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Migrantes em trânsito entre Brasil e Japão: uma intervenção psicossocial no retorno; Migrants in transit between Brazil and Japan: a psychosocial intervention in the return

Ueno, Laura Satoe
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/05/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
O presente estudo teve como objetivo apresentar e avaliar a configuração de uma intervenção psicossocial breve realizada com um grupo de nipo-brasileiros que viveram no Japão, no retorno destes ao Brasil, procurando compreender a vivência dos sujeitos no que se refere às representações culturais do Brasil e do Japão e ao processo de retorno. Os referenciais teóricos utilizados foram retirados da Psicologia Intercultural e articulados a conceitos e técnicas da abordagem psicanalítica. De modo geral, o processo de aculturação no retorno foi sentido como difícil. Os participantes expressaram indignação com a conjuntura política, econômica e social do país e alguns relataram sensação de sentirem-se estrangeiros, de inassertividade e de desorientação. Surgiram representações simbólicas coletivas do Brasil como país do calor humano e do Japão como país da alta tecnologia e educação, havendo, ao mesmo tempo, um tom pessoal nas representações em função das experiências singulares de cada um. Técnicas reflexivas, informativas e lúdicas, como elaboração de cartazes, exposição de conceitos teóricos, exibição e discussão de documentário acerca da temática da e/imigração entre Brasil-Japão, foram instrumentos úteis para que as angústias do grupo pudessem ser nomeadas. O espaço de continência e interlocução favoreceu processos de identificação para que questões conflituosas relativas às vivências no retorno e à identidade cultural pudessem se tornar objeto de reflexão e transformação. Constatamos a utilidade desse tipo de intervenção psicossocial na elaboração psicológica da experiência migratória...

Nós versus eles, eles e elas: comparação intercultural e intersexual na detecção de coalizões e alianças; Us versus them, male and female: cross-cultural and sex-group comparisons in detecting coalitions and alliances

Cosentino, Leonardo Antonio Marui
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/03/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
Duas visões diferentes podem ser identificadas na literatura sobre codificação de raça no processo de formação de primeiras impressões (categorização social): 1) A codificação de raça é um processo automático, inevitável e obrigatório; 2) é um processo dependente do contexto, que diminui com a explicitação de pistas visuais indicativas da afiliação a grupos, mostrando que a codificação de raça não é obrigatória. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi: medir a codificação de coalizão e raça e seus efeitos na presença e ausência de pistas visuais de coalizão, confrontar o desempenho de uma amostra brasileira com uma amostra norte-americana e comparar os resultados de homens e mulheres. No primeiro estudo, foi usado o protocolo de confusão de memória, uma medida discreta para revelar quais dimensões os participantes estão categorizando dos indivíduos-alvo. Através deste protocolo, 569 participantes de sete estados brasileiros (BA, ES, MT, RJ, RN, SC, SP), 280 homens e 289 mulheres de 17 a 58 anos, foram expostos a uma situação experimental de rivalidade entre dois times em duas condições distintas: pista visual de coalizão presente (camisetas com cores diferentes para cada time) versus ausente (camisetas com cores iguais para os dois times). Foi encontrado que a codificação de coalizão aumentou e de raça diminuiu quando pistas visuais de coalizão foram amplificadas. Esses resultados são semelhantes aos obtidos na amostra norte-americana. Além disso...

