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Proteomic analysis of Porphyromonas gingivalis exposed to nicotine and cotinine

Cogo, K.; de Andrade, A.; Labate, Carlos Alberto; Bergamaschi, C. C.; Berto, L. A.; Franco, G. C. N.; Goncalves, R. B.; Groppo, F. C.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL; HOBOKEN Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL; HOBOKEN
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.57%
Cogo K, de Andrade A, Labate CA, Bergamaschi CC, Berto LA, Franco GCN, Goncalves RB, Groppo FC. Proteomic analysis of Porphyromonas gingivalis exposed to nicotine and cotinine. J Periodont Res 2012; 47: 766775. (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S Background and Objective: Smokers are more predisposed than nonsmokers to infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis, one of the most important pathogens involved in the onset and development of periodontitis. It has also been observed that tobacco, and tobacco derivatives such as nicotine and cotinine, can induce modifications to P. gingivalis virulence. However, the effect of the major compounds derived from cigarettes on expression of protein by P.gingivalis is poorly understood. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of nicotine and cotinine on the P.gingivalis proteomic profile. Material and Methods: Total proteins of P gingivalis exposed to nicotine and cotinine were extracted and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Proteins differentially expressed were successfully identified through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and primary sequence databases using MASCOT search engine, and gene ontology was carried out using DAVID tools. Results: Of the approximately 410 protein spots that were reproducibly detected on each gel...

Desenvolvimento e validação de método para análise de nicotina e cotinina em amostras de mecônio utilizando a cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas; Development and validation of a methodology for analysis of nicotine and cotinine in meconium samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Barros, Luiza Saldanha Ribeiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/04/2011 PT
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37.57%
O mecônio é uma matéria fecal que começa a acumular no intestino do feto por volta do terceiro mês de gestação e normalmente é eliminado nos primeiros dias de vida do recém nascido. No mecônio ocorre o acúmulo de substâncias com as quais a mãe entrou em contato durante o período de gestação e, portanto, sendo possível avaliar a exposição fetal. Nos casos de mães fumantes, compostos presentes no tabaco tais como nicotina e substâncias que são formadas após a metabolização da nicotina como por exemplo a cotinina, podem ser também detectadas nas amostras de mecônio, já que ocorre o acúmulo de nicotina e seus metabólitos no mesmo. O uso do cigarro durante o período gestacional acarreta em uma série de problemas ao feto como baixo peso ao nascer, parto pré-maturo, doenças no trato respiratório, dentre outros. Nos dias atuais é possível fazer a pesquisa de drogas lícitas e ilícitas em várias amostras biológicas tais como, sangue, urina, cabelo, fluido oral, mecônio, entre outras. O mecônio é uma boa opção, por vários motivos: amostragem fácil e não invasiva (a coleta pode ser feita na fralda), indica o histórico do uso de substâncias pela mãe durante a gestação por ser cumulativo, etc. O objetivo foi desenvolver e validar um método analítico empregando cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas para a determinação de nicotina e...

Root surface conditioning with nicotine or cotinine reduces viability and density of fibroblasts in vitro

Martinez, AET; Silverio, K. G.; Fogo, J. C.; Kirkwood, K. L.; Rossa, C.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 180-186
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The purpose of study was to evaluate fibroblast attachment and cellular morphology on root surfaces chemically conditioned with nicotine or cotinine. A secondary objective was to determine if mechanical scaling and root planning of these chemically conditioned surfaces would alter cellular attachment. Root surface dentin specimens were prepared from uniradicular teeth of non-smoking patients. Specimens were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: no treatment (chemical conditioning only) and scaling and root planning after conditioning (SRPC). The concentrations of the tested substances were in the range of 0-1 mg/mL (nicotine) and 0-1 ?g/mL (cotinine). After a 24-h conditioning period, dentin slices were incubated with continuous lineage of fibroblastic cells from rat (McCoy cells) for another 24 h. Specimens were prepared for SEM analysis and microphotographs. The statistical analysis of the data indicated significant alteration of cellular morphology on fibroblasts that were grown on root surface exposed to nicotine concentrations greater than 1 ? g/mL. This effect of nicotine was not reduced by SRPC. on the other hand, in the SRPC group cellular density was greater. For cotinine-conditioned specimens, the greater concentrations also led to alteration on morphology...

