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Métodos para estimar razão de prevalência em estudos de corte transversal; Methods for estimating prevalence ratios in cross-sectional studies; Métodos para estimar razón de prevalencia en estudios de cohorte transversal

COUTINHO, Leticia M S; SCAZUFCA, Marcia; MENEZES, Paulo R
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
96%
OBJETIVO: Comparar empiricamente as regressões de Cox, log-binomial, Poisson e logística para estimar razões de prevalência em estudos de corte transversal. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados dados de um estudo epidemiológico transversal (n=2.072), de base populacional, realizado com idosos na cidade de São Paulo (SP), entre maio de 2003 e abril de 2005. Diagnósticos de demência, possíveis casos de transtorno mental comum e autopercepção de saúde ruim foram escolhidos como desfechos com prevalência baixa, intermediária e alta, respectivamente. Foram utilizadas variáveis de confusão com duas ou mais categorias ou valores contínuos. Valores de referência para estimativas por ponto e por intervalo para as razões de prevalência (RP) foram obtidos pelo método de estratificação de Mantel-Haenszel. Estimativas ajustadas foram calculadas utilizando regressões de Cox e Poisson com variância robusta, e regressão log-binomial. Odds ratios (OR) brutos e ajustados foram obtidos pela regressão logística. RESULTADOS: As estimativas por ponto e por intervalo obtidas pelas regressões de Cox e Poisson foram semelhantes à obtida pela estratificação de Mantel-Haenszel, independentemente da prevalência do desfecho e das covariáveis do modelo. O modelo log-binomial apresentou dificuldade de convergência quando o desfecho tinha prevalência alta e havia covariável contínua no modelo. A regressão logística produziu estimativas por ponto e por intervalo maiores do que as obtidas pelos outros métodos...

A contribuição de estudos transversais na área da linguagem com enfoque em afasia; Contribution of cross-section studies in the language area with focus on aphasia

SITTA, Érica Ibelli; ARAKAWA, Aline Megumi; CALDANA, Magali de Lourdes; PERES, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho Sales
Fonte: CEFAC Saúde e Educação Publicador: CEFAC Saúde e Educação
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.99%
TEMA: um dos delineamentos mais empregados na pesquisa epidemiológica consiste no estudo transversal. Este consiste em uma ferramenta de grande utilidade para a descrição de características da população e para a identificação de grupos de risco. Considerando a afasia uma desintegração da linguagem, é necessário compreender as dissociações e comprometimentos pertinentes. OBJETIVO: analisar estudos epidemiológicos de caráter transversal que focam alterações em pacientes afásicos adultos para investigação das suas principais manifestações. CONCLUSÃO: estudos transversais mostram meios de buscar compreender como esta modificação de saúde abrange os sinais e sintomas relacionados. Considerando que a linguagem por ser um meio de comunicação privilegiado, para o afásico, a perda desse instrumento torna-se uma fonte de isolamento e de solidão. Assim, a identificação de indivíduos portadores de afasia pode contribuir ao diagnóstico preciso, corroborando a compreensão dos achados fonoaudiológicos em linguagem e no auxílio à reabilitação. Porém, estas evidências científicas deverão ser efetivadas em conjunto aos estudos longitudinais para dar suporte à criação de novas técnicas e estratégias de recuperação para os lesionados cerebrais favorecendo a melhora da comunicação e consequente interatividade.; BACKGROUND: one of the most widely delineations used in epidemiological research is the cross-sectional study. It consists of a very useful tool for describing characteristics of the population and identifying risk groups. Considering aphasia as a disintegration of language...

