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A database for coconut crop improvement

Rajagopal, Velamoor; Manimekalai, Ramaswamy; Devakumar, Krishnamurthy; Rajesh, ; Karun, Anitha; Niral, Vittal; Gopal, Murali; Aziz, Shamina; Gunasekaran, Marimuthu; Kumar, Mundappurathe Ramesh; Chandrasekar, Arumugam
Fonte: Biomedical Informatics Publishing Group Publicador: Biomedical Informatics Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/12/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
Coconut crop improvement requires a number of biotechnology and bioinformatics tools. A database containing information on CG (coconut germplasm), CCI (coconut cultivar identification), CD (coconut disease), MIFSPC (microbial information systems in plantation crops) and VO (vegetable oils) is described. The database was developed using MySQL and PostgreSQL running in Linux operating system. The database interface is developed in PHP, HTML and JAVA.

Patterns of Selection and Tissue-Specific Expression among Maize Domestication and Crop Improvement Loci1[W][OA]

Hufford, Kristina M.; Canaran, Payan; Ware, Doreen H.; McMullen, Michael D.; Gaut, Brandon S.
Fonte: American Society of Plant Biologists Publicador: American Society of Plant Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
The domestication of maize (Zea mays sp. mays) from its wild progenitors represents an opportunity to investigate the timing and genetic basis of morphological divergence resulting from artificial selection on target genes. We compared sequence diversity of 30 candidate selected and 15 reference loci between the three populations of wild teosintes, maize landraces, and maize inbred lines. We inferred an approximately equal ratio of genes selected during early domestication and genes selected during modern crop breeding. Using an expanded dataset of 48 candidate selected and 658 neutral reference loci, we tested the hypothesis that candidate selected genes in maize are more likely to have transcriptional functions than neutral reference genes, but there was no overrepresentation of regulatory genes in the selected gene dataset. Electronic northern analysis revealed that candidate genes are significantly overexpressed in the maize ear relative to vegetative tissues such as maize shoot, leaf, and root tissue. The maize ear underwent dramatic morphological alteration upon domestication and has been a continuing target of selection for maize yield. Therefore, we hypothesize that genes targeted by selection are more likely to be expressed in tissues that experienced high levels of morphological divergence during domestication and crop improvement.

RNAi induced gene silencing in crop improvement

Sinha, Subodh Kumar
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
The RNA silencing is one of the innovative and efficient molecular biology tools to harness the down-regulation of expression of gene(s) specifically. To accomplish such selective modification of gene expression of a particular trait, homology dependent gene silencing uses a stunning variety of gene silencing viz. co-suppression, post-transcriptional gene silencing, virus-induced gene silencing etc. This family of diverse molecular phenomena has a common exciting feature of gene silencing which is collectively called RNA interference abbreviated to as RNAi. This molecular phenomenon has become a focal point of plant biology and medical research throughout the world. As a result, this technology has turned out to be a powerful tool in understanding the function of individual gene and has ultimately led to the tremendous use in crop improvement. This review article illustrates the application of RNAi in a broad area of crop improvement where this technology has been successfully used. It also provides historical perspective of RNAi discovery and its contemporary phenomena, mechanism of RNAi pathway.

Proteomics: a biotechnology tool for crop improvement

Eldakak, Moustafa; Milad, Sanaa I. M.; Nawar, Ali I.; Rohila, Jai S.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/02/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improvements in proteomic platforms and many other but related advances in plant biotechnology techniques offer various new ways to encourage the usage of these technologies by plant scientists for crop improvement programs. A combinatorial approach of accelerated gene discovery through genomics, proteomics, and other associated -omic branches of biotechnology, as an applied approach, is proving to be an effective way to speed up the crop improvement programs worldwide. In the near future, swift improvements in -omic databases are becoming critical and demand immediate attention for the effective utilization of these techniques to produce next-generation crops for the progressive farmers. Here, we have reviewed the recent advances in proteomics, as tools of biotechnology...