Does cotinine act upon reactive oxygen species and peroxidases?

Vellosa, J. C R; Khalil, N. M.; Fonseca, L. M.; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Oliveira, O. M M F
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 65-70
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.51%
Nicotine, an oxidizing agent, is certainly one of the most widely used alkaloids in the world. It is, together with its main metabolite, cotinine, responsible for tobacco-dependence. The use of tobacco is closely associated with lung disease, morphological leukocyte modification and generation of oxidant species. The aim of this study was to look for a possible relationship between cotinine, oxidant species generation and oxidative processes. After studying the action of cotinine in some chemical oxidation models and on the enzymatic kinetics of peroxidases (myeloperoxidase and horseradish peroxidase), we concluded that cotinine does not act directly upon H 2O 2, HOCl, taurine chloramines, horseradish peroxidase or myeloperoxidase.

Influence of nicotine and cotinine impregnation on the first step of periodontal regeneration: clot stabilization

Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza; Leite, Fabio Renato Manzolli; Fontanari, Lucas Amaral; Cavassim, Rodrigo; Leite, Amauri Antiqueira; Bandéca, Mateus Coelho; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Sampaio, Jose Eduardo Cezar
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1044-1048
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.76%
This study analyzes the clot stabilization on root surfaces of teeth impregnated with cotinine and nicotine and the influence of the scaling in the adhesion of blood components, observing the influence of new exposition to nicotine and/or cotinine after scaling. Fifteen human teeth extracted due to periodontal disease of non-smokers patients were selected and manually scaled. Four dentin blocks were obtained from each tooth (n = 60). Samples received blood application or reimpregnation with nicotine and/or cotinine, depending on the groups. Group 1: PBS immersion + root scaling + blood; group 2: nicotine + root scaling + blood; group 3: nicotine + root scaling + nicotine reapplication + blood; group 4: cotinine + root scaling + blood; group 5: cotinine + root scaling + cotinine reapplication+ blood; group 6: nicotine and cotinine + root scaling + nicotine and cotinine + blood. Samples were kept in 2 ml of each substance for 24 hours. Each group received a blood drop and was analyzed by SEM. The higher amount of blood components was present in teeth exposed to cotinine and the groups submitted to scaling and blood application in comparison with groups that received reapplication of toxic substances after scaling. The greater toxic effect on root dentin surface was after the exposure to nicotine and cotinine. Results suggest that periodontal healing may be delayed in smokers due to the direct inhibition of clot stabilization on the root surface when nicotine and cotinine are present concomitantly.

Proteomic analysis of Porphyromonas gingivalis exposed to nicotine and cotinine

Cogo, K.; de Andrade, A.; Labate, C. A.; Bergamaschi, C. C.; Berto, L. A.; Franco, G. C. N.; Goncalves, R. B.; Groppo, F. C.
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell; Hoboken Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell; Hoboken
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.57%
Cogo K, de Andrade A, Labate CA, Bergamaschi CC, Berto LA, Franco GCN, Goncalves RB, Groppo FC. Proteomic analysis of Porphyromonas gingivalis exposed to nicotine and cotinine. J Periodont Res 2012; 47: 766775. (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S Background and Objective: Smokers are more predisposed than nonsmokers to infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis, one of the most important pathogens involved in the onset and development of periodontitis. It has also been observed that tobacco, and tobacco derivatives such as nicotine and cotinine, can induce modifications to P. gingivalis virulence. However, the effect of the major compounds derived from cigarettes on expression of protein by P.gingivalis is poorly understood. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of nicotine and cotinine on the P.gingivalis proteomic profile. Material and Methods: Total proteins of P gingivalis exposed to nicotine and cotinine were extracted and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Proteins differentially expressed were successfully identified through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and primary sequence databases using MASCOT search engine, and gene ontology was carried out using DAVID tools. Results: Of the approximately 410 protein spots that were reproducibly detected on each gel...