Independent and Combined Effects of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior on Blood Pressure in Adolescents: Gender Differences in Two Cross-Sectional Studies

de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Carvalho, Heráclito Barbosa; Rey-López, Juan Pablo; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Beghin, Laurent; Kafatos, Anthony; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Molnar, Dénes; De Henauw, Stefaan; Manios, Yannis; Widhalm, Kurt; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; O
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.93%
Objectives: To examine the independent and combined association of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) on both systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in adolescents from two observational studies. Methods: Participants from two cross-sectional studies, one conducted in Europe (n = 3,308; HELENA study) and the other in Brazil (n = 991; BRACAH study), were selected by complex sampling. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (outcomes), PA and SB, both independently and combined, and potential confounders were analyzed. Associations were examined by multilevel linear regression. Results: Performing the recommended amount of PA (≥60 min/d) attenuated the effect of SB on DBP in BRACAH study girls and in boys from both studies. In contrast, PA did not attenuate the effects of SB on the SBP of girls in the HELENA study. The combination of less than recommended levels of PA with 2-4 h/d of sedentary behavior was found to be associated with increased SBP in boys from both studies. Conclusions: Meeting current PA recommendations could mediate the association between SB and DBP in both sexes. In boys, the joint effect of low levels of PA and excessive sedentary activity increases SBP levels. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm these findings. © 2013 de Moraes et al.

Facial pain associated with fibromyalgia can be marked by abnormal neuromuscular control: A cross-sectional study

Gui, Maísa Soares; Pedroni, Cristiane Rodrigues; Aquino, Luana M. Martins; Pimentel, Marcele Jardim; Alves, Marcelo Correa; Rossini, Sueli; Reimão, Rubens; Berzin, Fausto; Marques, Amélia Pasqual; Rizzatti-Barbosa, Célia Marisa
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1092-1101
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.88%
Background. Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) development in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is not yet fully understood, but altered neuromuscular control in FMS may play a role in triggering TMD. Objective. The purpose of this study was to verify the association between neuromuscular control and chronic facial pain in groups of patients with FMS and TMD. Design. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Methods. This study involved an analysis of facial pain and electromyographic activity of the masticatory muscles in patients with FMS (n=27) and TMD (n=28). All participants were evaluated according to Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders and surface electromyography (SEMG). Myoelectric signal calculations were performed using the root mean square and median frequency of signals. Results. The data revealed premature interruption of masticatory muscle contraction in both patient groups, but a significant correlation also was found between higher median frequency values and increased facial pain. This correlation probably was related to FMS because it was not found in patients with TMD only. Facial pain and increased SEMG activity during mandibular rest also were positively correlated. Limitations. Temporal conclusions cannot be drawn from the study. Also...

Ten-year trends in prevalence of asthma in adults in southern Brazil: comparison of two population-based studies

Fiori,Nadia Spada; Gonçalves,Helen; Dumith,Samuel C.; Cesar,Maria Aurora Dropa Chrestani; Menezes,Ana M. B.; Macedo,Silvia Elaine Cardozo
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.83%
There are discrepancies in the literature regarding time trends in the occurrence of asthma in adults. This study compared asthma prevalence in two cross-sectional studies with a ten-year interval in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The first, in 2000, included 1,968 individuals, and the second, in 2010, 2,466 adults (20-69 years). Prevalence of wheezing and shortness of breath in the prior 12 months remained the same after ten years (6% and 6.1%, respectively). In both studies, asthma was more frequent among females and people with low family income. Physician-diagnosed asthma increased by 35.6%, and lifetime incidence of asthma, by 32.2%. There was no percentage change in current asthma symptoms or current asthma. Local socioeconomic improvement between the two studies was consistent with the increase in medical diagnosis, but did not reflect better management of asthma symptoms, underlining the need for investment regarding other determinants of the disease.

