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Estudo de coprólito da bacia sedimentar do Araripe por meios de espectroscopia FT-IR e difração de Raios-X

Lima, Ricardo Jorge Cruz; Freire, Paulo de Tarso Cavalcante; Sasaki, José Marcos; Saraiva, Antonio Álamo Feitosa; Lanfredi, Silvania; Nobre, Marcos Augusto de Lima
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1956-1958
POR
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Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Coprolites are fossilized faeces that constitute an important source of palaeobiological informations. This paper describes the characterization of some coprolite materials originated from the Romualdo Member of the Santana Formation (Araripe Basin, south of Ceará State in Brazil) by means of two techniques: X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). This characterization allowed us to determine the main composition of the coprolites, of the nodulus (where the coprolites were extracted) and of the sediment (where the nodulus was found) suggesting that the material was produced by a carnivorous fish of the Lower Cretaceous.

Acanthocefalan eggs in animal coprolites from archaeological sites from Brazil

Ferreira,Luiz Fernando; Araújo,Adauto; Confalonieri,Ulisses; Chame,Marcia
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/1989 EN
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An important point in paleoparasitology is the correct diagnosis of the origin of coprolites found in archaelogical sites. The identification of human and animal coprolites, through the study of the shape, size, charactheristics after rehydration, alimentary contents, and the presence of parasites, has proved to be accurate for human coprolites. For non-human ones we compared coprolites with recent faeces of animals collected near the archaeological sites, following the methodology above mentioned. In this paper anteaters coprolites (Tamandua tetradactyla; Mymecophaga tridactyla) with eggs of Gigantorhynchus echinodiscus (Archiancanthocephala; Gigantorynchidae) were identified.

Strongyloides ferreirai Rodrigues, Vicente & Gomes, 1985 (Nematoda, Rhabdiasoidea) in rodent coprolites (8.000-2.000 years BP), from archaeological sites from Piauí, Brazil

Araújo,Adauto; Ferreira,Luiz Fernando; Confalonieri,Ulisses; Chame,Marcia; Ribeiro,Benjamim
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/1989 EN
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Eggs and larvae of Strongyloides ferreirai Rodrigues, Vicente & Gomes, 1985 are identified in Kerodon rupestris (Wied.) coprolites dated from 8.000-2.000 years BP (Before Present), collected from archaeological sites from the northeast of Brazil.

Analysis of ancient DNA from coprolites: a perspective with random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction approach

Iñiguez,Alena M; Araújo,Adauto; Ferreira,Luiz Fernando; Vicente,Ana Carolina P
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2003 EN
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The aim of this work was to determine approaches that would improve the quality of ancient DNA (aDNA) present in coprolites to enhance the possibility of success in retrieving specific sequence targets. We worked with coprolites from South American archaeological sites in Brazil and Chile dating up to 7,000 years ago. Using established protocols for aDNA extraction we obtained samples showing high degradation as usually happens with this kind of material. The reconstructive polymerization pretreatment was essential to overcome the DNA degradation and the serial dilutions helped with to prevent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors. Moreover, the random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR has been shown to be a reliable technique for further experiments to recover specific aDNA sequences.

Enterobius vermicularis: ancient DNA from north and south American human coprolites

Iñiguez,Alena M; Reinhard,Karl J; Araújo,Adauto; Ferreira,Luiz Fernando; Vicente,Ana Carolina P
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2003 EN
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A molecular paleoparasitological diagnostic approach was developed for Enterobius vermicularis. Ancient DNA was extracted from 27 coprolites from archaeological sites in Chile and USA. Enzymatic amplification of human mtDNA sequences confirmed the human origin. We designed primers specific to the E. vermicularis 5S ribosomal RNA spacer region and they allowed reproducible polymerase chain reaction identification of ancient material. We suggested that the paleoparasitological microscopic identification could accompany molecular diagnosis, which also opens the possibility of sequence analysis to understand parasite-host evolution.