Determinants of salivary cotinine level: a population-based study in Brazil

Figueiredo,Valeska Carvalho; Szklo,Moyses; Szklo,André Salem; Benowitz,Neal; Lozana,José Azevedo; Casado,Leticia; Masson,Elaine; Samet,Jonathan
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.66%
OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted to assess, in active smokers, the relationship of number of cigarettes smoked and other characteristics to salivary cotinine concentrations. METHODS: A random sample of active smokers aged 15 years or older was selected using a stepwise cluster sample strategy, in the year 2000 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study included 401 subjects. Salivary cotinine concentration was determined using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. A standard questionnaire was used to collect demographic and smoking behavioral data. The relation between the number of cigarettes smoked in the last 24h and cotinine level was examined by means of a nonparametric fitting technique of robust locally weighted regression. RESULTS: Significantly (p<0.05) higher adjusted mean cotinine levels were found in subjects smoking their first cigarette within five minutes after waking up, and in those smoking 1-20 cigarettes in the last 24h who reported inhaling more than ½ the time. In those smoking 1-20 cigarettes, the slope was significantly higher for those subjects waiting for more than five minutes before smoking their first cigarette after waking up, and those smoking "light" cigarettes when compared with their counterparts. These heterogeneities became negligible and non-significant when subjects with cotinine >40 ng/mL per cigarette were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: There was found a positive association between self-reporting smoking five minutes after waking up...

Does cotinine act upon reactive oxygen species and peroxidases?

Vellosa,J.C.R.; Khalil,N.M.; Fonseca,L.M.; Brunetti,I.L.; Oliveira,O.M.M.F.
Fonte: Fundação Editora da Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho - UNESP Publicador: Fundação Editora da Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho - UNESP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.51%
Nicotine, an oxidizing agent, is certainly one of the most widely used alkaloids in the world. It is, together with its main metabolite, cotinine, responsible for tobacco-dependence. The use of tobacco is closely associated with lung disease, morphological leukocyte modification and generation of oxidant species. The aim of this study was to look for a possible relationship between cotinine, oxidant species generation and oxidative processes. After studying the action of cotinine in some chemical oxidation models and on the enzymatic kinetics of peroxidases (myeloperoxidase and horseradish peroxidase), we concluded that cotinine does not act directly upon H2O2, HOCl, taurine chloramines, horseradish peroxidase or myeloperoxidase.

Relation of passive smoking as assessed by salivary cotinine concentration and questionnaire to spirometric indices in children.

Cook, D G; Whincup, P H; Papacosta, O; Strachan, D P; Jarvis, M J; Bryant, A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1993 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.76%
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of the effects of passive exposure to smoke on spirometric indices in children have largely relied on questionnaire measures of exposure. This may have resulted in underestimation of the true effect of passive smoking. Biochemical measures offer the opportunity to estimate recent exposure directly. METHODS: The relation between spirometric indices and passive exposure to tobacco smoke was examined in a large population sample of 5-7 year old children from 10 towns in England and Wales. The effects of passive exposure to smoke on lung function were assessed by means of both salivary cotinine concentration and questionnaire measurements of exposure. Analyses of the relation between spirometric values and cotinine concentrations were based on 2511 children and of the relation between spirometric values and questionnaire measures on 2000 children. RESULTS: Cotinine concentration was negatively associated with all spirometric indices after adjustment for confounding variables, which included age, sex, body size, and social class. The strongest association was with mid expiratory flow rate (FEF50), the fall between the bottom and top fifths of the cotinine distribution being 6%, equivalent to a reduction of 14.3 (95% confidence limits (CL) 8.6...