Exploitation of interspecific diversity for monocot crop improvement

King, J; Armstead, I; Harper, J; Ramsey, L; Snape, J; Waugh, R; James, C; Thomas, A; Gasior, D; Kelly, R; Roberts, L; Gustafson, P; King, I
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
In many cultivated crop species there is limited genetic variation available for the development of new higher yielding varieties adapted to climate change and sustainable farming practises. The distant relatives of crop species provide a vast and largely untapped reservoir of genetic variation for a wide range of agronomically important traits that can be exploited by breeders for crop improvement. In this paper, in what we believe to be the largest introgression programme undertaken in the monocots, we describe the transfer of the entire genome of Festuca pratensis into Lolium perenne in overlapping chromosome segments. The L. perenne/F. pratensis introgressions were identified and characterised via 131 simple sequence repeats and 1612 SNPs anchored to the rice genome. Comparative analyses were undertaken to determine the syntenic relationship between L. perenne/F. pratensis and rice, wheat, barley, sorghum and Brachypodium distachyon. Analyses comparing recombination frequency and gene distribution indicated that a large proportion of the genes within the genome are located in the proximal regions of chromosomes which undergo low/very low frequencies of recombination. Thus, it is proposed that past breeding efforts to produce improved varieties have centred on the subset of genes located in the distal regions of chromosomes where recombination is highest. The use of alien introgression for crop improvement is important for meeting the challenges of global food supply and the monocots such as the forage grasses and cereals...

Genomics Approaches for Crop Improvement against Abiotic Stress

Akpınar, Bala Anı; Lucas, Stuart J.; Budak, Hikmet
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
As sessile organisms, plants are inevitably exposed to one or a combination of stress factors every now and then throughout their growth and development. Stress responses vary considerably even in the same plant species; stress-susceptible genotypes are at one extreme, and stress-tolerant ones are at the other. Elucidation of the stress responses of crop plants is of extreme relevance, considering the central role of crops in food and biofuel production. Crop improvement has been a traditional issue to increase yields and enhance stress tolerance; however, crop improvement against abiotic stresses has been particularly compelling, given the complex nature of these stresses. As traditional strategies for crop improvement approach their limits, the era of genomics research has arisen with new and promising perspectives in breeding improved varieties against abiotic stresses.

Genomics reveals new landscapes for crop improvement

Bevan, Michael W; Uauy, Cristobal
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
The sequencing of large and complex genomes of crop species, facilitated by new sequencing technologies and bioinformatic approaches, has provided new opportunities for crop improvement. Current challenges include understanding how genetic variation translates into phenotypic performance in the field.

Emerging Paradigms in Genomics-Based Crop Improvement

Bohra, Abhishek
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/11/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
Next generation sequencing platforms and high-throughput genotyping assays have remarkably expedited the pace of development of genomic tools and resources for several crops. Complementing the technological developments, conceptual shifts have also been witnessed in designing experimental populations. Availability of second generation mapping populations encompassing multiple alleles, multiple traits, and extensive recombination events is radically changing the phenomenon of classical QTL mapping. Additionally, the rising molecular breeding approaches like marker assisted recurrent selection (MARS) that are able to harness several QTLs are of particular importance in obtaining a “designed” genotype carrying the most desirable combinations of favourable alleles. Furthermore, rapid generation of genome-wide marker data coupled with easy access to precise and accurate phenotypic screens enable large-scale exploitation of LD not only to discover novel QTLs via whole genome association scans but also to practise genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV)-based selection of genotypes. Given refinements being experienced in analytical methods and software tools, the multiparent populations will be the resource of choice to undertake genome wide association studies (GWAS)...