Obtaining adjusted prevalence ratios from logistic regression models in cross-sectional studies

Bastos,Leonardo Soares; Oliveira,Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de; Velasque,Luciane de Souza
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.9%
In the last decades, the use of the epidemiological prevalence ratio (PR) instead of the odds ratio has been debated as a measure of association in cross-sectional studies. This article addresses the main difficulties in the use of statistical models for the calculation of PR: convergence problems, availability of tools and inappropriate assumptions. We implement the direct approach to estimate the PR from binary regression models based on two methods proposed by Wilcosky & Chambless and compare with different methods. We used three examples and compared the crude and adjusted estimate of PR, with the estimates obtained by use of log-binomial, Poisson regression and the prevalence odds ratio (POR). PRs obtained from the direct approach resulted in values close enough to those obtained by log-binomial and Poisson, while the POR overestimated the PR. The model implemented here showed the following advantages: no numerical instability; assumes adequate probability distribution and, is available through the R statistical package.

Socioeconomic Status and Health Communication Inequalities in Japan: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey

Ishikawa, Yoshiki; Nishiuchi, Hiromu; Hayashi, Hanae; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.87%
Background: Considerable evidence suggests that communication inequality is one potential mechanism linking social determinants, particularly socioeconomic status, and health inequalities. This study aimed to examine how dimensions of health communication outcomes (health information seeking, self-efficacy, exposure, and trust) are patterned by socioeconomic status in Japan. Methods: Data of a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 2,455 people aged 15–75 years in Japan were used for secondary analysis. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, subjective health, recent health information seeking, self-efficacy in seeking health information, and exposure to and trust in health information from different media. Results: A total of 1,311 participants completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 53.6%. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that education and household income, but not employment, were significantly associated with health information seeking and self-efficacy. Socioeconomic status was not associated with exposure to and trust in health information from mass media, but was significantly associated with health information from healthcare providers and the Internet. Conclusion: Health communication outcomes were patterned by socioeconomic status in Japan thus demonstrating the prevalence of health communication inequalities. Providing customized exposure to and enhancing the quality of health information by considering social determinants may contribute to addressing social disparities in health in Japan.

Homocysteine and Carotid Plaque Stability: A Cross-Sectional Study in Chinese Adults

Yang, Xin; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Chao; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Anxin; Guo, Yuming; Li, Wen; Zhao, Xingquan; Liang, Wannian
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.9%
Background and Purpose This study aimed to explore the possible association of plasma total homocysteine with carotid plaque stability. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2010 to 2011. A stratified random sample of 2,919 Chinese participants aged 40 years or older was enrolled. Plasma total homocysteine levels were measured and carotid plaques were evaluated by ultrasonography. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the association of homocysteine levels to the progression of carotid plaque development, while adjusting for demographics and vascular risk factors. Results: The mean level of plasma homocysteine in the subjects was 14.9 µmol/l. Along with increase in homocysteine level, the risk of advanced carotid plaque elevated (odds ratio = 1.28; 95% confidence interval = 1.09–1.51) after adjusting for age, sex, and other potential confounders. Stratified by sex, higher homocysteine level was strongly associated with advanced carotid plaque in men (OR = 1.41; 95% confidence interval = 1.17–1.70), but not in women. Conclusion: The findings suggest that plasma level of homocysteine may be associated with advanced carotid plaque, which constitutes high risks of stroke, in male Chinese adults.

Screening for colorectal cancer and advanced colorectal neoplasia in kidney transplant recipients: cross sectional prevalence and diagnostic accuracy study of faecal immunochemical testing for haemoglobin and colonoscopy

Collins, M.; Teo, E.; Cole, S.; Chan, C.Y.; McDonald, S.; Russ, G.; Young, G.; Brampton, P.; Coates, P.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.87%
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether screening kidney transplant recipients aged over 50 years for colorectal cancer with a faecal immunochemical test for haemoglobin might be justified, by determining the prevalence of advanced colorectal neoplasia and evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of faecal haemoglobin testing compared with colonoscopy in a population of kidney transplant recipients at otherwise average risk. DESIGN: Cross sectional prevalence and diagnostic accuracy study with index test of faecal haemoglobin and reference standard of colonoscopy. SETTING: Outpatient clinics in metropolitan and regional hospitals in South Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 229 kidney transplant recipients aged 50 years and over, who were at least 6 months (mean 9.0 (SD 8.4) years) post-transplant and otherwise at average risk of colorectal cancer, completed the study between June 2008 and October 2011. INTERVENTIONS: Faecal immunochemical testing (Enterix Insure) for human haemoglobin, followed by colonoscopy with histological evaluation of retrieved samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of advanced colorectal neoplasia, defined as an adenoma at least 10 mm in diameter, villous features, high grade dysplasia, or colorectal cancer; sensitivity, specificity...

