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## Métodos de contagem; Counting methods

Trovão, Marcelo Henrique
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/04/2015 PT
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Neste trabalho, estudamos alguns números e procedimentos que facilitam na solução de problemas no campo da contagem, sendo esses: O Princípio da Inclusão e Exclusão, Triângulo de Pascal, Binômios de Newton, números binomiais e multinomiais, números de funções, permutações, grafos, números de Stirling, lemas de Kaplansky e sequência de Fibonacci.; We studied some numbers and procedures that facilitate the solution of problems in the field of counting, these being: The Principle of Inclusion and Exclusion, Pascal's Triangle, Newton binomial, binomial and multinomial numbers, numbers of functions, permutations, graphs, Stirling numbers, slogans Kaplansky and the Fibonacci sequence.

## Rapid quantitation of DNA spot hybridization by flatbed scintillation counting.

Hyypiä, T; Auvinen, E; Kovanen, S; Ståhlberg, T H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1990 EN
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The flatbed scintillation counting system (Betaplate) was used for quantitative measurement of the radioactive hybridization signal in detection of adenovirus and papillomavirus DNA in clinical specimens. In this method, 96 samples on a nylon membrane can be handled as a single entity throughout the hybridization and counting procedure. The technique is sensitive, rapid, and convenient in routine use when compared with conventionally applied methods for the numerical analysis of hybridization results. The assay principle allows simultaneous testing of large numbers of specimens.

## Rapid Separation and Concentration of Food-Borne Pathogens in Food Samples Prior to Quantification by Viable-Cell Counting and Real-Time PCR▿

Fukushima, Hiroshi; Katsube, Kazunori; Hata, Yukiko; Kishi, Ryoko; Fujiwara, Satomi
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Buoyant density gradient centrifugation has been used to separate bacteria from complex food matrices, as well as to remove compounds that inhibit rapid detection methods, such as PCR, and to prevent false-positive results due to DNA originating from dead cells. Applying a principle of buoyant density gradient centrifugation, we developed a method for rapid separation and concentration following filtration and low- and high-speed centrifugation, as well as flotation and sedimentation buoyant density centrifugation, for 12 food-borne pathogens (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Campylobacter jejuni, Vibrio cholerae O139, Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3K6, Vibrio vulnificus, Providencia alcalifaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium perfringens) in 13 different food homogenates. This method can be used prior to real-time quantitative PCR (RTi-qPCR) and viable-cell counting. Using this combined method, the target organisms in the food samples theoretically could be concentrated 250-fold and detected at cell concentrations as low as 101 to 103 CFU/g using the RTi-qPCR assay, and amounts as small as 100 to 101 CFU/g could be isolated using plate counting. The combined separation and concentration methods and RTi-qPCR confirmed within 3 h the presence of 101 to 102 CFU/g of Salmonella and C. jejuni directly in naturally contaminated chicken and the presence of S. aureus directly in remaining food items in a poisoning outbreak. These results illustrated the feasibility of using these assays for rapid inspection of bacterial food contamination during a real-world outbreak.

## An optical counting technique with vertical hydrodynamic focusing for biological cells

Chiavaroli, Stefano; Newport, David; Woulfe, Bernie
Fonte: American Institute of Physics Publicador: American Institute of Physics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/06/2010 EN
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A barrier in scaling laboratory processes into automated microfluidic devices has been the transfer of laboratory based assays: Where engineering meets biological protocol. One basic requirement is to reliably and accurately know the distribution and number of biological cells being dispensed. In this study, a novel optical counting technique to efficiently quantify the number of cells flowing into a microtube is presented. REH, B-lymphoid precursor leukemia, are stained with a fluorescent dye and frames of moving cells are recorded using a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The basic principle is to calculate the total fluorescence intensity of the image and to divide it by the average intensity of a single cell. This method allows counting the number of cells with an uncertainty ±5%, which compares favorably to the standard biological methodology, based on the manual Trypan Blue assay, which is destructive to the cells and presents an uncertainty in the order of 20%. The use of a microdevice for vertical hydrodynamic focusing, which can reduce the background noise of out of focus cells by concentrating the cells in a thin layer, has further improved the technique. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation and confocal laser scanning microscopy images have shown an 82% reduction in the vertical displacement of the cells. For the flow rates imposed during this study...