Paleoparasitologic, paleogenetic and paleobotanic analysis of XVIII century coprolites from the church La Concepción in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

Botella,Herminia Gijón; Vargas,José A Afonso; de la Rosa,Matilde Arnay; Leles,Daniela; Reimers,Emilio González; Vicente,Ana Carolina P; Iñiguez,Alena M
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2010 EN
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We present the results of a paleoparasitologic, paleogenetic and paleobotanic analysis of coprolites recovered during the excavation of the church La Concepción in Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Coprolites (n = 4) were rehydrated and a multidisciplinary analysis was conducted. The paleobotanic analysis showed numerous silicates, seeds and fruits of the family Moraceae. In the paleoparasitologic study, Ascaris sp. eggs (n = 344) were identified. The paleogenetic results confirmed the Ascaris sp. infection as well as the European origin of human remains. These findings contribute to our knowledge of ancient helminthes infections and are the first paleoparasitological record of Ascaris sp. infection in Spain.

Trichuris sp. from 1,040 +/- 50-year-old Cervidae coprolites from the archaeological site Furna do Estrago, Pernambuco, Brazil

Sianto,Luciana; Duarte,Antônio Nascimento; Chame,Marcia; Magalhães,Juliana; Souza,Mônica Vieira de; Ferreira,Luiz Fernando; Araújo,Adauto
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2012 EN
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We present results of the paleoparasitological analysis of Cervidae coprolites that were recovered from the archaeological site Furna do Estrago, Pernambuco, Brazil. Trichuris sp. eggs were recovered from the coprolite samples dated 1,040 ± 50 years before present. This is the first record of Trichuris sp. in semiarid Cervidae, unexpectedly recorded in archaeological material.

A palaeoparasitological analysis of rodent coprolites from the Cueva Huenul 1 archaeological site in Patagonia (Argentina)

Beltrame,María Ornela; Sardella,Norma Haydée; Fugassa,Martín Horacio; Barberena,Ramiro
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2012 EN
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The aim of the present study was to examine the parasite fauna present in rodent coprolites collected from Cueva Huenul 1 (CH1), northern Neuquén (Patagonia, Argentina), an archaeological site that provides stratified sequences of archaeological and palaeontological remains dating from the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Transition to the Late Holocene period. Twenty rodent coprolites collected from different sedimentary units from the site, with ages ranging from 13.844 ± 75-1.416 ± 37 years BP, were examined for parasites. Each coprolite was processed as a whole: rehydrated, homogenised, spontaneously sedimented and examined using light microscopy. The coprolites and the eggs of any parasites present were described, measured and photographed. In all, 158 parasite eggs were found in 10 coprolites. The faeces were positive for Viscachataenia quadrata Denegri, Dopchiz, Elissondo & Beveridge and Monoecocestus sp. Beddard (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) and for Heteroxynema (Cavioxyura) viscaciae Sutton & Hugot (Nematoda: Oxyuridae). The coprolites examined were tentatively attributed to Lagidium viscacia Molina (Mammalia, Rodentia, Caviomorpha, Chinchillidae). The life cycles of these parasites are discussed.

Estudo de coprólito da bacia sedimentar do Araripe por meios de espectroscopia FT-IR e difração de Raios-X

Lima,Ricardo Jorge Cruz; Freire,Paulo de Tarso Cavalcante; Sasaki,José Marcos; Saraiva,Antonio Álamo Feitosa; Lanfredi,Silvania; Nobre,Marcos Augusto de Lima
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2007 PT
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Coprolites are fossilized faeces that constitute an important source of palaeobiological informations. This paper describes the characterization of some coprolite materials originated from the Romualdo Member of the Santana Formation (Araripe Basin, south of Ceará State in Brazil) by means of two techniques: X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). This characterization allowed us to determine the main composition of the coprolites, of the nodulus (where the coprolites were extracted) and of the sediment (where the nodulus was found) suggesting that the material was produced by a carnivorous fish of the Lower Cretaceous.

Coprolites as a source of information on the genome and diet of the cave hyena

Bon, Céline; Berthonaud, Véronique; Maksud, Frédéric; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Artiguenave, François; Wincker, Patrick; Aury, Jean-Marc; Elalouf, Jean-Marc
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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27.58%
We performed high-throughput sequencing of DNA from fossilized faeces to evaluate this material as a source of information on the genome and diet of Pleistocene carnivores. We analysed coprolites derived from the extinct cave hyena (Crocuta crocuta spelaea), and sequenced 90 million DNA fragments from two specimens. The DNA reads enabled a reconstruction of the cave hyena mitochondrial genome with up to a 158-fold coverage. This genome, and those sequenced from extant spotted (Crocuta crocuta) and striped (Hyaena hyaena) hyena specimens, allows for the establishment of a robust phylogeny that supports a close relationship between the cave and the spotted hyena. We also demonstrate that high-throughput sequencing yields data for cave hyena multi-copy and single-copy nuclear genes, and that about 50 per cent of the coprolite DNA can be ascribed to this species. Analysing the data for additional species to indicate the cave hyena diet, we retrieved abundant sequences for the red deer (Cervus elaphus), and characterized its mitochondrial genome with up to a 3.8-fold coverage. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the presence of abundant ancient DNA in the coprolites surveyed. Shotgun sequencing of this material yielded a wealth of DNA sequences for a Pleistocene carnivore and allowed unbiased identification of diet.