Etnia e coalizão: um estudo sobre categorização social em um contexto de conflito grupal; Etnicity and Coalition: a study about social categorization in group conflict context

Nascimento, Leandro Luis Santos e
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/10/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.04%
Para uma comparação intercultural das influências do contexto sobre a codificação de etnia, duas variações do Protocolo de Confusão de Memória (PCM) foram aplicadas em brasileiros. Ambas as variações consistem em uma exibição de slides de uma discussão entre duas equipes esportivas rivais, com membros negros e brancos em ambos os times, em duas condições: Controle (times com roupas de cores idênticas) e Experimental (times com roupas de cores distintas). As variações são: Traduzida, com fotos de jogadores de basquete usadas no experimento original e diálogo traduzido; e Adaptada, com fotos de brasileiros com camisetas de futebol e com o diálogo reelaborado visando consistência com o esporte. O estudo foi dividido em três fases: (I) exposição de 84 participantes, do estado de São Paulo ao PCM Traduzido (II) exposição de 569 participantes em sete estados brasileiros (BA, ES, MT, RJ, RN, SC, SP) ao PCM Traduzido (III) exposição de 77 participantes do estado de São Paulo ao PCM Adaptado. Na Fase I, a codificação etnia acompanhou o aumento da intensidade da codificação de coalizão (condição experimental), em contraposição ao experimento original (Kurzban et al., 2001). Na Fase II, a codificação de etnia diminuiu de intensidade quando a codificação de coalizão aumentou...

O comportamento de cuidado entre crianças analisado à luz do contexto sociocultural, das ideias infantis sobre cuidado, das metas de socialização maternas e de comparações interculturais; Caregiving among children analysed under consideration of the socio- cultural context, the children´s ideas about infant care, the maternal socialization goals and cross-cultural comparisons

Santos, Ana Karina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/08/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.04%
A sensibilidade das crianças aos sinais emitidos por outra em situação de necessidade e mesmo a propensão ao cuidado atestam de forma cada vez mais convincente a natureza intrinsecamente motivada do cuidado espontâneo entre crianças. Este trabalho analisa o comportamento de cuidado entre crianças à luz do contexto sociocultural, das idéias infantis sobre cuidado, das metas de socialização das mães e de comparações interculturais. O estudo foi realizado na creche do povoado rural Bom Jardim, localizado no agreste de Sergipe. Participaram da pesquisa 17 crianças entre 4 e 6 anos, de ambos os sexos, e 27 mães residentes no povoado. Foi utilizado o método de observação focal do comportamento com filmagem em videotape para o registro dos comportamentos de cuidado entre as crianças. As idéias sobre cuidado infantil foram investigadas através da realização de foto-entrevistas e as Foi aplicada uma escala de comparação de metas de socialização nas mães. Os resultados revelaram que o tipo de cuidado entre crianças que teve maior média de ocorrência foi o contato afetuoso, seguido de supervisionar e ajudar. Nas categorias ajudar e contato afetuoso, o cuidado se concentrou entre crianças do mesmo sexo. Os resultados das foto-entrevistas mostraram que a foto escolhida com maior frequência como primeira opção foi a que exibia o contato corporal. As comparações interculturais com dados das crianças da vila rural Nso...

“Heroes” and “Villains” of world history across cultures

Hanke, Katja; Liu, James H.; Sibley, Chris G.; Paez, Dario; Gaines Junior, Stanley O.; Moloney, Gail; Leong, Chan-Hoong; Wagner, Wolfgang; Licata, Laurent; Klein, Olivier; Garber, Ilya E.; Böhm, Gisela; Hilton, Denis J.; Valchev, Velichko; Khan, Sammyh S
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
Emergent properties of global political culture were examined using data from the World History Survey (WHS) involving 6,902 university students in 37 countries evaluating 40 figures from world history. Multidimensional scaling and factor analysis techniques found only limited forms of universality in evaluations across Western, Catholic/Orthodox, Muslim, and Asian country clusters. The highest consensus across cultures involved scientific innovators, with Einstein having the most positive evaluation overall. Peaceful humanitarians like Mother Theresa and Gandhi followed. There was much less cross-cultural consistency in the evaluation of negative figures, led by Hitler, Osama bin Laden, and Saddam Hussein. After more traditional empirical methods (e.g., factor analysis) failed to identify meaningful cross-cultural patterns, Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) was used to identify four global representational profiles: Secular and Religious Idealists were overwhelmingly prevalent in Christian countries, and Political Realists were common in Muslim and Asian countries. We discuss possible consequences and interpretations of these different representational profiles.

