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Identity and Plasticity in the Reshaping Processes of Urban Landscape

Neto, Paulo
Fonte: Council of Europe Publicador: Council of Europe
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
105.9%
The European Landscape Convention, adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on 19 July 2000 and opened for signature by its Members States in Florence on 20 October 2000, is a instrument devoted to the protection, management and planning of the landscapes in Europe. The concept of landscape in the convention differs from the one that may be found in certain documents, which sees in landscapes an “asset” (heritage concept of landscape) and assesses it (as “cultural”, “natural” etc landscape) by considering it as a part of physical space. This new concept expresses, on the contrary, the desire to confront, head-on and in a comprehensive way, the theme of the quality of the surroundings where people live; this is recognized as a precondition for individual and social well-being (understood in the physical, physiological, psychological and intellectual sense) and for the sustainable development, as well as a resource conductive to economic activity. (in Recommendation CM/Rec(2008)3 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the Guidelines for the Implementation of the European Landscape Convention adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on 6 February 2008). Within the spirit of the European Landscape Convention’s principles and purposes presented...

Condição humana e organização social e política: crise e as ideias de Regionalismo e de Europa das Regiões

Amaral, Carlos Eduardo Pacheco
Fonte: Europe Direct Aveiro Publicador: Europe Direct Aveiro
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.74%
Partindo da crise que se abate sobre o modelo moderno de Estado soberano desde as duas guerras mundiais do último século, o texto procura explorar o conceito de regionalismo, perspectivando-o como utopia e como demanda de uma forma alternativa de organização social e política. Paralelamente, procede-se à exploração de dois projectos alternativos. Primeiro, o projecto de Europa das regiões, que enforma o ideário federalista de meados do século XX de substituição da Europa dos Estado por uma Europa das Regiões - o qual, paradoxalmente, viria impedir as Regiões de aceder ao processo de integração europeia. Segundo, o projecto de Europa com Regiões, que se viria a estabelecer, de forma lenta, se bem que gradual, primeiro no Conselho e na União Europeia, a partir de meados da década de oitenta do século XX.; ABSTRACT: Starting from the crisis that befalls the modern sovereign state since the two world wars of the last century, the text aims to explore the concept of regionalism, viewing it as an Utopia and as a demand for an alternative form of social and political organization. In parallel, it proceeds to the exploration of two alternative projects. First, the project Europe of the Regions, which shapes the federalist ideas of the mid-twentieth century which points to the replacement of the Europe of States with a Europe of Regions – which paradoxically...

Council of Europe actions to promote the rights and full inclusion of ageing people with disabilities

Garabagiu, Angela
Fonte: Igitur, Utrecht Publishing & Archiving Publicador: Igitur, Utrecht Publishing & Archiving
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/06/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.71%

Bibliographie Kriminalitätsopfer

Kerner, Hans-Jürgen
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Buch (Monographie)
DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.7%
Diese Bibliographie schließt an frühere, anderswo veröffentlichte, Bibliographien zu Fragen des Umgangs von Staat und Gesellschaft mit Viktimisierung und den davon betroffenen Menschen an. Sie erfasst Aufsätze, Monographien, Sammelbände und Schriften der sog. Grauen Literatur aus den Jahren 2010 bis 2014, mit einigen wenigen Hinweisen bereits zum Jahr 2015. Bei deutschsprachiger Literatur ist tendenziell Vollständigkeit angestrebt. Dem Nachweise fremdsprachiger (hauptsächlich englischsprachiger) Literatur liegt die Idee einer gewichtenden, für Wissenschaft bzw. Praxis bzw. Kriminalpolitik bedeutsamen, Auswahl zugrunde. Die Suche war grundsätzlich offen, jedoch finden sich Nachweise vordringlich zu den folgenden Themenbereichen: Opferentschädigung, Opferhilfe, Mediation, Täter-Opfer-Ausgleich, Restorative Justice, Opferbeistand, Opferanwalt, Opferrechte vor allem im Strafverfahren. Ergänzend sind grundlegende Dokumente zu Opferfragen der Europäischen Union, des Europarates und der Vereinten Nationen in deutscher oder englischer Sprache abgedruckt.; This bibliography is the most recent kind of similar bibliographies the author has collected and published during the last decades. Its central topic is how state and society are dealing with cases of criminal victimisation and the people involved as crime victims. The collection of publications aims at journal articles...