Cisgenics - A Sustainable Approach for Crop Improvement

Telem, R.S.; Wani, Shabir. H.; Singh, N.B.; Nandini, R.; Sadhukhan, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Mandal, N.
Fonte: Bentham Science Publishers Publicador: Bentham Science Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
The implication of molecular biology in crop improvement is now more than three decades old. Not surprisingly, technology has moved on, and there are a number of new techniques that may or may not come under the genetically modified (GM) banner and, therefore, GM regulations. In cisgenic technology, cisgenes from crossable plants are used and it is a single procedure of gene introduction whereby the problem of linkage drag of other genes is overcome. The gene used in cisgenic approach is similar compared with classical breeding and cisgenic plant should be treated equally as classically bred plant and differently from transgenic plants. Therefore, it offers a sturdy reference to treat cisgenic plants similarly as classically bred plants, by exemption of cisgenesis from the current GMO legislations. This review covers the implications of cisgenesis towards the sustainable development in the genetic improvement of crops and considers the prospects for the technology.

Assessment of genetic diversity in rice [Oryza sativa L.] germplasm based on agro-morphology traits and zinc-iron content for crop improvement

Roy, Subhas Chandra; Sharma, B. D.
Fonte: Springer India Publicador: Springer India
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
Genetic resources of landraces (84 cultivars) were collected from various agro-ecological regions of West Bengal and adjoining areas and characterized based on qualitative and quantitative agro-morphological descriptors along with zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) content. The DUS protocol was employed to study 16 agro-morphological passport data such as: vegetative data (anthocyanin pigmentation, plant habit), reproductive data (flag leaf attitude, stigma colour, panicle attitude), including eight grain quality traits: grain length, grain width, 1000 grains weight, kernel length, kernel breadth etc. Highest seed weight was found in cultivar Khechri (32.04 g/1000 seeds), collected from Sundarban and least seed weight was 9.6 g/1000seeds in Katharibhog. Maturity duration was found very short (<100 days) in Jumla Marshi (97 days) collected from world’s coldest rice growing area, Jumla, Nepal. Penultimate leaves breadth was observed broad (>2 cm) in one cultivar Jungli (2.3 cm). Seeds per panicle were 180 in Chinisakkar (medium range), 177 in Dudheswar, and 151 in Ladua. Flag leaf was found in erect condition in late observation in Dudheswar, Enda and Ghiosh. Seventeen cultivars were grouped in the aromatic rice category out of total 84 local landraces. Twenty-one cultivars were with awn...

Lab to Farm: Applying Research on Plant Genetics and Genomics to Crop Improvement

Ronald, Pamela C.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
Over the last 300 years, plant science research has provided important knowledge and technologies for advancing the sustainability of agriculture. In this Essay, I describe how basic research advances have been translated into crop improvement, explore some lessons learned, and discuss the potential for current and future contribution of plant genetic improvement technologies to continue to enhance food security and agricultural sustainability.

Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of yam (Dioscorea rotundata): an important tool for functional study of genes and crop improvement

Nyaboga, Evans; Tripathi, Jaindra N.; Manoharan, Rajesh; Tripathi, Leena
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/09/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
Although genetic transformation of clonally propagated crops has been widely studied as a tool for crop improvement and as a vital part of the development of functional genomics resources, there has been no report of any existing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of yam (Dioscorea spp.) with evidence of stable integration of T-DNA. Yam is an important crop in the tropics and subtropics providing food security and income to over 300 million people. However, yam production remains constrained by increasing levels of field and storage pests and diseases. A major constraint to the development of biotechnological approaches for yam improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. In this study, we developed an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Dioscorea rotundata using axillary buds as explants. Two cultivars of D. rotundata were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring the binary vectors containing selectable marker and reporter genes. After selection with appropriate concentrations of antibiotic, shoots were developed on shoot induction and elongation medium. The elongated antibiotic-resistant shoots were subsequently rooted on medium supplemented with selection agent. Successful transformation was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction...