Discussion and argumentation about the impact of cultural experience on emotional intelligence measurement questionnaires

Lippels, Thomas Werner
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.98%
Mestrado em Gestão Internacional; The objective of this dissertation is to evidence the correlation between cultural experience and Emotional Intelligence (EI) which can influence the outcome of Emotional Intelligence Questionnaires (EIQ). To do so, three defined variables, such as age, language abilities and foreign experience have been taken into consideration to present Cultural Intelligence [CI] and students from different nationalities have taken one elected EIQ in two different languages. The correlation between the two test results, based on the participants age, language abilities and foreign experience have been observed, and discussed. The results of the study indicate that all three variables have an impact on EI, whereas age and foreign experience seemed to be more important than language abilities. As it is proposed that EI contributes to effective leadership, it is required to study if this theory is culturally influenced. This discussion is needed as the construct of EI became widely used in Psychology and Human Resource Management (HRM) to evaluate individual and team performance, while most accessible questionnaires have been constructed by North American researchers and are usually available in English. Therefore the use of well established EI questionnaires...

Cross-Cultural Differences in the Processing of Non-Verbal Affective Vocalizations by Japanese and Canadian Listeners

Koeda, Michihiko; Belin, Pascal; Hama, Tomoko; Masuda, Tadashi; Matsuura, Masato; Okubo, Yoshiro
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/03/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.96%
The Montreal Affective Voices (MAVs) consist of a database of non-verbal affect bursts portrayed by Canadian actors, and high recognitions accuracies were observed in Canadian listeners. Whether listeners from other cultures would be as accurate is unclear. We tested for cross-cultural differences in perception of the MAVs: Japanese listeners were asked to rate the MAVs on several affective dimensions and ratings were compared to those obtained by Canadian listeners. Significant Group × Emotion interactions were observed for ratings of Intensity, Valence, and Arousal. Whereas Intensity and Valence ratings did not differ across cultural groups for sad and happy vocalizations, they were significantly less intense and less negative in Japanese listeners for angry, disgusted, and fearful vocalizations. Similarly, pleased vocalizations were rated as less intense and less positive by Japanese listeners. These results demonstrate important cross-cultural differences in affective perception not just of non-verbal vocalizations expressing positive affect (Sauter et al., 2010), but also of vocalizations expressing basic negative emotions.

Cross-cultural differences in somatic awareness and interoceptive accuracy: a review of the literature and directions for future research

Ma-Kellams, Christine
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.97%
This review examines cross-cultural differences in interoception and the role of culturally bound epistemologies, historical traditions, and contemplative practices to assess four aspects of culture and interoception: (1) the extent to which members from Western and non-Western cultural groups exhibit differential levels of interoceptive accuracy and somatic awareness; (2) the mechanistic origins that can explain these cultural differences, (3) culturally bound behavioral practices that have been empirically shown to affect interoception, and (4) consequences for culturally bound psychopathologies. The following outlines the scope of the scientific review. Part 1 reviews studies on cultural variation in spontaneous somatic word use, linguistic expressions, traditional medical practices, and empirical laboratory studies to assess the evidence for cultural differences in somatic processes. Integration of these findings suggests a startling paradox: on the one hand, non-Western cultures consistently exhibit heightened somatic focus and awareness across a variety of contexts; on the other hand, non-Western cultures also exhibit less interoceptive accuracy in laboratory studies. Part 2 discusses the various mechanistic explanations that have been proposed to explain these cultural differences in somatic awareness and interoceptive accuracy...