Partnering with Strasbourg: Constitutionalization of the European Court of Human Rights, the Accession of Central and East European States to the Council of Europe, and the Idea of Pilot Judgments

SADURSKI, Wojciech
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.86%
The accession of Central and East European States into the European Convention of Human Rights system was both a threat and a promise to the system. The threat resulted not only from the substantial increase of the number of Member States and that of the case-load, but also from the demise of a consensus which was, originally, presupposed by the system of protection of human rights in Western Europe: original members of the Council of Europe were “like-minded” and the Convention system did not represent a challenge to their internal apparatus of human rights protection. This paper, however, focuses on a promise: a possibility for the European Court of Human Rights to abandon once and for all the fiction of it being merely a sort of super-appellate court which scrutinizes individual decisions rather than laws in Member States. This shift towards a quasi-constitutional role, going beyond the simple identification of wrong individual decisions so as to point to systemic legal defects, was triggered by systemic problems within the new Member States, while also facilitated by collaboration between the European Court and national constitutional courts. The emergence of so-called “pilot judgments” is the best and most recent illustration of this trend. The way in which a national court may form a de facto alliance with the European Court effectively “pierces the veil of the State”...

Internet voting in the March 2007 Parliamentary Elections in Estonia. Report for the Council of Europe

TRECHSEL, Alexander H.; [et al.]
Fonte: Council of Europe Publicador: Council of Europe
Tipo: Relatório
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.72%

Internet voting in Estonia - A comparative analysis of four elections since 2005. Report for the Council of Europe

Fonte: Council of Europe Publicador: Council of Europe
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.7%
Recent decade has seen an increasing interest in Internet voting from the scholarly point of view as well as form the perspective of policy makers. Some have argued that the introduction of e-voting breaks down the barriers hindering political participation and, through easy access to electoral process boosts turnout. Others have kept a more pessimistic view, claiming that e-voting affects only those few who are highly engaged in politics already. This study aims to shed light on the topics beyond this debate. In particular, our objective is to analyze the determinants that lead some citizens to opt for e-voting and others for traditional means of participation. We ask the question of who is voting online and how can we explain the choice of the voting channel? Only then are we able to provide a more scrutinized answer to the question of whether Internet voting indeed affects the aggregate levels of turnout.; in collaboration with Dr. Guido Schwerdt, Ifo Institute for Economic Research Dr. Fabian Breuer, GPPI Berlin and European University Institute Prof. Michael Alvarez, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena Prof. Thad Hall, University of Utah, Salt Lake City

Harmonizing Trends vs Domestic Regulatory Frameworks: Looking for the European Law on Cross-border Cooperation

STRAZZARI, Davide
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.75%
The European law of cross-border cooperation is the legal product of the interplay of different legal orders, namely the international public legal order (Madrid Outline Convention, following Protocols and international agreements enforcing it), the European Union and the national one. To this extent, the European law of CBC is a dynamic process where each of the three components plays a role but none is prevailing from a normative point of view. The paper examines the components of this European law of CBC by looking first at the way CBC is currently conceived by the supranational legal drivers (Council of Europe and EU). It emerges that CBC is not more a matter of dealing with the problems of proximity between communities and territories laying on either side of borders, but of putting together genuine projects for CBC area and implementing a real CBC policy. This implies some consequences. First, CBC as a policy tends to involve territorial units enjoying influential political capacity, such as: federal state, legislative regions or at least inter-municipal association. Even national state may have an interest in participating. The second feature is the institutionalization of CBC as a way to promote coordination of policies, even according to a multilevel governance concept...