Genomics-assisted breeding for boosting crop improvement in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)

Pazhamala, Lekha; Saxena, Rachit K.; Singh, Vikas K.; Sameerkumar, C. V.; Kumar, Vinay; Sinha, Pallavi; Patel, Kishan; Obala, Jimmy; Kaoneka, Seleman R.; Tongoona, P.; Shimelis, Hussein A.; Gangarao, N. V. P. R.; Odeny, Damaris; Rathore, Abhishek; Dharmar
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
Pigeonpea is an important pulse crop grown predominantly in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Although pigeonpea growing area has considerably increased, yield has remained stagnant for the last six decades mainly due to the exposure of the crop to various biotic and abiotic constraints. In addition, low level of genetic variability and limited genomic resources have been serious impediments to pigeonpea crop improvement through modern breeding approaches. In recent years, however, due to the availability of next generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies, the scenario has changed tremendously. The reduced sequencing costs resulting in the decoding of the pigeonpea genome has led to the development of various genomic resources including molecular markers, transcript sequences and comprehensive genetic maps. Mapping of some important traits including resistance to Fusarium wilt and sterility mosaic disease, fertility restoration, determinacy with other agronomically important traits have paved the way for applying genomics-assisted breeding (GAB) through marker assisted selection as well as genomic selection (GS). This would accelerate the development and improvement of both varieties and hybrids in pigeonpea. Particularly for hybrid breeding programme...

Small RNAs in plants: recent development and application for crop improvement

Kamthan, Ayushi; Chaudhuri, Abira; Kamthan, Mohan; Datta, Asis
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/04/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
The phenomenon of RNA interference (RNAi) which involves sequence-specific gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs, i.e., small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) has emerged as one of most powerful approaches for crop improvement. RNAi based on siRNA is one of the widely used tools of reverse genetics which aid in revealing gene functions in many species. This technology has been extensively applied to alter the gene expression in plants with an aim to achieve desirable traits. RNAi has been used for enhancing the crop yield and productivity by manipulating the gene involved in biomass, grain yield and enhanced shelf life of fruits and vegetables. It has also been applied for developing resistance against various biotic (bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, insects) and abiotic stresses (drought, salinity, cold, etc.). Nutritional improvements of crops have also been achieved by enriching the crops with essential amino acids, fatty acids, antioxidants and other nutrients beneficial for human health or by reducing allergens or anti-nutrients. microRNAs are key regulators of important plant processes like growth, development, and response to various stresses. In spite of similarity in size (20–24 nt), miRNA differ from siRNA in precursor structures...

Genetic gain in an improvement program of irrigated rice in Minas Gerais.

SOARES, P. C.; MELO, P. G. S.; MELO, L. C.; SOARES, A. A.
Fonte: Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology, Viçosa, MG, v. 5, n. 2, p. 142-148, June 2005. Publicador: Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology, Viçosa, MG, v. 5, n. 2, p. 142-148, June 2005.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
An evaluation of the genetic improvement programme of irrigated rice of Minas Gerais (Brazil) estimated the genetic gain obtained in the 90s. Grain yield data of the advanced comparative trials of cultivars and lines of continuously flooded rice, conducted from 1990-91 to 2000-01, were used. The estimate of the genetic gain was obtained by the methodology of the adjusted means proposed by Breseghello (1998). The mean annual genetic gain in the 90s was 42.45+or-17.89 kg ha-1 (0.7% per year). The improvement programme proved auspicious for the development of lines that outmatched the controls. The mean of the cultivars released in the 90s did however not outstrip the mean of the elite lines, which were the genotypes with the highest means in this study and will be further evaluated in the ongoing programme.; 2005

QTL and association mapping for plant abiotic stress tolerance: trait characterization and introgression for crop improvement

Fleury, D.; Langridge, P.
Fonte: Wiley; United States Publicador: Wiley; United States
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
Delphine Fleury and Peter Langridge

Epi-fingerprinting and epi-interventions for improved crop production and food quality