Prevalence of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular risk factors in a national cross-sectional cohort study of systemic sclerosis

Ngian, G.S.; Sahhar, J.; Proudman, S.; Stevens, W.; Wicks, I.; Van Doornum, S.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.9%
OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular risk factors in a well-characterised cohort of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients, and to compare this with the general population. METHODS A cross-sectional study of the prevalence of CHD and cardiovascular risk factors in participants in the Australian Scleroderma Cohort Study was performed. Controls were drawn from the 2007–8 National Health Survey (NHS) and the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). OR and 95% CI were calculated to determine the prevalence of CHD and cardiovascular risk factors in SSc patients compared with controls. RESULTS Data were available for 850 SSc patients (86% female), 15 787 NHS participants (53% female) and 8802 AusDiab participants (56% female). Adjusted for age and gender, the OR of CHD in SSc patients was 1.9 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.4) compared with controls from AusDiab and 2.0 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.5) compared with controls from the NHS. The OR of CHD increased to 3.2 (95% CI 2.3 to 4.5) for SSc patients compared with controls from AusDiab after further adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. Hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus and obesity were significantly less prevalent in the SSc cohort than in AusDiab. Within the SSc cohort...

Independent and combined effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior on blood pressure in adolescents: gender differences in two cross-sectional studies

Ferreira de Moraes, A. C.; Barbosa Carvalho, H.; Rey-L??pez, Juan P.; Gracia-Marco, L.; Beghin, Laurent; Kafatos, A.; Jim??nez Pav??n, David; Molnar, D??nes; Henauw, Stefaan de; Manios, Yannis; Widhalm, Kurt; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Ortega Porcel, Francisco B.;
Fonte: Public Library of Science (PLOS) Publicador: Public Library of Science (PLOS)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.93%
Objectives To examine the independent and combined association of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) on both systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in adolescents from two observational studies. Methods Participants from two cross-sectional studies, one conducted in Europe (n = 3,308; HELENA study) and the other in Brazil (n = 991; BRACAH study), were selected by complex sampling. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (outcomes), PA and SB, both independently and combined, and potential confounders were analyzed. Associations were examined by multilevel linear regression. Results Performing the recommended amount of PA (???60 min/d) attenuated the effect of SB on DBP in BRACAH study girls and in boys from both studies. In contrast, PA did not attenuate the effects of SB on the SBP of girls in the HELENA study. The combination of less than recommended levels of PA with 2???4 h/d of sedentary behavior was found to be associated with increased SBP in boys from both studies. Conclusions Meeting current PA recommendations could mediate the association between SB and DBP in both sexes. In boys, the joint effect of low levels of PA and excessive sedentary activity increases SBP levels. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm these findings.