High-Resolution Coproecology: Using Coprolites to Reconstruct the Habits and Habitats of New Zealand’s Extinct Upland Moa (Megalapteryx didinus)

Wood, Jamie R.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.; Wagstaff, Steven J.; Worthy, Trevor H.; Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Cooper, Alan
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/06/2012 EN
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28.15%
Knowledge about the diet and ecology of extinct herbivores has important implications for understanding the evolution of plant defence structures, establishing the influences of herbivory on past plant community structure and composition, and identifying pollination and seed dispersal syndromes. The flightless ratite moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) were New Zealand’s largest herbivores prior to their extinction soon after initial human settlement. Here we contribute to the knowledge of moa diet and ecology by reporting the results of a multidisciplinary study of 35 coprolites from a subalpine cave (Euphrates Cave) on the South Island of New Zealand. Ancient DNA analysis and radiocarbon dating revealed the coprolites were deposited by the extinct upland moa (Megalapteryx didinus), and span from at least 6,368±31 until 694±30 14C years BP; the approximate time of their extinction. Using pollen, plant macrofossil, and ancient DNA analyses, we identified at least 67 plant taxa from the coprolites, including the first evidence that moa fed on the nectar-rich flowers of New Zealand flax (Phormium) and tree fuchsia (Fuchsia excorticata). The plant assemblage from the coprolites reflects a highly-generalist feeding ecology for upland moa...

Microbial Communities in Pre-Columbian Coprolites

Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Narganes-Storde, Yvonne M.; Chanlatte, Luis; Crespo-Torres, Edwin; Toranzos, Gary A.; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Hamrick, Alice; Cano, Raul J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/06/2013 EN
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The study of coprolites from earlier cultures represents a great opportunity to study an “unaltered” composition of the intestinal microbiota. To test this, pre-Columbian coprolites from two cultures, the Huecoid and Saladoid, were evaluated for the presence of DNA, proteins and lipids by cytochemical staining, human and/or dog-specific Bacteroides spp. by PCR, as well as bacteria, fungi and archaea using Terminal Restriction Fragment analyses. DNA, proteins and lipids, and human-specific Bacteroides DNA were detected in all coprolites. Multidimensional scaling analyses resulted in spatial arrangements of microbial profiles by culture, further supported by cluster analysis and ANOSIM. Differences between the microbial communities were positively correlated with culture, and SIMPER analysis indicated 68.8% dissimilarity between the Huecoid and Saladoid. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and methanogens were found in all coprolite samples. Propionebacteria, Shewanella and lactic acid bacteria dominated in the Huecoid samples, while Acidobacteria, and peptococci were dominant in Saladoid samples. Yeasts, including Candida albicans and Crypotococcus spp. were found in all samples. Basidiomycetes were the most notable fungi in Huecoid samples while Ascomycetes predominated in Saladoid samples...

Resolving lost herbivore community structure using coprolites of four sympatric moa species (Aves: Dinornithiformes)

Wood, Jamie R.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.; Richardson, Sarah J.; Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Wagstaff, Steven J.; Worthy, Trevor H.; Cooper, Alan
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Coprolites provide unique insights into the plant taxa consumed over a discrete time period by extinct herbivores and have typically been used to reconstruct the diets of single herbivore species. Through ancient DNA, pollen, and plant macrofossil analyses of 51 coprolites deposited by four species of extinct herbivore (the large avian moa of New Zealand) in a single rock shelter, we show the potential for coprolites to also resolve broader paleoecological questions around niche partitioning of extinct sympatric herbivore species and prehistoric herbivore community structure. Such information can help in our understanding of late Quaternary ecosystem functioning and the ecological consequences of prehistoric extinctions, as well as helping to inform rewilding efforts.