Cotinine Selectively Activates a Subpopulation of α3/α6β2* Nicotinic Receptors in Monkey Striatum

O’Leary, Kathryn; Parameswaran, Neeraja; McIntosh, J. Michael; Quik, Maryka
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.74%
The nicotine metabolite cotinine is an abundant long-lived bio-active compound that may contribute to the overall physiological effects of tobacco use. Although its mechanism of action in the central nervous system has not been extensively investigated, cotinine is known to evoke dopamine release in the nigrostriatal pathway through an interaction at nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). Because considerable evidence now demonstrates the presence of multiple nAChRs in the striatum, the present experiments were done to determine the subtypes through which cotinine exerts its effects in monkeys, a species that expresses similar densities of striatal α4β2* (nAChR containing the α4 and β2 subunits, but not α3 or α6) and α3/α6β2* (nAChR composed of the α3 or α6 subunits and β2) nAChRs. Competition binding studies showed that cotinine interacts with both α4β2* and α3/α6β2* nAChR subtypes in the caudate, with cotinine IC50 values for inhibition of 5-[125I]iodo-3-[2(S)-azetinylmethoxy]pyridine-2HCl ([125I]A-85380) and 125I-α-conotoxinMII binding in the micromolar range. This interaction at the receptor level is of functional significance because cotinine stimulated both α4β2* and α3/α6β2* nAChR [3H]dopamine release from caudate synaptosomes. Our results unexpectedly showed that nicotine evokes [3H]dopamine release from two α3/α6β2* nAChR populations...

Levels of Cotinine in Dried Blood Specimens from Newborns as a Biomarker of Maternal Smoking Close to the Time of Delivery

Yang, Juan; Pearl, Michelle; Jacob, Peyton; DeLorenze, Gerald N.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Yu, Lisa; Havel, Christopher; Kharrazi, Martin
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.78%
The precise quantitation of smoking during pregnancy is difficult in retrospective studies. Routinely collected blood specimens from newborns, stored as dried blood spots, may provide a low-cost method to objectively measure maternal smoking close to the time of delivery. This article compares cotinine levels in dried blood spots to those in umbilical cord blood to assess cotinine in dried blood spots as a biomarker of maternal smoking close to the time of delivery. The California Genetic Disease Screening Program provided dried blood spots from 428 newborns delivered in 2001–2003 with known umbilical cord blood cotinine levels. Cotinine in dried blood spots was measured in 6.35­-mm punches by using liquid chromatography­–tandem mass spectrometry (quantitation limit, 3.1 ng/mL). Repeated measures of cotinine in dried blood spots were highly correlated (R2 = 0.99, P < 0.001) among 100 dried blood spots with cotinine quantitated in 2 separate punches. Linear regression revealed that cotinine levels in dried blood spots were slightly lower than those in umbilical cord blood and predicted umbilical cord blood cotinine levels well (β = 0.95, R2 = 0.80, and P < 0.001 for both cotinine levels in log10 scale). When defining active smoking as a cotinine level of 10 ng/mL or more and using umbilical cord blood cotinine as the criterion standard...

Relationships of Cotinine and Self-Reported Cigarette Smoking With Hemoglobin (A_{1c}) in the U.S.

Clair, Carole; Bitton, Asaf; Meigs, James Benjamin; Rigotti, Nancy Ann
Fonte: American Diabetes Association Publicador: American Diabetes Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.72%
OBJECTIVE: Whether nicotine leads to a persistent increase in blood glucose levels is not clear. Our objective was to assess the relationship between cotinine, a nicotine metabolite, and glycated hemoglobin (Hb(A_{1c})), an index of recent glycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2008. We limited our analysis to 17,287 adults without diabetes. We created three cotinine categories: <0.05 ng/mL, 0.05–2.99 ng/mL, and ≥3 ng/mL. RESULTS: Using self-report, 25% of the sample were current smokers, 24% were former smokers, and 51% were nonsmokers. Smokers had a higher mean Hb(A_{1c}) (5.36% ± 0.01 SE) compared with never smokers (5.31% ± 0.01) and former smokers (5.31% ± 0.01). In a similar manner, mean Hb(A_{1c}) was higher among participants with cotinine ≥3 ng/mL (5.35% ± 0.01) and participants with cotinine 0.05–2.99 ng/mL (5.34% ± 0.01) compared with participants with cotinine <0.05 ng/mL (5.29% ± 0.01). In multivariable-adjusted analysis, we found that both a cotinine ≥3 ng/mL and self-reported smoking were associated with higher Hb(A_{1c}) compared with a cotinine <0.05 ng/mL or not smoking. People with a cotinine level ≥3 ng/mL had a relative 5% increase in Hb(A_{1c}) compared with people with a cotinine level <0.05 ng/mL...