Cross-cultural differences in crossmodal correspondences between basic tastes and visual features

Wan, Xiaoang; Woods, Andy T.; van den Bosch, Jasper J. F.; McKenzie, Kirsten J.; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.96%
We report a cross-cultural study designed to investigate crossmodal correspondences between a variety of visual features (11 colors, 15 shapes, and 2 textures) and the five basic taste terms (bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami). A total of 452 participants from China, India, Malaysia, and the USA viewed color patches, shapes, and textures online and had to choose the taste term that best matched the image and then rate their confidence in their choice. Across the four groups of participants, the results revealed a number of crossmodal correspondences between certain colors/shapes and bitter, sour, and sweet tastes. Crossmodal correspondences were also documented between the color white and smooth/rough textures on the one hand and the salt taste on the other. Cross-cultural differences were observed in the correspondences between certain colors, shapes, and one of the textures and the taste terms. The taste-patterns shown by the participants from the four countries tested in the present study are quite different from one another, and these differences cannot easily be attributed merely to whether a country is Eastern or Western. These findings therefore highlight the impact of cultural background on crossmodal correspondences. As such...

The uses of the outline for cultural formulation of the DSM-IV : from case conceptualization to treatment plan

Dinh, My-Hoa Nathalie
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
ARTICLE 1 : RÉSUMÉ Amputation traumatique: Une étude de cas laotien sur l’indignation et l’injustice. La culture est un contexte essentiel à considérer pour produire un diagnostic et un plan d’intervention psychiatrique. Une perspective culturelle met en relief le contexte social dans lequel les symptômes émergent, et comment ils sont interprétés et gérés par la personne atteinte. Des études ethnoculturelles sur les maladies nous suggèrent que la plupart des gens nous donnent des explications pour leurs symptômes qui ont un fondement culturel. Bien que ces explications contredisent la théorie biomédicale, elles soulagent la souffrance des patients et leur permettent de donner une signification à cette dernière. L’exploration des caractéristiques, contextes et antécédents des symptômes permet au patient de les communiquer au clinicien qui pourrait avoir une explication différente de sa maladie. Cette étude de cas permet de montrer comment le Guide pour Formulation Culturelle du DSM-IV (The DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation) permet aux cliniciens de solliciter un récit du patient en lien avec son expérience de la maladie. Notre étude examine l’utilisation par un patient laotien de « l’indignation sociale » (« Khuâm khum khang ») comme le modèle explicatif culturel de son problème malgré le diagnostic de trouble de stress post-traumatique qui lui fut attribué après une amputation traumatique. L’explication culturelle de son problème a permis au patient d’exprimer la signification personnelle et collective à sa colère et sa frustration...

Cultural Intelligence: Extending the Nomological Network

Sawhney, Ena
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
This dissertation consists of three independent studies, which study the nomological network of cultural intelligence (CI)—a relatively new construct within the fields of cross-cultural psychology and organizational psychology. Since the introduction of this construct, CI now has a generally accepted model comprised of four codependent subfactors. In addition, the focus of preliminary research within the field is on understanding the new construct’s correlates and outcomes. Thus, the goals for this dissertation were (a) to provide an additional evaluation of the factor structure of CI and (b) to examine further the correlates and outcomes that should theoretically be included in its nomological network. Specifically the model tests involved a one-factor, three-factor, and four-factor structure. The examined correlates of CI included the Big Five personality traits, core self-evaluation, social self-efficacy, self-monitoring, emotional intelligence, and cross-cultural experience. The examined outcomes also included overall performance, contextual performance, and cultural adaption in relation to CI. Thus, this dissertation has a series of 20 proposed and statistically evaluated hypotheses. The first study in this dissertation contained the summary of the extant CI literature via meta-analytic techniques. The outcomes of focus were significantly relevant to CI...