Evaluation of Two Serological Methods for Potency Testing of Whole Cell Pertussis Vaccines - Potency Testing of Whole Cell Pertussis Vaccines

VON HUNOLSTEIN Christina; GOMEZ MIGUEL M. J.; PEZELLA C.; SCOPETTI F.; BEHR-GROSS Marie-Emmanuelle; HALDER Maria; HOFFMANN Sebastian; LEVELS Lonneke; VAN DER GUN Johan; HENDRIKSEN Coenraad
Fonte: Council of Europe Publicador: Council of Europe
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.7%
The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) and the World Health Organization (WHO) require the performance of extensive quality control testing including a potency test before a vaccine batch is released for human use. Whole cell pertussis (wP) vaccine potency is assessed by a mouse protection test (MPT) based on the Kendrick test. This test compares the vaccine dose necessary to protect 50% of mice against the effect of a lethal intracerebral dose of Bordetella pertussis and the dose of a suitable reference vaccine needed to give the same protection level. Due to the large variability in the results of this test and the severe distress which is inflicted on the many animals involved, its replacement by an alternative method is highly desirable. At the initiative of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and HealthCare (EDQM) of the Council of Europe, in collaboration with the WHO and the In-vitro toxicology Unit/European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) of the European Commission (EC) Joint Research Centre-Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (JRC-IHCP), wP vaccine specialists from all over the world were invited to present an overview of candidate alternatives at a symposium organized in Geneva (CH) in March 2005. Although no alternative method was found suitable for immediate implementation of batch potency control...

The danger of organizaed crime development at the East of Europe and its movement from East to West

Magherescu, Delia
Fonte: Universidade da Coruña Publicador: Universidade da Coruña
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.7%
[Resumen] En este texto, que tiene como objeto la cuestión del crimen organizado, me gus- taría presentar la situación actual del fenómeno en el este de Europa, así como la ten- dencia “migratoria” de los delitos graves desde los países europeos orientales, a través de Europa central, hasta la parte occidental del continente. Es bien conocido el hecho de que diversas formas de crímenes organizados gra- ves han generado preocupación en las autoridades tanto nacionales como europeas, comprometidas en intensificar la lucha contra esta lacra. La cooperación interestatal en materia criminal a nivel europeo ha ocupado una posición central en la elaboración e implantación de algunas estrategias de control sobre el fenómeno, complementando el nivel de los estados miembros. Incluso se han creado parámetros (estándares) de prevención y control de las infracciones de criminalidad organizada, para lo cual las instituciones responsables han desarrollado esfuerzos ingen- tes, con el objetivo de obtener los mejores resultados. De este modo, la ONU, el Consejo de Europa, la OTAN, la OSCE, la UE y el G8, a las que se ha añadido Europol, han trabajado conjuntamente, como actores de deci- sión a nivel comunitario, para armonizar la legislación en materia de criminalidad orga- nizada...

But where are men?: Central-state public policies to combat violence against women in post-authoritarian Spain (1975-1999)

Valiente Fernández, Celia
Fonte: Council of Europe Publicador: Council of Europe
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; info:eu-repo/semantics/article Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1999 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.71%
Proceedings of the Council of Europe Seminar on Men and Violence Against Women. Strasbourg France: 7-8 October, 1999.

Preventing ethnic conflict, securing ethnic justice? The Council of Europe, the EU and the OSCE high commissioner on national minorities' use of contested concepts in their responses to the Hungarian minority policies of Hungary, Romania and Slovakia

SKOVGAARD, Jakob
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: paper; application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.79%
Defence date: 23 May 2007; Examining board: Prof. Michael Keating (EUI, supervisor) ; Prof. Frank Schimmelfennig (ETH Zürick)(External supervisor) ; Prof. Will Kymlicka (Quenn's University, Ontario) ; Prof. Rainer Bauböck (EUI); This thesis analyses the policies aimed at influencing the situation of the Hungarian minorities in Romania and Slovakia undertaken by three European organisations, the Council of Europe, the EU and the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities. The focus is on the way in which the organisations have conceptualised contested concepts concerning national minorities, minority rights and minority policy in general, when reacting to the policies of the Hungarian, Romanian and Slovak states that have been directed at the Hungarian minorities. Starting with the assumption that many of the concepts upon which minority policies are based are essentially contested, the thesis sets up a framework for analysing the use of specific interpretations of such concepts in argumentation. More specifically, the framework makes it possible to look at how specific interpretations or conceptualisations of such concepts have been used as implicit warrants. By analysing the use of warrants in the texts issued by the organisations in the arguments reacting to the Hungarian minority policies of the three organisations...