The influence of parental smoking and family type on saliva cotinine in UK ethnic minority children: a cross sectional study

Whitrow, M.; Harding, S.; Maynard, M.
Fonte: BioMed Central Ltd. Publicador: BioMed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.57%
Background: In the United Kingdom, there has been an increase in cigarette smoking in ethnic minority adults since the 1970s; in some groups levels are now similar to that of White British people. We aimed to examine the determinants of exposure to secondhand smoke in ethnic minority children. We hypothesised that exposure to secondhand smoke in children will vary across ethnic groups, but that the correlates of exposure would be similar to that of Whites. Methods: The Determinants of Adolescent Social well-being and Health sample comprises 3468 White United Kingdom and ethnic minority (Black Caribbean, Black African, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi) pupils aged 11-13 yrs. Outcome was saliva cotinine concentration. Explanatory variables collected by self-complete questionnaire included ethnicity, child reported household smoking and socio-economic circumstances. Data were analysed using linear regression models with a random intercept function. Results: Ethnic minority children had lower saliva cotinine than Whites, partly explained by less smoking among parents. White and Black Caribbean children had higher cotinine levels if they lived in a household with a maternal smoker only, than with a paternal smoker only. Living in a lone compared to a dual parent household was associated with increased cotinine concentration of 45% (95%CI 5...

Restrictions on smoking at home and urinary cotinine levels among children with asthma

Wakefield, M.; Banham, D.; Martin, A.; Ruffin, R.; McCaul, K.; Badcock, N.
Fonte: Elsevier Science Inc Publicador: Elsevier Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.32%
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which various levels of restrictions on smoking in the home may be associated with children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). METHODS: The methodology consisted of a cross-sectional survey involving 249 children with asthma aged 1 to 11 attending hospital outpatient clinics, with at least one parent who smoked, linked to the child's urinary cotinine to creatinine ratios (CCR). RESULTS: After adjustment for child's age, mother's smoking status, and total parental daily cigarette consumption, a total ban was associated with significantly lower urinary CCR levels (7.6 nmol/mmol) than bans with exceptions or limited smoking in the home. Where exceptions to bans were made (14.9 nmol/mmol), children's urinary CCR levels were no different from homes in which smoking was allowed in rooms the child rarely frequented (14.1 nmol/mmol). These two intermediate levels of restriction were in turn associated with significantly lower CCR levels than unrestricted smoking in the home (26.0 nmol/mmol). CONCLUSIONS: Making exceptions to bans on smoking at home measurably undermines the protective effect of a ban. However, making some exceptions to a ban and limiting smoking to rooms where the child rarely goes may result in reduced exposure to ETS...

Avaliação in vitro dos efeitos da nicotina e cotinina sobre a expressão de proteinas e capacidade de adesão e invasão de Porphyromonas gingivalis; In vitro evaluation of nicotine and cotinine effects on protein expression and adhesion and invasion abilities of Porphyromonas gingivalis