Rodriguez Lopez, C.M.; Wilkinson, M.J.
Fonte: Frontiers Media Publicador: Frontiers Media
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.4%
Increasing crop production at a time of rapid climate change represents the greatest challenge facing modern agricultural research. Much of our understanding of the genetic control of yield derives from controlled field experiments that seek to minimise variance in the growing environment. However, there is inevitably substantial residual variability among plants in their phenotype, development and yield attributable to Genotype x Environment (GxE) interactions. Recent advances in the field of epigenetics have revealed a plethora of gene control mechanisms that could account for much of this unassigned variation. These systems act as a regulatory interface between the perception of environmental variables and associated alterations in gene expression and provide exciting new opportunities for crop improvement. Direct manipulation of epigenetic control systems hold the enticing promise of creating new sources of variability that could enhance crop performance. Equally, understanding the relationship between various epigenetic states and responses of the crop to specific aspects of the growing environment (epigenetic fingerprinting) could allow for a more tailored approach to plant agronomy. In this review, we explore the many ways in which epigenetic interventions and epigenetic fingerprinting can be deployed for the improvement of crop production and quality.; Carlos M. Rodríguez López...

Utility of basic research in plant/crop physiology in relation to crop improvement: a review and a personal account

El-Sharkawy,Mabrouk A.
Fonte: Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology Publicador: Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2006 EN
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46.29%
Agricultural research and development plays an essential role in a nation's economic development, providing for food security for an ever-increasing population. In developed countries, the gap between potential and actual yield is largely closed because of a combination of advanced technologies, high-yielding new varieties and the application of agrochemicals in highly mechanized production systems. In most of these countries, agricultural production exceeds national demand, resulting in excess products for export. In many of the developing countries, however, agricultural productivity is still far below what it should be because of multiple technical and socio-economic constraints. Food deficits are the norm in poor and middle-income countries, requiring expensive food imports. To partially alleviate this situation, agricultural research must be strengthened. As branches of basic sciences, plant and crop physiology have often been criticized for being non-effective in translating their findings into improving crop productivity, which would enhance agricultural progress. This paper addresses this issue by presenting an assessment of past achievements of physiological research and their impacts on crop improvement and food production. Shortcomings and limitations of isolated...

A physiological basis to crop improvement and agronomic development

Ukozehasi, Celestin
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Plant Sciences; School of the Biological Sciences; Wolfson College Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Plant Sciences; School of the Biological Sciences; Wolfson College
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.33%
Despite of the documented impacts of the so-called green revolution, food security in the world faces new challenges in terms of population growth, increases in no-agricultural land use (urbanization), and climate change. Trends in food security show that the world community is operating within two limits of food system: (i) the quantity of food that can be produced under a given climate; and (ii) the quantity of food needed by a growing and changing population. Therefore, taking food security successfully into the future requires novel approaches to boost agricultural productivity in order to balance food supply and demand without expanding the agricultural land. To date, progress in wheat yield has been largely the result of the development of dwarf varieties through introgression of reduced height (Rht) genes. The height reductions arising from the presence of these genes increased yield by alteration of partitioning of dry matter and nitrogen in favour of the spike. However, increased partitioning through additional reductions in plant height is not likely; as comparative studies indicate that wheat yield is reduced when plants are shortened beyond a threshold, and most of the modern cultivars have reached the optimal height. Therefore...

How can we foster crop improvement?

Pontaroli,A.C
Fonte: BAG. Journal of basic and applied genetics Publicador: BAG. Journal of basic and applied genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
In this paper, the current scenario and challenges that crop improvement faces in response to the increasing world demand for food and biofuels is described. The fact that the rate of improvement in crop performance has plummeted in a number of important crops is discussed. To revert this situation, in my opinion, a truly interdisciplinary approach should be applied to the breeding process, making use of the vast amount of knowledge recently generated in the areas of genomics, ecophysiology, statistics, bioinformatics, etc. . Moreover, a special emphasis should be put on phenotyping which -in my opinion- is the new bottleneck, considering the increasingly fast pace and continuously decreasing costs of genotypic data generation. In the meanwhile, a challenge needs to be faced on how to organize, compile and parse phenotypic data while making them available to the broad scientific community. In conclusion, an unprecedented opportunity for a quantum leap in crop improvement rests before us; now, a concerted effort needs to be done to truly integrate the massive amount of knowledge generated into better crops for the world.