Towards a European Norm? The framing of the Hungarian Minorities in Romania and Slovakia by the Council of Europe, the EU and the OCSE

SKOVGAARD, Jakob
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 357816 bytes; application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.9%
This paper addresses how three European organisations, namely the Council of Europe, the European Union and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and its High Commissioner on National Minorities, have addressed the issue of the Hungarian minorities in Romania and Slovakia. These three organisations have issued recommendations to the governments of Hungary, Romania and Slovakia regarding how to treat these sizeable minorities, and the paper looks into these recommendations to see what the 'ideal minority policies' of the three organisations have looked like. It is argued that the organisations started out from rather different perspectives but increasingly converged in their views during the 1990s. This was to a large degree due to the process of EU enlargement, which started in 1997. As the EU held relatively little expertise on the question of national minorities, it relied extensively on the positions of the other two organisations. The advent of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities drafted by the Council of Europe also provided a common standard for the three organisations. Concerning the recommendations issued by the organisations, it is argued that, in spite of some variations...

Os direitos da vítima da criminalidade; The rights of victims of crime

Frade, Edison Vlademir De Almeida
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.7%
No plano internacional têm sido reconhecidos direitos à vítimas da criminalidade, o que lhes possibilita a assunção de uma nova posição na resolução do conflito penal. Seja no âmbito das Nações Unidas, onde se destaca a Resolução n. 40/34 de 1985, da ONU, que trouxe consigo a Declaração de Princípios Básicos de Justiça relativos às Vítimas da Criminalidade e Abuso de Poder, seja no âmbito europeu, onde se destacam as iniciativas do Conselho da Europa e mais recentemente as iniciativas da União Européia, as vítimas da criminalidade têm visto redesenhadas sua posição, seus direitos e visto reconhecida sua condição de pessoa humana dotada de dignidade. A dissertação apresenta um primeiro capítulo contendo uma breve teoria geral sobre os principais aspectos relativos às vítimas e uma sintética evolução histórica de sua posição no conflito penal, em um segundo capítulo uma análise dos principais documentos relativos às vítimas de crimes no âmbito europeu e em um terceiro capítulo uma análise do principal documento no âmbito da ONU relativos às vítimas de crimes, Resolução n. 40/34 de 1985, da ONU e a Declaração de Princípios Básicos de Justiça relativos às Vítimas da Criminalidade e Abuso de Poder; Internationally recognized rights have been victims of crime...

How to Maintain and Improve Mutual Trust amongst EU Member States in Police and Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters? Lessons from the Functioning of Monitoring Mechanisms in the Council of Europe

Lawson, Rick A.
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Report (Bericht); info:eu-repo/semantics/other
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.7%
The present report was commissioned by WODC, the Research and Documentation Centre of the Ministry of Justice of the Netherlands. It was written in the context of a larger research project that seeks to identify ways to maintain and improve mutual trust amongst EU Member States, with a special emphasis on the area of police cooperation and judicial cooperation in criminal matters. In this framework two reports were written. One report – written by Prof. André Klip, Dr Esther Versluis and Ms Josine Polak (Maastricht University) – focuses on monitoring mechanisms in the first and third pillars of the EU. The present report seeks draw lessons from the experience that the Council of Europe has accumulated in the area of monitoring.