A lost link between a flightless parrot and a parasitic plant and the potential role of coprolites in conservation paleobiology

Wood, J.; Wilmshurst, J.; Worthy, T.; Holzapfel, A.; Cooper, A.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Inc Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
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Late Quaternary extinctions and population fragmentations have severely disrupted animal-plant interactions globally. Detection of disrupted interactions often relies on anachronistic plant characteristics, such as spines in the absence of large herbivores or large fruit without dispersers. However, obvious anachronisms are relatively uncommon, and it can be difficult to prove a direct link between the anachronism and a particular faunal taxon. Analysis of coprolites (fossil feces) provides a novel way of exposing lost interactions between animals (depositors) and consumed organisms. We analyzed ancient DNA to show that a coprolite from the South Island of New Zealand was deposited by the rare and threatened kakapo (Strigops habroptilus), a large, nocturnal, flightless parrot. When we analyzed the pollen and spore content of the coprolite, we found pollen from the cryptic root-parasite Dactylanthus taylorii. The relatively high abundance (8.9% of total pollen and spores) of this zoophilous pollen type in the coprolite supports the hypothesis of a former direct feeding interaction between kakapo and D. taylorii. The ranges of both species have contracted substantially since human settlement, and their present distributions no longer overlap. Currently...

New anatomical information on Anomalocaris from the Cambrian Emu Bay Shale of South Australia and a reassessment of its inferred predatory habits

Daley, A.; Paterson, J.; Edgecombe, G.; Garcia-Bellido, D.; Jago, J.
Fonte: Blackwell Publ Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publ Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
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Two species of Anomalocaris co-occur in the Emu Bay Shale (Cambrian Series 2, Stage 4) at Big Gully, Kangaroo Island. Frontal appendages of Anomalocaris briggsi Nedin, 1995, are more common than those of Anomalocaris cf. canadensis Whiteaves, 1892, at a quarry inland of the wave-cut platform site from which these species were originally described. An oral cone has the three large, node-bearing plates recently documented for Anomalocaris canadensis, confirming that Anomalocaris lacks a tetraradial ‘Peytoia’ oral cone and strengthening the case for the identity of the Australian specimens as Anomalocaris. Disarticulated anomalocaridid body flaps are more numerous in the Emu Bay Shale than in other localities, and they preserve anatomical details not recognized elsewhere. Transverse lines on the anterior part of the flaps, interpreted as strengthening rays or veins in previous descriptions of anomalocaridids, are associated with internal structures consisting of a series of well-bounded, striated blocks or bars. Their structure is consistent with a structural function imparting strength to the body flaps. Setal structures consisting of a series of lanceolate blades are similar to those of other anomalocaridids and are found in isolation or associated with body flaps. A single specimen also preserves putative gut diverticula. The morphology of the appendages...

Resolving lost herbivore community structure using coprolites of four sympatric moa species (Aves: Dinornithiformes)

Wood, J.; Wilmshurst, J.; Richardson, S.; Rawlence, N.; Wagstaff, S.; Worthy, T.; Cooper, A.
Fonte: Natl Acad Sciences Publicador: Natl Acad Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
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27.58%
Knowledge of extinct herbivore community structuring is essential for assessing the wider ecological impacts of Quaternary extinctions and determining appropriate taxon substitutes for rewilding. Here, we demonstrate the potential for coprolite studies to progress beyond single-species diet reconstructions to resolving community-level detail. The moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) of New Zealand are an intensively studied group of nine extinct herbivore species, yet many details of their diets and community structuring remain unresolved. We provide unique insights into these aspects of moa biology through analyses of a multispecies coprolite assemblage from a rock overhang in a montane river valley in southern New Zealand. Using ancient DNA (aDNA), we identified 51 coprolites, which included specimens from four sympatric moa species. Pollen, plant macrofossils, and plant aDNA from the coprolites chronicle the diets and habitat preferences of these large avian herbivores during the 400 y before their extinction (∼1450 AD). We use the coprolite data to develop a paleoecological niche model in which moa species were partitioned based on both habitat (forest and valley-floor herbfield) and dietary preferences, the latter reflecting allometric relationships between body size...