Family medicine trainees' clinical experience of chronic disease during training: a cross-sectional analysis from the registrars' clinical encounters in training study

Magin, P.; Morgan, S.; Henderson, K.; Tapley, A.; McElduff, P.; Pearlman, J.; Goode, S.; Spike, N.; Laurence, C.; Scott, J.; Thomson, A.; van Driel, M.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.87%
Background: A broad case-mix in family physicians’ (general practitioners’, GPs’) vocational trainee experience is deemed essential in producing competent independent practitioners. It is suggested that the patient-mix should include common and significant conditions and be similar to that of established GPs. But the content of contemporary GP trainees’ clinical experience in training is not well-documented. In particular, how well trainees’ experience reflects changing general practice demographics (with an increasing prevalence of chronic disease) is unknown. We aimed to establish levels of trainees’ clinical exposure to chronic disease in training (and associations of this exposure) and to establish content differences in chronic disease consultations (compared to other consultations), and differences in trainees’ actions arising from these consultations. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis from the Registrars’ Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT) study, a cohort study of GP registrars’ (trainees’) consultations in four Australian GP training organisations. Trainees record detailed data from 60 consecutive consultations per six-month training term. Diagnoses/problems encountered are coded using the International Classification of Primary Care-2 PLUS (ICPC-2 PLUS). A classification system derived from ICPC-2 PLUS was used to define diagnoses/problems as chronic/non-chronic disease. The outcome factor for analyses was trainees’ consultations in which chronic disease was encountered. Independent variables were a range of patient...

Medidas de associação em estudo transversal com delineamento complexo: razão de chances e razão de prevalência; Association measures in cross-sectional studies with complex sampling: odds ratio and prevalence ratio

FRANCISCO, Priscila Maria S. Bergamo; DONALISIO, Maria Rita; BARROS, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; CESAR, Chester Luis Galvão; CARANDINA, Luana; GOLDBAUM, Moisés
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Pós -Graduação em Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Pós -Graduação em Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.92%
O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar e discutir a utilização das medidas de associação: razão de chances e razão de prevalências, em dados obtidos de estudo transversal realizado em 2001-2002, utilizando-se amostra estratificada por conglomerados em dois estágios (n=1.958). As razões de chances e razões de prevalências foram estimadas por meio de regressão logística não condicional e regressão de Poisson, respectivamente, utilizando-se o pacote estatístico Stata 7.0. Intervalos de confiança e efeitos do desenho foram considerados na avaliação da precisão das estimativas. Dois desfechos do estudo transversal com diferentes níveis de prevalência foram avaliados: vacinação contra influenza (66,1%) e doença pulmonar referida (6,9%). Na situação em que a prevalência foi alta, as estimativas das razões de prevalência foram mais conservadoras com intervalos de confiança menores. Na avaliação do desfecho de baixa prevalência, não se observaram grandes diferenças numéricas entre as estimações das razões de chances e razões de prevalência e erros-padrão obtidos por uma ou outra técnica. O efeito do desenho maior que a unidade indicou que a amostragem complexa, em ambos os casos, aumentou da variância das estimativas. Cabe ao pesquisador a escolha da técnica e do estimador mais adequado ao seu objeto de estudo...

Contraceptive utilization and associated factors among HIV positive women on chronic follow up care in tigray region, northern ethiopia: a cross sectional study

Melaku, Y.A.; Zeleke, E.G.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.87%
BACKGROUND: In sub-Sahara Africa, more than 60% of all new HIV infections are occurring in women, infants and young children. Maternal to child transmission is responsible for 90% of childhood HIV infection. Preventing unwanted pregnancy among HIV positive women is imperative to reduce maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 964 HIV positive women in selected 12 health centers of Tigray region. In this paper, analysis was restricted only for 847 women who were sexually active and non-pregnant. In each health center the number of study participants was allocated proportionally to the load of HIV positive women in chronic care clinics. The data were entered into EpiData version 3.1, and cleaned and analyzed using Stata version 11.1. Descriptive summary of data and logistic regression were used to identify possible predictors using odds ratio with 95% confidence interval and P-value of 0.05. FINDINGS: Three hundred ninety four (46.5%) of all HIV positive women had intension to have more children. Three hundred seventy five (44.3%) were using contraceptive methods at time of survey. Injectable (70.7%) and male condom (47.6%) were most commonly used type of contraceptives. In the multivariable analysis...