Europa ante el fenómeno de las «sectas»

Castón Boyer, Pedro; Ramos Lorente, María del Mar
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 CAT
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.71%
En las sociedades europeas está enraizado el principio según el cual los Estados no deben restringir la libertad de religión o de conciencia, sino que deben mantener la neutralidad. La pluralidad debe entonces ser protegida por las diversas instituciones europeas. El Consejo de Europa y el Parlamento Europeo, como entidades supranacionales, reconocen el derecho fundamental de libertad y tolerancia hacia todas las manifestaciones religiosas. En este trabajo, se describen y se analizan los documentos oficiales elaborados por ambas instituciones en cuanto a la implantación, en el viejo continente, de lo que se denominan sectas y nosotros reconocemos como nuevos movimientos religiosos.; In European societies we find the deeply rooted principle according to which States must not restrict freedom of religion or conscience, but should maintain neutrality. Plurality thus must be protected from the various European institutions. As supranational entities, the Council of Europe and the European Parliament recognize the fundamental right of freedom and tolerance towards all religious expressions. This paper describes and analyzes the official documents produced by the two institutions on the implantation, in the old continent, of so-called sects (which we prefer to call new religious movements).

Designing the voting system for the Council of the European Union

Leech, Dennis
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2002 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.69%
This paper examines the system of Qualified Majority Voting, used by the Council of the European Union, from the perspective of enlargement of the Union. It uses an approach based on power indices due to Penrose, Banzhaf and Coleman to make two analyses: (1) the question of the voting power of member countries from the point of view of fairness, and (2) the question of how the threshold number of votes required for QMV should be determined. It studies two scenarios for change from 2005 onwards envisaged by the Nice Treaty: (1) no enlargement, the EU comprising 15 member countries, and (2) full enlargement to 27 members by the accession of all the present twelve candidates. The proposal is made that fair weights be determined algorithmically as a technical or routine matter as the membership changes. The analysis of how the threshold affects power shows the trade-offs that countries face between their blocking power and the power of the Council to act. The main findings are: (1) that the weights laid down in the Nice Treaty are close to being fair, the only significant discrepancies being the under-representation of Germany and Romania, and the over-representation of Spain and Poland; (2) the threshold required for a decision is set too high for the Council to be an effective decision making body.

Analysis of QM Rule adopted by the Council of the European Union, Brussels, 23 June 2007

Felsenthal, Dan; Machover, Moshé
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2007 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.66%
We analyse and assess the qualified majority (QM) decision rule for the Council of Ministers of the EU, adopted at the Council of the European Union, Brussels, 23 June 2007. This rule is essentially the same as that adopted at the Inter-Governmental Conference, Brussels, 18 June 2004. We compare this rule with the QM rule prescribed in the Treaty of Nice, and the scientifically-based rule known as the ‘Jagelonian Compromise’.

Penrose’s square-root rule and the EU Council of Ministers: significance of the quota

Machover, M.
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Conference or Workshop Item; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/10/2007 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.65%
In a two-tier decision-making system such as the EU Council of Ministers, if the number of constituencies (member-states) is sufficiently large (say, 15 or more), Penrose’s Square-Root rule can be implemented to a high level of approximation by a simple weighted decision rule at the top level (the Council) with any given quota q smaller than the total weight. This leaves one degree of freedom: the value of q as a free parameter, to be determined by some additional condition. I propose to survey and discuss critically the most important considerations for fixing this value – some of which have actually been used by theoreticians or practitioners: efficiency, transparency, sensitivity (total voting power of citizens), mean majority deficit, giving certain ‘privileged’ coalitions blocking status. Some of these considerations are reasonably compatible; others less so. Some kind of compromise is clearly needed. But which? This is essentially a political matter; but a political decision ought to be made in a theoretically enlightened way.

Through the needle's eye: the Council presidency and legislative decision-making in the European Union

Warntjen, Andreas
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.74%
The thesis scrutinizes the effects of the Council Presidency on legislative decision making in the European Union Council of Ministers. The rotating Council Presidency has been one of most prominent topics of discussion in the debate on institutional reform. So far, however, a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of the Presidency is missing. The thesis addresses two questions: 1. Does the Council presidency have an impact on legislative activity in the Council? 2. Does the Council presidency gain disproportional benefits from the policies agreed upon during its term in office? The methodology used in the thesis consists of an exploratory case study, secondary analysis of the Decision-making in the European Union (DEU) data set, and statistical analysis of an original data set covering legislative activity from 1984-2003. It presents evidence for an effect of the Presidency on both legislative activity and decision outcomes.