High-resolution coproecology: using coprolites to reconstruct the habits and habitats of New Zealand's extinct upland Moa (Megalapteryx didinus)

Wood, J.; Wilmshurst, J.; Wagstaff, S.; Worthy, T.; Rawlence, N.; Cooper, A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.15%
Knowledge about the diet and ecology of extinct herbivores has important implications for understanding the evolution of plant defence structures, establishing the influences of herbivory on past plant community structure and composition, and identifying pollination and seed dispersal syndromes. The flightless ratite moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) were New Zealand’s largest herbivores prior to their extinction soon after initial human settlement. Here we contribute to the knowledge of moa diet and ecology by reporting the results of a multidisciplinary study of 35 coprolites from a subalpine cave (Euphrates Cave) on the South Island of New Zealand. Ancient DNA analysis and radiocarbon dating revealed the coprolites were deposited by the extinct upland moa (Megalapteryx didinus), and span from at least 6,368±31 until 694±30 14C years BP; the approximate time of their extinction. Using pollen, plant macrofossil, and ancient DNA analyses, we identified at least 67 plant taxa from the coprolites, including the first evidence that moa fed on the nectar-rich flowers of New Zealand flax (Phormium) and tree fuchsia (Fuchsia excorticata). The plant assemblage from the coprolites reflects a highly-generalist feeding ecology for upland moa...

Paleoparasitological results for rodent coprolites from Santa Cruz Province, Argentina

Sardella,Norma Haydée; Fugassa,Martín Horacio; Rindel,Diego Damián; Goñi,Rafael Agustín
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2010 EN
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38.01%
The aim of this study was to examine the parasite remains present in rodent coprolites collected from the archaeological site Alero Destacamento Guardaparque (ADG) located in the Perito Moreno National Park (Santa Cruz Province, 47º57'S 72º05'W). Forty-eight coprolites were obtained from the layers 7, 6 and 5 of ADG, dated at 6,700 ± 70, 4,900 ± 70 and 3,440 ± 70 years BP, respectively. The faecal samples were processed and examined using paleoparasitological procedures. A total of 582 eggs of parasites were found in 47 coprolites. Samples were positive for eggs of Trichuris sp. (Nematoda: Trichuridae), Calodium sp., Eucoleus sp., Echinocoleus sp. and an unidentified capillariid (Nematoda: Capillariidae) and for eggs of Monoecocestus (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae). Quantitative differences among layer for both coprolites and parasites were recorded. In this study, the specific filiations of parasites, their zoonotic importance, the rodent identity, on the basis of previous zooarchaeological knowledge, and the environmental conditions during the Holocene in the area are discussed.

The finding of eggs of Diphyllobothrium in human coprolites (4.100-1.950 BC) from Northern Chile

Ferreira,Luiz Fernando; Araújo,Adauto J. G. de; Confalonieri,Ulisses E. C.; Nuñez,Lautaro
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/1984 EN
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27.92%
Twenty six coprolites from an archaeological site in the province of Iquique, northern Chile, were examined for parasites. Coprolites were found in two excavation units, I and II (Tiliviche site), dated respectively at 5,900 B.C. to 4,110 B.C. and 4,110 B.C. to 1,950 B.C., and identified as of human origin. Only at the unit II coprolites containing helminth eggs identified as Diphyllobothrium pacificum were found. The presence of this tapeworm, a parasite of the American Sea Lion, in human coprolites, points to a diet which included marine fishes and provides information on the antiquity of infection by Diphyllobothrium pacificum. It is interesting to note that Baer (1969) suggests the presence of this tapeworm in pre-Columbian populations when diagnosing the first human cases in today's population in Peru.

Syphacia sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) in coprolites of Kerodon rupestris Wied, 1820 (Rodentia: Caviidae) from 5,300 years BP in northeastern Brazil

Souza,Mônica Vieira de; Sianto,Luciana; Chame,Marcia; Ferreira,Luiz Fernando; Araújo,Adauto
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
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38.01%
We present the results of paleoparasitological analyses in coprolites of Kerodon rupestris, rodent endemic to rocky areas of Brazil's semiarid region. The coprolites were collected from excavations at the archaeological site of Toca dos Coqueiros, in the National Park of Serra da Capivara, southeastern of state of Piauí. Syphacia sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) eggs were identified in coprolites dated at 5,300 ± 50 years before present. This is the first record of the genus Syphacia in rodent coprolites in the Americas.