Cultural intelligence: Extending the nomological network

Sawhney, Ena K
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
This dissertation consists of three independent studies, which study the nomological network of cultural intelligence (CI)—a relatively new construct within the fields of cross-cultural psychology and organizational psychology. Since the introduction of this construct, CI now has a generally accepted model comprised of four codependent subfactors. In addition, the focus of preliminary research within the field is on understanding the new construct’s correlates and outcomes. Thus, the goals for this dissertation were (a) to provide an additional evaluation of the factor structure of CI and (b) to examine further the correlates and outcomes that should theoretically be included in its nomological network. Specifically the model tests involved a one-factor, three-factor, and four-factor structure. The examined correlates of CI included the Big Five personality traits, core self-evaluation, social self-efficacy, self-monitoring, emotional intelligence, and cross-cultural experience. The examined outcomes also included overall performance, contextual performance, and cultural adaption in relation to CI. Thus, this dissertation has a series of 20 proposed and statistically evaluated hypotheses. The first study in this dissertation contained the summary of the extant CI literature via meta-analytic techniques. The outcomes of focus were significantly relevant to CI...

The effect of cross-cultural training on adjustment and job performance: Examining the role of supervisor skill-building and individual differences

Turner, Stacey L.
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: 159 p.; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.11%
The globalization of business has resulted in both large numbers of workers living and working abroad, as well as an increasingly multicultural domestic work environment. Organizational research has shown that cross-cultural training mitigates or proactively guards against the frustrations, misunderstandings, and culture shock often resulting from cross-cultural interactions that lead to poor adjustment and job performance (Harris & Kumra, 2000). Despite the recent surge of studies in this area, previous cross-cultural effectiveness studies have failed to take into account a number of moderating variables. Particularly, the role of the expatriate's supervisor and the personality and motivational differences of the expatriate have not yet been explored. Thus, the present study draws upon cross-cultural training theory, in addition to the leader-member exchange framework, in proposing that cross-cultural training for the supervisor of an expatriate subordinate will moderate the impact of cross-cultural training on the expatriate subordinate's adjustment and job performance. Furthermore, self-efficacy, openness to experience, and extraversion were tested as moderators of the relationship between cross-cultural training and job performance. Participants were individuals from a variety of countries who were coming to the United States for practical training. They took part in a web-based cross-cultural training study before leaving for the U.S. or shortly after they arrived. Results indicate that supervisor cross-cultural training does impact the effectiveness of cross-cultural training on job performance and work-related adjustment. Additionally...

A qualitative study of Australian undergraduate psychology students' attitudes towards the teaching of Indigenous and cross-cultural psychology at one university

Clark, Y.; Chur-Hansen, A.; Turnbull, D.; Masciantonio, S.
Fonte: Australasian and New Zealand Association for Medical Education Publicador: Australasian and New Zealand Association for Medical Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.25%
PURPOSE: Psychology curricula need to be reflective of Australia's diverse populations. However, there appear to be many challenges, including student reactions to cross-cultural and Indigenous content. AIM: The aim of this study was to understand the rationale for varied written feedback from students regarding Indigenous and cross-cultural psychology teaching at one Australian university. METHOD: Undergraduate students were invited to participate in one of three focus groups (local group, Indigenous or international) to generate discussion and debate about the written feedback on cross-cultural and Indigenous psychology teaching. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A number of views were expressed in relation to the written feedback on course content. These views are considered in relation to their implications for teaching and learning practice. Allowing students to articulate further on written feedback is a valuable tool for understanding why views are held and how teaching and learning initiatives might be implemented or strengthened.; Y. Clark, A. Chur-Hansen, D. Turnbull & S. Masciantonio

"O avunculado na Antropologia Evolutiva: uma abordagem intercultural" ; "The avunculate in the evolutionary anthropology: a cross cultural survey"

