudo de corte transversal em São Paulo, Brasil, 2013

Barreto, Abraão Deyvid Alves de Lima; Babler, Fernanda; Quaresma, Irene Yamamoto do Vale; Arakaki, Juliana Naomy Lacerda; Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Avaliado pelos pares Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 05/03/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.81%
Introduction: Studies describe a high prevalence of aggression, abuse and mistreatment between medical students and suggest that victimized students feel more depressed, unsatisfied with the medical career and tend to have a lower self-esteem. The studies that estimate the magnitude of this problem in Brazil are rare. Our goal is to estimate the prevalence of abuse, mistreatment and other aggressions between medical students during graduation considering the type, perpetuator, frequency and perceived severity. Methods: Cross-sectional study with medical students from a Brazilian university. An online survey was sent to 1072 students - 344 responded and 317 were included in this analysis. The data was collected with REDCap, between 09/11/2013 and 12/13/2013. Results: The average age was 22,24 years (+-2,89), 49% were men and about 45% were basic stage students. Most (92.31%) reported suffering at least one type of aggression during the graduation. The most common type was belittlement/humiliation (73.1%), followed by verbal aggression (59.99%). The prevalence of sexual abuse or discrimination was high (43.32%) and 13% reported physical violence. The main perpetuators are, respectively, the students themselves (83.75%) and the teachers (72.8%). About 30% of the students have been assaulted 5 or more times and 70% of the victims consider the episodes very important. Conclusion: The prevalence of aggression...

Prevalence of smoking habits, attitudes, knowledge and beliefs among Health Professional School students: a cross-sectional study

Ferrante,Margherita; Saulle,Rosella; Ledda,Caterina; Pappalardo,Roberto; Fallico,Roberto; La Torre,Giuseppe; Fiore,Maria
Fonte: Istituto Superiore di Sanità Publicador: Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
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OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: 422 students answered to the questionnaire. Prevalence of current smokers was 38.2%. 94.3% of the total sample believe that health professionals should receive specific training to quit smoking, but only 21.3% of the sample received it during the study courses. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of smokers among health professionals and their key role both as advisers and behavioral models, our results highlight the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training addressed to them.