Karina Cogo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/01/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.72%
O uso do cigarro tem sido associado com a progressão da periodontite bem como com a redução da resposta à terapia aplicada a essa doença. Porphyromonas gingivalis é um importante colonizador do biofilme subgengival além de ser um dos principais patógenos envolvidos no estabelecimento e progressão da doença periodontal. No entanto, os possíveis efeitos dos principais derivados do cigarro sobre P. gingivalis ainda não foram totalmente investigados. Dessa forma, os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar os efeitos da nicotina e cotinina sobre a expressão de proteínas e sobre a capacidade de adesão e invasão celular de P. gingivalis. A fim de avaliar a expressão de proteínas, culturas de P. gingivalis W83 foram expostas à nicotina e cotinina nas concentrações de 6 e 600µg/mL, as proteínas foram extraídas, separadas por eletroforese bidimensional em gel de poliacrilamida (12.5% SDS-PAGE) e identificadas por LC-MS/MS. Os géis e suas corridas eletroforéticas foram feitas em triplicatas e a detecção de proteínas nos mesmos foi feita através de coloração com corante Coomassie. Proteínas diferentemente expressas foram digeridas com tripsina e as amostras de peptídeos sequenciadas utilizando um sistema Q-TOF API LC-MS/MS. A busca MS/MS foi realizada utilizando os bancos de dados MSDB e NCBI através do programa Mascot. Para examinar a capacidade de adesão e invasão de P. gingivalis...

Saliva cotinine and recent smoking--evidence for a nonlinear relationship.

Swan, G E; Habina, K; Means, B; Jobe, J B; Esposito, J L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1993 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.74%
Cotinine concentration in various body fluids is considered to be among the most useful markers of nicotine exposure currently available. Despite the prevailing consensus concerning cotinine's usefulness, cotinine's large intrasubject variability has led some to question the value of a single-point measurement. Several individual differences (for example, age, race, sex, and so forth) may affect cotinine excretion, and a peculiar nonlinearity between the number of cigarettes smoked and cotinine concentration has been reported previously in the literature. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the nature of the association between cotinine and reported number of cigarettes smoked after adjustment for the relationship between cotinine and age, a key individual difference known to affect drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and tissue sensitivity. The authors examined the relationship between saliva cotinine and daily cigarette consumption in 116 smokers (mean age = 37.4 years; average number of cigarettes smoked daily = 20.1) who logged each cigarette into a hand-held computer as part of a study on the accuracy of recall. The Pearson correlation between saliva cotinine and the logged number of cigarettes smoked in the previous 17 hours (the time window corresponding to the half-life of cotinine) accounted for significantly more of the variance in cotinine than did the average logged number of cigarettes smoked daily during 5 days. Age was also significantly associated with cotinine levels. Further examination of the relationship between cotinine and amount smoked in the previous 17 hours revealed evidence for a significant nonlinear component.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Single gas chromatography method with nitrogen phosphorus detector for urinary cotinine determination in passive and active smokers

Malafatti,Lusiane; Maia,Patrícia Penido; Martins,Matheus Coutinho Gonçalves; Siqueira,Maria Elisa Pereira Bastos de; Martins,Isarita
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.51%
Nicotine is a major addictive compound in cigarettes and is rapidly and extensively metabolized to several metabolites in humans, including urinary cotinine, considered a biomarker due to its high concentration compared to other metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a single method for determination of urinary cotinine, in active and passive smokers, by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD). Urine (5.0 mL) was extracted with 1.0 mL of sodium hydroxide 5 mol L-1, 5.0 mL of chloroform, and lidocaine used as the internal standard. Injection volume was 1 μL in GC-NPD. Limit of quantification was 10 ng mL-1. Linearity was evaluated in the ranges 10-1000 ng mL-1 and 500-6000 ng mL-1, with determination coefficients of 0.9986 and 0.9952, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay standard relative deviations were lower than 14.2 %, while inaccuracy (bias) was less than +11.9%. The efficiency of extraction was greater than 88.5%. Ruggedness was verified, according to Youden's test. Means of cotinine concentrations observed were 2,980 ng mL-1 for active smokers and 132 ng mL-1, for passive smokers. The results revealed that satisfactory chromatographic separation between the analyte and interferents was obtained with a ZB-1 column. This method is reliable...