Maia, Antonio Carlos do Amaral
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/02/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.95%
O presente trabalho se propõe a compreender a variabilidade cultural humana em relação à organização da família por meio das teorias darwinianas da seleção natural e da seleção sexual, e se encontra baseado em evidências vindas da comparação de dados etnográficos. Pretende-se demonstrar que existe uma alteração marcante no comportamento de todos os envolvidos nas relações familiares quando mudam as regras de herança. Essas alterações assim ocorrem porque as regras de herança direcionam o Investimento Parental Masculino (MPI), ora ao sobrinho, ora ao filho. A hipótese apresentada é a de que a variação do MPI modifica de maneira compreensível e previsível as relações familiares em organizações matrilineares e patrilineares. A prova da hipótese será feita por meio da aplicação do método intercultural com pesquisa etnográfica nos bancos de dados do HRAF, e utilizando-se da amostra PSF. Os resultados do presente trabalho indicarão que em sociedades em que o tio tem uma relação afetuosa com seu sobrinho, o marido espanca a mulher; e quando o pai se relaciona de maneira indulgente e amigável com seu filho, irmãos e irmãs se evitam, alinhando esses fatos de maneira que possam ser coerentemente entendidos com a teoria sociobiológica. A riqueza cultural...

Predictors of Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery among U.S. and Colombian College Women: The Roles of Eating Behaviors and Demographic Variables; Predictivos de las actitudes hacia la cirugía cosmética entre mujeres universitarias colombianas y estadounidenses: los roles de las conductas de alimentación y de las variables demográficas; Preditivos das atitudes em relação à cirurgia cosmética entre mulheres universitárias colombianas e estadunidenses: os papeis das condutas de alimentação e das variáveis demográficas

Carrion, Carmen; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah; Rabin, Laura A; Fogel, Joshua; Fogel, Joshua
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/08/2011 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.98%
Cross-cultural studies on eating behaviors and related constructs can identify cultural and social factors that contribute to eating disorder symptomatology. Eating disorders (EDs) are a major cause for concern in the U.S., and recent studies in Colombia have shown growing rates among their female population. In addition, cosmetic surgery procedures have been increasing rapidly in both the U.S. and Colombia, and preliminary research suggests a positive relation between disordered eating and endorsement of plastic surgery. In samples of college women from Colombia and the U.S., we investigated patterns of association between disordered eating variables and cosmetic surgery acceptance. Our approach utilized separate analyses for various subcomponents of disordered eating (to determine their unique associations with cosmetic surgery acceptance) while adjusting for potentially relevant covariates and examining cross-cultural patterns. Participants were students at an urban, public college in the U.S. (n=163) and an urban, private college in Colombia (n=179). Overall, our findings suggested that participants from Colombia with greater disordered eating were more likely to endorse cosmetic surgery for social reasons, while those from the U.S. were more likely to consider undergoing cosmetic surgery for personal reasons. Differing findings between the two samples may be due to cultural and social factors...

Cross-cultural adjustment to the United States: the role of contextualized extraversion change

Liu, Mengqiao; Huang, Jason L.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
Personality traits can predict how well-sojourners and expatriates adjust to new cultures, but the adjustment process remains largely unexamined. Based on recent findings that reveal personality traits predict as well as respond to life events and experiences, this research focuses on within-person change in contextualized extraversion and its predictive validity for cross-cultural adjustment in international students who newly arrived in US colleges. We proposed that the initial level as well as the rate of change in school extraversion (i.e., contextualized extraversion that reflects behavioral tendency in school settings) will predict cross-cultural adjustment, withdrawal cognitions, and school satisfaction. Latent growth modeling of three-wave longitudinal surveys of 215 new international students (54% female, Mage = 24 years) revealed that the initial level of school extraversion significantly predicted cross-cultural adjustment, (lower) withdrawal cognitions, and satisfaction, while the rate of change (increase) in school extraversion predicted cross-cultural adjustment and (lower) withdrawal cognitions. We further modeled global extraversion and cross-cultural motivation as antecedents and explored within-person change in school extraversion as a proximal factor that affects adjustment outcomes. The findings highlight the malleability of contextualized personality...