Prevalence rates of drug use among school bullies and victims: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies

Valdebenito, Sara; Ttofi, Maria; Eisner, Manuel
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.95%
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2015.05.004; Bullying is a common aggressive behaviour in school, with a number of cross-sectional studies showing that it exhibits a high comorbidity with other problem behaviours. The present study aims to estimate the comorbidity of school bullying (perpetration and victimisation) with drug use by incorporating and meta-analysing all available evidence on the cross-sectional association between the two variables. Meta-analytic results are based on a comprehensive systematic review across 20 databases and 46 journals. A total of 61 relevant manuscripts were included in the systematic review. Following explicit methodological criteria for the inclusion/exclusion of reports, 13 of them were eligible for the meta-analysis. The association of school bullying perpetration with drug use (adjusted odds ratio OR = 2.82; 95% CI 1.97?4.02; z = 5.71; p < .001) suggests a very strong relationship. For example, if a quarter of children were bullies and a quarter were drug users, this value of the OR would correspond to 40.88% of bullies being also drug users, compared with 19.71% of non-bullies. The association of school bullying victimisation with drug use (adjusted odds ratio OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.38?2.32; z = 4.41; p < .001) suggests a moderate relationship. For example...

Prevalence rates of drug use among school bullies and victims: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies

Valdebenito, Sara; Ttofi, Maria; Eisner, Manuel
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.95%
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2015.05.004; Bullying is a common aggressive behaviour in school, with a number of cross-sectional studies showing that it exhibits a high comorbidity with other problem behaviours. The present study aims to estimate the comorbidity of school bullying (perpetration and victimisation) with drug use by incorporating and meta-analysing all available evidence on the cross-sectional association between the two variables. Meta-analytic results are based on a comprehensive systematic review across 20 databases and 46 journals. A total of 61 relevant manuscripts were included in the systematic review. Following explicit methodological criteria for the inclusion/exclusion of reports, 13 of them were eligible for the meta-analysis. The association of school bullying perpetration with drug use (adjusted odds ratio OR = 2.82; 95% CI 1.97?4.02; z = 5.71; p < .001) suggests a very strong relationship. For example, if a quarter of children were bullies and a quarter were drug users, this value of the OR would correspond to 40.88% of bullies being also drug users, compared with 19.71% of non-bullies. The association of school bullying victimisation with drug use (adjusted odds ratio OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.38?2.32; z = 4.41; p < .001) suggests a moderate relationship. For example...

Sexual and reproductive health communication and awareness of contraceptive methods among secondary school female students, northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

Melaku, Y.A.; Berhane, Y.; Kinsman, J.; Reda, H.L.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.87%
BACKGROUND: Adolescent girls continue to fall victim to unintended pregnancy and its consequences, with particular problems arising in low income countries. Awareness about methods of contraception is an important step towards gaining access and using suitable contraceptive methods. However, studies assessing the relationship between sexual and reproductive health communication and awareness of contraceptive methods among secondary school female students are lacking. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 807 female students in six secondary schools in Mekelle town, Ethiopia. Study participants were selected with a stratified cluster sampling technique. Data collection was carried out using a structured, self-administered questionnaire, and data entry was done using EPI Info Version 3.3.2 software. The data were then cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine factors associated with awareness of female students on methods of contraception. RESULT: Of all the students, 127(15.8%) reported ever having had sex, of whom 109(85.8%) had ever used contraceptives. Twenty (16%) of the sexually active students reported having been pregnant, of whom 18(90%) terminated their pregnancies with induced abortion. Discussion on sexual and reproductive health matters with their parent/s and peer/s in the six months prior to the study was reported by 351(43.5%) and 493(61.1%) of the students respectively. 716(88%) students were aware of different methods of contraception. Discussing sexual and reproductive health issues with parents (AOR=2.56(95% CI: 1.45...