## Find the picture of eight turtles: A link between children’s counting and their knowledge of number-word semantics

Slusser, Emily B.; Sarnecka, Barbara W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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An essential part of understanding number words (such as eight) is understanding that all number words refer to the dimension of experience we call numerosity. Knowledge of this general principle may be separable from knowledge of individual number-word meanings. That is to say, children may learn the meanings of at least a few individual number words before realizing that all number words refer to numerosity. Alternatively, knowledge of this general principle may form relatively early and proceed to guide and constrain the acquisition of individual number-word meanings. The present paper describes two experiments, in which 116 children (ages 2-1/2 to 4 years) were given a number-word-extension task as well as a standard Give-N task. Results show that only children who understood the cardinality principle of counting successfully extended number words from one set to another based on numerosity – with evidence that a developing understanding of this concept emerges as children approach the cardinal principle induction. These findings support the view that children do not use a broad understanding of number words to initially connect number words to numerosity...

## Noninvasive Prenatal Measurement of the Fetal Genome

Fan, H. Christina; Gu, Wei; Wang, Jianbin; Blumenfeld, Yair J.; El-Sayed, Yasser Y.; Quake, Stephen R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/07/2012 EN
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The vast majority of prenatal genetic testing requires invasive sampling. Since this poses a risk to the fetus, one must make a decision that weighs the desire for genetic information against the risk of an adverse outcome due to hazards of the testing process. These issues are not required to be coupled, and it would be desirable to discover genetic information about the fetus without incurring a health risk. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to noninvasively sequence the entire prenatal genome. Our results show that molecular counting of parental haplotypes in maternal plasma by shotgun sequencing of maternal plasma DNA allows the inherited fetal genome to be deciphered noninvasively. We also applied the counting principle directly to each allele in the fetal exome by performing exome capture on maternal plasma DNA prior to shotgun sequencing. This approach enables noninvasive exome screening of clinically relevant and deleterious alleles that were paternally inherited or had arisen as de novo germline mutations, and complements the haplotype counting approach to provide a comprehensive view of the fetal genome. Noninvasive determination of the fetal genome may ultimately facilitate the diagnosis of all inherited and de novo genetic disease.

## An optical counting technique with vertical hydrodynamic focusing for biological cells

Chiavaroli, Stefano; Newport, David; Woulfe, Bernie
Fonte: American Institute of Physics Publicador: American Institute of Physics
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
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peer-reviewed; A barrier in scaling laboratory processes into automated microfluidic devices has been the transfer of lab based assays: where engineering meets biological protocol. One basic requirement is to reliably and accurately know the distribution and number of biological cells being dispensed. In this study, a novel optical counting technique to efficiently quantify the number of cells flowing into a microtube is presented. REH, B-lymphoid precursor leukaemia, are stained with a fluorescent dye and frames of moving cells are recorded using a CCD camera. The basic principle is to calculate the total fluorescence intensity of the image and to divide it by the average intensity of a single cell. This method allows counting the number of cells with an uncertainty +/- 5%, which compares favourably to the standard biological methodology, based on the manual Trypan Blue assay, which is destructive to the cells and presents an uncertainty in the order of 20%. The use of a microdevice for vertical hydrodynamic focusing, which can reduce the background noise of out of focus cells by concentrating the cells in a thin layer, has further improved the technique. CFD simulation and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy images have shown an 82% reduction in the vertical displacement of the cells. For the flow rates imposed during this study...