Chinese parenting and children's compliance to adults: a cross-cultural comparative study

Huang, Ching-Yu Soar
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Social and Developmental Psychology; King's College Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Social and Developmental Psychology; King's College
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.04%
The current study examined the parenting beliefs and practices of Taiwanese, Chinese immigrant (all first-generation immigrants in the UK) and English mothers, and the compliance of their young children (aged 5?7), in order to elucidate the effects of child temperament, culture and acculturation strategies on reported parenting beliefs and practices, observed parental behaviour, child behaviour, mother?child interaction dynamics and children?s compliance. The data were collected from a total of 90 families with 5- to 7-year-old children in Taiwan and the UK. Child temperament, parenting beliefs and practices and acculturation were assessed using questionnaires, and parental behaviour, child behaviour, dyadic interaction dynamics and child compliance were assessed using observation in two tasks (Etch-A-Sketch and clean-up). Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the Chinese immigrant parents to gather more information regarding their acculturation and parenting. Cultural differences were found between groups in reported as well as observed parenting and children?s compliance. The Taiwanese mothers reported greater use of Chinese-specific parenting and physical coercion and were observed to use more (gentle and assertive) physical intervention than both the Chinese immigrant and English mothers. The Chinese immigrant mothers reported a higher degree of child autonomy than the Taiwanese and English mothers...

Research on Culture in Psychology: Taking Stock and Looking Forward

Poortinga,Ype H.
Fonte: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Psicología Publicador: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Psicología
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.25%
Cross-cultural psychology, in both its culture-comparative and its cultural traditions, has been a highly successful enterprise; it has been instrumental in establishing context variation as an essential factor in the study of behavior and has led to a large volume of publications with culture as a key term. At the same time, the question arises whether the further accumulation of findings of often small differences between groups will continue to be a worthwhile pursuit, or whether it is time for a reorientation. Here two widespread assumptions of research on behavior and culture are discussed that are likely to be unsustainable: (i) a focus on cross-cultural differences at the cost of cultural invariance, (ii) the presumed psychological coherence of cultures, especially national cultures, reflected in major dimensions of differences in psychological functioning. It is argued that also emerging methods in cultural neuropsychology continue to place too much emphasis on cross-cultural differences and cultural coherence. With a view to reorientation two ideas are explored: (i) culture-comparative research needs an explicit focus on what humans as a species have in common (psychological invariance) and (ii) explanatory frameworks should have a better theoretical foundation. Research traditions in biology are mentioned that can provide a source of inspiration to researchers in cross-cultural psychology. One such tradition is classical ethology as outlined by Tinbergen (1963) who proposed that in the analysis of behavior patterns researchers should be asking multiple questions about the immediate context (cause)...

Cross­ Cultural Validation of the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ)

Faria,Luísa; Santos,Nelson Lima; Takši,Vladimir; Räty,Hannu; Molander,Bo; Holmström,Stefan; Jansson,John; Avsec,Andreja; Extremera,Natalio; Fernández­Berrocal,Pablo; Toyota,Hiroshi
Fonte: Associação Portuguesa de Psicologia (APP); Edições Colibri Publicador: Associação Portuguesa de Psicologia (APP); Edições Colibri
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2006 EN
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This article discusses the cross-cultural validation of the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ), which consists of 45 items divided into three subscales - (i) perceiving and understanding emotion (PU), (ii) expressing and labelling emotion (EL), and (iii) managing and regulating emotion (MR) - and is classified as a “trait emotional intelligence” or “perceived emotional intelligence” measure. Originally, it was developed in Croatian settings using a theoretical framework from the emotional intelligence model (Mayer & Salovey, 1997), but it has already been translated into English and presented in 2001 at the 7th European Congress of Psychology in London. The psychometric qualities and the relations of ESCQ with several relevant constructs in Croatian, Portuguese, Finnish, Swedish, Slovene, Spanish, and Japanese contexts are here presented, using target samples of mainly high school and university students, as well as older subjects (workers and supervisors), highlighting construct, convergent, divergent and concurrent validity. However, the Cronbach alpha of the MRscale needs improvement, stressing the need to further pursue the validity studies of the ESCQ.