The interpretation of shared age-related variance among factors in cross-sectional cognitive aging studies

Anstey, Kaarin
Fonte: S Karger AG Publicador: S Karger AG
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.01%
Many cross-sectional correlational studies in cognitive aging have focused on explaining age-related variance. It has been assumed that variables sharing variance with both cognition and age may be the key explanatory variables underlying the cognitive decline in normal aging. Statistical biases intrinsic to this approach have been described by Hofer and Sliwinski and a narrow age cohort design proposed. The present paper aims at explaining how Hofer and Sliwinski's criticisms apply to a specific type of research design in cognitive aging where the goal is to identify underlying aging processes, but does not apply to more general gerontological research. Methods to estimate bias in cross-sectional studies are required as is greater awareness of this potential bias.

Métodos para estimar razão de prevalência em estudos de corte transversal; Métodos para estimar razón de prevalencia en estudios de cohorte transversal; Methods for estimating prevalence ratios in cross-sectional studies

Coutinho, Leticia M S; Scazufca, Marcia; Menezes, Paulo R
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2008 POR; ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
96%
OBJECTIVE: To empirically compare the Cox, log-binomial, Poisson and logistic regressions to obtain estimates of prevalence ratios (PR) in cross-sectional studies. METHODS: Data from a population-based cross-sectional epidemiological study (n = 2072) on elderly people in Sao Paulo (Southeastern Brazil), conducted between May 2003 and April 2005, were used. Diagnoses of dementia, possible cases of common mental disorders and self-rated poor health were chosen as outcomes with low, intermediate and high prevalence, respectively. Confounding variables with two or more categories or continuous values were used. Reference values for point and interval estimates of prevalence ratio (PR) were obtained by means of the Mantel-Haenszel stratification method. Adjusted PR estimates were calculated using Cox and Poisson regressions with robust variance, and using log-binomial regression. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were obtained using logistic regression. RESULTS: The point and interval estimates obtained using Cox and Poisson regressions were very similar to those obtained using Mantel-Haenszel stratification, independent of the outcome prevalence and the covariates in the model. The log-binomial model presented convergence difficulties when the outcome had high prevalence and there was a continuous covariate in the model. Logistic regression produced point and interval estimates that were higher than those obtained using the other methods...

QUARA Project – Prevalence of abuse, mistreatment and other forms of aggression during medical education: a cross-sectional study in São Paulo, Brazil, 2013; Projeto QUARA - Prevalência de abusos, maus-tratos e outras agressões durante a formação médica: um estudo de corte transversal em São Paulo, Brasil, 2013

Barreto, Abraão Deyvid Alves de Lima; Babler, Fernanda; Quaresma, Irene Yamamoto do Vale; Arakaki, Juliana Naomy Lacerda; Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Avaliado pelos pares Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 05/03/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.9%
Introduction: Studies describe a high prevalence of aggression, abuse and mistreatment between medical students and suggest that victimized students feel more depressed, unsatisfied with the medical career and tend to have a lower self-esteem. The studies that estimate the magnitude of this problem in Brazil are rare. Our goal is to estimate the prevalence of abuse, mistreatment and other aggressions between medical students during graduation considering the type, perpetuator, frequency and perceived severity. Methods: Cross-sectional study with medical students from a Brazilian university. An online survey was sent to 1072 students - 344 responded and 317 were included in this analysis. The data was collected with REDCap, between 09/11/2013 and 12/13/2013. Results: The average age was 22,24 years (+-2,89), 49% were men and about 45% were basic stage students. Most (92.31%) reported suffering at least one type of aggression during the graduation. The most common type was belittlement/humiliation (73.1%), followed by verbal aggression (59.99%). The prevalence of sexual abuse or discrimination was high (43.32%) and 13% reported physical violence. The main perpetuators are, respectively, the students themselves (83.75%) and the teachers (72.8%). About 30% of the students have been assaulted 5 or more times and 70% of the victims consider the episodes very important. Conclusion: The prevalence of aggression...