## "Multi-Dynamic" Isotope Ratio Measurements for Uranium and Plutonium using the "Multiple Ion Counting" Detection System of the TRITON TIMS at IRMM

RICHTER STEPHAN; JAKOPIC ROZLE; BENEDIK LJUDMILA; STOLARZ ANNA; KIPS RUTH; WELLUM Roger
Fonte: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities (OPOCE) Publicador: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities (OPOCE)
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: CD-ROM
ENG
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A "Multiple Ion Counting" (MIC) detection system installed into a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) allows the simultaneous detection of up to seven small ion beams with currents of 10-19 - 10-14 Ampere in ion counting mode, corresponding to count rates of 1-60.000 cps (counts per second). In order to circumvent complicated inter-calibration routines for the given set of 7 ion counters the principle of multi-dynamic measurements was implemented in combination with the "Multiple Ion Counting" (MIC) system. The multi-dynamic measurement procedure was applied to diluted samples of isotope reference materials for uranium and plutonium with concentrations at the ppb and the ppt level, respectively. The results for uranium measurements on samples IRMM-186 and NBL-U500 clearly show an improved precision by a factor of ca. 3 for the multi-dynamic measurement procedure compared to measurements carried out using one single ion counter in peak-jumping mode. When using the "Multiple Ion Counting" (MIC) system, the multi-dynamic procedure is also superior compared to the static total evaporation technique, as demonstrated by plutonium measurements on samples of NBL-CRM137. As a conclusion, the multi-dynamic procedures provide improved precision and accuracy compared to previous TIMS measurement techniques. The multi-dynamic measurement technique in combination with the "Multiple Ion Counting" (MIC) system of the TRITON TIMS is suitable for the isotopic analysis on low-level uranium and plutonium samples as well as single uranium or plutonium oxide particles for nuclear safeguards purposes...

## Fast cell counting – the better cell counting?

LIPŞA DORELIA; CACHO Carmen; REMBGES Diana; BARRERO Josefa
Fonte: PARLAR SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS (P S P) Publicador: PARLAR SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS (P S P)
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
ENG
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A better understanding of environmental factors influencing human health will benefit from the availability of fast and reliable methods allowing the quasi simultaneous measurement of a panel of endpoints in cell exposure studies. Automated cell-counting methods are basic for this purpose if comparability with traditional manual cell counting procedure is documented. In the present paper, both dead and viable cells of human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line (A549) and human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE 14o-) at various cell densities ranging from 50 000 to 400 000 cells/ml, are counted by both Trypan blue dye exclusion staining counted with a hemocytometer and a handheld automated cell counter based on the Coulter principle (Scepter 2.0, Millipore). Correlation indexes higher than 0.998 have been obtained using both cell counting protocols in all cases, thus confirming the reliable use of automated cell counters whenever fast, easy to use, precise cell counting is a requisite.; JRC.I.1-Chemical Assessment and Testing

## High Accuracy Volume Flow Rate Measurement Using Vortex Counting

ZAARAOUI, Abdelkader; RAVELET, Florent; MARGNAT, Florent; KHELLADI, Sofiane
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
EN_US
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A prototype device for measuring the volumetric flow-rate by counting vortices has been designed and realized. It consists of a square-section pipe in which are placed a two-dimensional bluff body and a strain gauge force sensor. These two elements are separated from each other, unlike the majority of vortex apparatus currently available. The principle is based on the generation of a separated wake behind the bluff body. The volumetric flow-rate measurement is done by counting vortices using a flat plate placed in the wake and attached to the beam sensor. By optimizing the geometrical arrangement, the search for a significant signal has shown that it was possible to get a quasi-periodic signal, within a good range of flow rates so that its performances are well deduced. The repeatability of the value of the volume of fluid passed for every vortex shed is tested for a given flow and then the accuracy of the measuring device is determined. This quantity is the constant of the device and is called the digital volume (V_p). It has the dimension of a volume and varies with the confinement of the flow and with the Reynolds number. Therefore, a dimensionless quantity is introduced, the reduced digital volume (V_r) that takes into account the average speed in the contracted section downstream of the bluff body. The reduced digital volume is found to be independent of the confinement in a significant range of Reynolds numbers...