Single gas chromatography method with nitrogen phosphorus detector for urinary cotinine determination in passive and active smokers

Malafatti, Lusiane; Maia, Patrícia Penido; Martins, Matheus Coutinho Gonçalves; Siqueira, Maria Elisa Pereira Bastos de; Martins, Isarita
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.51%
A nicotina é uma substância presente no cigarro capaz de causar dependência, sendo biotransformada em vários metabólitos nos seres humanos, dentre eles a cotinina urinária, que é considerada um indicador biológico de exposição à nicotina, devido a suas altas concentrações, comparado a outras matrizes. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um único método para determinação de cotinina urinária, em amostras de urina de fumantes ativos e passivos, através de cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de nitrogênio- fósforo (CG-DNF). Para o preparo de amostras foram utilizados 5 mL de urina, 1 mL de hidróxido de sódio 5 mol L-1, 5 mL de clorofórmio, tendo como padrão interno a lidocaína. Na faixa de concentrações de 10-1000 ng mL-1 e 500- 6000 ng mL-1, o coeficiente de determinação foi 0,9986 e 0,9952, respectivamente e, o limite de quantificação foi 10 ng mL-1. A precisão intra- e interensaio apresentou desvio padrão relativo (%) menor que 14,2% e a inexatidão foi menor que +11,9%, com uma eficiência de extração de 88,5%. O método apresentou robustez, de acordo com o teste de Youden. As concentrações médias de cotinina observadas foram 2980 ng mL-1, para fumantes ativos e 132 ng mL-1, para fumantes passivos. Os resultados sugerem que o método é confiável...

Determinantes dos níveis de cotinina salivar: um estudo de base populacional no Brasil; Determinants of salivary cotinine level: a population-based study in Brazil

Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, Moyses; Szklo, André Salem; Benowitz, Neal; Lozana, José Azevedo; Casado, Leticia; Masson, Elaine; Samet, Jonathan
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2007 ENG
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37.57%
OBJETIVO: Realizou-se um estudo transversal para analisar a relação entre número de cigarros fumados e outras características com a concentração de cotinina salivar entre fumantes. MÉTODOS: Fumantes ativos de 15 anos ou mais foram selecionados por meio de amostra probabilística em múltiplos estágios no ano 2000, município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O estudo incluiu 401 fumantes. A concentração de cotinina salivar foi determinada utilizando-se cromatografia gasosa com detector de nitrogênio/fósforo. Coletaram-se informações demográficas e sobre o comportamento tabágico utilizando-se questionário padronizado. A relação entre o número de cigarros fumados nas últimas 24h e o nível de cotinina foi analisada utilizando técnica não paramétrica baseada em regressões robustas locais ponderadas. RESULTADOS: O nível médio ajustado de cotinina foi significativamente (p; OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted to assess, in active smokers, the relationship of number of cigarettes smoked and other characteristics to salivary cotinine concentrations. METHODS: A random sample of active smokers aged 15 years or older was selected using a stepwise cluster sample strategy, in the year 2000 in Rio de Janeiro...

Determinants of salivary cotinine level: a population-based study in Brazil

Figueiredo,Valeska Carvalho; Szklo,Moyses; Szklo,André Salem; Benowitz,Neal; Lozana,José Azevedo; Casado,Leticia; Masson,Elaine; Samet,Jonathan
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted to assess, in active smokers, the relationship of number of cigarettes smoked and other characteristics to salivary cotinine concentrations. METHODS: A random sample of active smokers aged 15 years or older was selected using a stepwise cluster sample strategy, in the year 2000 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study included 401 subjects. Salivary cotinine concentration was determined using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. A standard questionnaire was used to collect demographic and smoking behavioral data. The relation between the number of cigarettes smoked in the last 24h and cotinine level was examined by means of a nonparametric fitting technique of robust locally weighted regression. RESULTS: Significantly (p<0.05) higher adjusted mean cotinine levels were found in subjects smoking their first cigarette within five minutes after waking up, and in those smoking 1-20 cigarettes in the last 24h who reported inhaling more than ½ the time. In those smoking 1-20 cigarettes, the slope was significantly higher for those subjects waiting for more than five minutes before smoking their first cigarette after waking up, and those smoking "light" cigarettes when compared with their counterparts. These heterogeneities became negligible and non-significant when subjects with cotinine >40 ng/mL per cigarette were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: There was found a positive association between self-reporting smoking five minutes after waking up...