## 'If you assume, you can make an ass out of u and me': a decade of the disector for stereological counting of particles in 3D space.

Mayhew, T M; Gundersen, H J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1996 EN
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The year 1984 was a watershed in stereology. It saw the introduction of highly efficient and unbiased design-based methods for counting the number of arbitrary objects in 3-dimensional (3D) space using 2D sectional images. The only requirement is that the objects be unambiguously identifiable on parallel sections or successive focal planes. The move away from the ¿assumption-based' and ¿model-based' methods applied previously has been a major scientific advance. It has led to the resolution of several problems in different biomedical areas. The basic principle which makes possible 3D counting from sections is the disector. Here, we review the disector principle and consider its impact on the counting and sizing of biological particles. From now on, there can be no excuse for applying the biased counting methods of yesteryear. Their continued use, despite the availability of unbiased alternatives, should be seen as paying homage to History rather than advancing Science.

## Uma experiência de contagem no Ensino Médio

Haas, Daniela Barcellos
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
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O presente Trabalho de Conclusão tem por objetivo avaliar uma proposta de prática pedagógica para o ensino de Análise Combinatória em uma turma de segundo ano do Ensino Médio do Colégio Estadual Protásio Alves, considerando o uso do jogo “A senha” como uma forma de introduzir o conteúdo de forma dinâmica; e o método de contagem para formalizar os conceitos de permutação, arranjo e combinação. Também é objetivo avaliar o uso da Modelagem Matemática como estratégia de ensino de Análise Combinatória aplicado em situações cotidianas, ou oriundas de outras áreas da realidade. Inicialmente é explicado como é feita a abordagem através do Método de Contagem baseada em SANTOS, MELLO E MURARI (2007), CARVALHO (2006) e ALMEIDA (2010). Em seguida, é apresentada a definição de Modelagem Matemática, tomando como embasamento teórico os autores BARBOSA (2001, 2003, 2004), BIEMBENGUT; HEIN (2000) e BASSANEZI (1999). Por fim, são relatadas atividades aplicadas e os resultados obtidos.; The god of this work is to analyze a proposal of pedagogical practice in the field of Combinatorics in a high school class of Colégio Estadual Protásio Alves (State School Protásio Alves), considering the use of the game “A senha” (The Password) as a way of introducing the content in a dynamic way; and the counting principle to formalize the concepts of Permutation...

## Counting lattice points

Gorodnik, Alexander; Nevo, Amos
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/03/2009
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For a locally compact second countable group G and a lattice subgroup Gamma, we give an explicit quantitative solution of the lattice point counting problem in general domains in G, provided that i) G has finite upper local dimension, and the domains satisfy a basic regularity condition, ii) the mean ergodic theorem for the action of G on G/Gamma holds, with a rate of convergence. The error term we establish matches the best current result for balls in symmetric spaces of simple higher-rank Lie groups, but holds in much greater generality. In addition, it holds uniformly over families of lattices satisfying a uniform spectral gap. Applications include counting lattice points in general domains in semisimple S-algebraic groups, counting rational points on group varieties with respect to a height function, and quantitative angular (or conical) equidistribution of lattice points in symmetric spaces and in affine symmetric varieties. The mean ergodic theorems which we establish are based on spectral methods, including the spectral transfer principle and the Kunze-Stein phenomenon. We prove appropriate analogues of both of these results in the set-up of adele groups, and they constitute a necessary step in our proof of quantitative results in counting rational points.

## High efficiency photon counting using stopped light

Imamoglu, A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/05/2002
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Single-photon detection and photon counting play a central role in a large number of quantum communication and computation protocols. While the efficiency of state-of-the-art photo-detectors is well below the desired limits, quantum state measurements in trapped ions can be carried out with efficiencies approaching 100%. Here, we propose a method that can in principle achieve ideal photon counting, by combining the techniques of photonic quantum memory and ion-trap fluorescence detection: after mapping the quantum state of a propagating light pulse onto metastable collective excitations of a trapped cold atomic gas, it is possible to monitor the resonance fluorescence induced by an additional laser field that only couples to the metastable excited state. Even with a photon collection/detection efficiency as low as 10%, it is possible to achieve photon counting with efficiency approaching 100%.; Comment: 4 pages

## Variational principle of counting statistics in master equations

Ohkubo, Jun
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/06/2009
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We study counting statistics of number of transitions in a stochastic process. For mesoscopic systems, a path integral formulation for the counting statistics has already been derived. We here show that it is also possible to derive the similar path integral formulation without the assumption of mesoscopic systems. It has been clarified that the saddle point method for the path integral is not an approximation, but a valid procedure in the present derivation. Hence, a variational principle in the counting statistics is naturally derived. In order to obtain the variational principle, we employ many independent replicas of the same system. In addition, the Euler-Maclaurin formula is used in order to connect the discrete and continuous properties of the system.; Comment: 4 pages, no figure

## New experimental limits on violations of the Pauli exclusion principle obtained with the Borexino Counting Test Facility

Borexino collaboration; Back, H. O.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/06/2004
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The Pauli exclusion principle (PEP) has been tested for nucleons ($n,p$) in $^{12}C$ and $^{16}O$ nuclei, using the results of background measurements with the prototype of the Borexino detector, the Counting Test Facility (CTF). The approach consisted of a search for $\gamma$, $n$, $p$ and/or $\alpha$'s emitted in a non-Paulian transition of 1$P$- shell nucleons to the filled 1$S_{1/2}$ shell in nuclei. Similarly, the Pauli-forbidden $\beta^{\pm}$ decay processes were searched for. Due to the extremely low background and the large mass (4.2 tons) of the CTF detector, the following most stringent up-to-date experimental bounds on PEP violating transitions of nucleons have been established: $\tau(^{12}C\to^{12}\widetilde{C}+\gamma) > 2.1\cdot10^{27}$ y, $\tau(^{12}C\to^{11}\widetilde{B}+ p) > 5.0\cdot10^{26}$ y, $\tau(^{12}C(^{16}O)\to^{11}\widetilde{C}(^{15}\widetilde{O})+ n) > 3.7 \cdot 10^{26}$ y, $\tau(^{12}C\to^{8}\widetilde{Be}+\alpha) > 6.1 \cdot 10^{23}$ y, $\tau(^{12}C\to^{12}\widetilde{N}+ e^- + \widetilde{\nu_e})> 7.6 \cdot 10^{27}$ y and $\tau(^{12}C\to^{12}\widetilde{B}+ e^+ + \nu_e)> 7.7 \cdot 10^{27}$ y, all at 90% C.L.; Comment: 10 pages, 5 figures. Submitted to European Physical Journal C Spokesperson of the Borexino Collaboration: G.Bellini. Corresponding authors: A.Derbin...

## Second Law of Thermodynamics, Macroscopic Observables within Boltzmann's Principle but without Thermodynamic Limit

Gross, D. H. E.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/01/2001
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Boltzmann's principle S=k ln W allows to extend equilibrium thermo-statistics to Small'' systems without invoking the thermodynamic limit. The clue is to base statistical probability on ensemble averaging and not on time averaging. It is argued that due to the incomplete information obtained by macroscopic measurements thermodynamics handles ensembles or finite-sized sub-manifolds in phase space and not single time-dependent trajectories. Therefore, ensemble averages are the natural objects of statistical probabilities. This is the physical origin of coarse-graining which is not anymore a mathematical ad hoc assumption. From this concept all equilibrium thermodynamics can be deduced quite naturally including the most sophisticated phenomena of phase transitions for Small'' systems. Boltzmann's principle is generalized to non-equilibrium Hamiltonian systems with possibly fractal distributions ${\cal{M}}$ in 6N-dim. phase space by replacing the conventional Riemann integral for the volume in phase space by its corresponding box-counting volume. This is equal to the volume of the closure $\bar{\cal{M}}$. With this extension the Second Law is derived without invoking the thermodynamic limit. The irreversibility in this approach is due to the replacement of the phase-space volume by the volume of its closure $\bar{\cal{M}}$. The physical reason for this replacement is that macroscopic measurements cannot distinguish ${\cal{M}}$ from $\bar{\cal{M}}$. Whereas the former is not changing in time due to Liouville's theorem...

## Counting statistics for genetic switches based on effective interaction approximation

Ohkubo, Jun
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/09/2012
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Applicability of counting statistics for a system with an infinite number of states is investigated. The counting statistics has been studied a lot for a system with a finite number of states. While it is possible to use the scheme in order to count specific transitions in a system with an infinite number of states in principle, we have non-closed equations in general. A simple genetic switch can be described by a master equation with an infinite number of states, and we use the counting statistics in order to count the number of transitions from inactive to active states in the gene. To avoid to have the non-closed equations, an effective interaction approximation is employed. As a result, it is shown that the switching problem can be treated as a simple two-state model approximately, which immediately indicates that the switching obeys non-Poisson statistics.; Comment: 6 pages, 2 figures

## On the measurement of a weak classical force coupled to a quantum-mechanical oscillator. I. Issues of principle

Caves, Carlton M.; Thorne, Kip S.; Drever, Ronald W. P.; Sandberg, Vernon D.; Zimmermann, Mark
Fonte: American Physical Society Publicador: American Physical Society
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/1980
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The monitoring of a quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillator on which a classical force acts is important in a variety of high-precision experiments, such as the attempt to detect gravitational radiation. This paper reviews the standard techniques for monitoring the oscillator, and introduces a new technique which, in principle, can determine the details of the force with arbitrary accuracy, despite the quantum properties of the oscillator. The standard method for monitoring the oscillator is the "amplitude-and-phase" method (position or momentum transducer with output fed through a narrow-band amplifier). The accuracy obtainable by this method is limited by the uncertainty principle ("standard quantum limit"). To do better requires a measurement of the type which Braginsky has called "quantum nondemolition." A well known quantum nondemolition technique is "quantum counting," which can detect an arbitrarily weak classical force, but which cannot provide good accuracy in determining its precise time dependence. This paper considers extensively a new type of quantum nondemolition measurement—a "back-action-evading" measurement of the real part X_1 (or the imaginary part X_2) of the oscillator's complex amplitude. In principle X_1 can be measured "arbitrarily quickly and arbitrarily accurately...

## The contract of sale subject to weighing, counting and measuring and the controversy regarding the risk of the thing sold (“periculum rei venditae”); Da compra-e-venda sujeita a pesagem, contagem e medição e o problema dos riscos da coisa vendida ("periculum rei venditae")

Marchi, Eduardo Cesar Silveira Vita
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2010 POR
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In this study of the “emptio venditio” of “res quae pondere numero mensura constant” (Gai. 10 “ed. prov.”D. 18, 1, 35, 5 to 7), that is, of the contract of sale subject to weighing, counting and measuring and its relationship to the discussion regarding the risk for the loss or fortuitous deterioration of the thing sold, we explore the main historical and dogmatic reconstructive propositions, especially those advanced by V. Arangio-Ruiz, M. Kaser and W. Ernst, representatives of the “communis opinio” that places the “periculum est emptoris” principle in the classical period, by F. Haymann, who headed an old and radical opposing view (“periculum est venditoris”) and, more importantly, by M. Talamanca, whose opinion appears to be the most acceptable one, as he is the author of an original new thesis on the subject that justifies the contradictions present in the sources by advancing the hypothesis of the existence of yet another controversy in Roman classical law between the Sabinian and Proculean schools, the former adopting the “p.e.v.” principle and the latter rallying around the opposing “p.e.e.” dogma.; No estudo da emptio venditio de res quae pondere numero mensura constant (Gai. 10 “ed. prov.” D. 18...