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## A symmetry problem in the Copenhagen interpretation

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 01/09/2009

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A non-uniqueness result for the canonical structure in quantum theory shows
that the classical part of the Copenhagen interpretation contains physically
important information not contained in its quantum part. As a consequence, we
cannot compute the symmetry group of a quantum theory considering only the
quantum part. The unavoidable vagueness of the classical part therefore leads
to a similar vagueness in the definition of the symmetry group. This makes it
at least problematic, if not impossible, to establish the true symmetry group
of a quantum theory in the Copenhagen interpretation. Different from the old
measurement problem, the symmetry group is to important physically to be
rejected as a metaphysical pseudoproblem.

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## Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics Is Incorrect

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

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(A point-by-point response to a comment (quant-ph/0509130) on our paper
(quant-ph/0509089) is added as Appendix C. We find the comment incorrect.)
Einstein's criticism of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics is
an important part of his legacy. Although most physicists consider Einstein's
criticism technically unfounded, we show that the Copenhagen interpretation is
actually incorrect, since Born's probability explanation of the wave function
is incorrect due to a false assumption on "continuous probabilities" in modern
probability theory. "Continuous probability" means a "probability measure" that
can take every value in a subinterval of the unit interval (0, 1). We prove
that such "continuous probabilities" are invalid. Since Bell's inequality also
assumes "continuous probabilities", the result of the experimental test of
Bell's inequality is not evidence supporting the Copenhagen interpretation.
Although successful applications of quantum mechanics and explanation of
quantum phenomena do not necessarily rely on the Copenhagen interpretation, the
question asked by Einstein 70 years ago, i.e., whether a complete description
of reality exists, still remains open.; Comment: A point-by-point response to a comment (quant-ph/0509130) on our
paper (quant-ph/0509089) is added as Appendix C

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## The Emergent Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 12/12/2013

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We introduce a new and conceptually simple interpretation of quantum
mechanics based on reduced density matrices of sub-systems from which the
standard Copenhagen interpretation emerges as an effective description of
macroscopically large systems. Wave function collapse is seen to be a useful
but fundamentally unnecessary piece of prudent book keeping which is only valid
for macro-systems. The new interpretation lies in a class of modal
interpretations in that it applies to quantum systems that interact with a much
larger environment. However, we show that it does not suffer from the problems
that have plagued similar modal interpretations like macroscopic superpositions
and rapid flipping between macroscopically distinct states. We describe how the
interpretation fits neatly together with fully quantum formulations of
statistical mechanics and that a measurement process can be viewed as a process
of ergodicity breaking analogous to a phase transition. The key feature of the
new interpretation is that joint probabilities for the ergodic subsets of
states of disjoint macro-systems only arise as emergent quantities. Finally we
give an account of the EPR-Bohm thought experiment and show that the
interpretation implies the violation of the Bell inequality characteristic of
quantum mechanics but in a way that is rather novel. The final conclusion is
that the Copenhagen interpretation gives a completely satisfactory
phenomenology of macro-systems interacting with micro-systems.; Comment: 21 pages

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## Why QBism is not the Copenhagen interpretation and what John Bell might have thought of it

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 08/09/2014

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Christopher Fuchs and R\"udiger Schack have developed a way of understanding
science, which, among other things, resolves many of the conceptual puzzles of
quantum mechanics that have vexed people for the past nine decades. They call
it QBism. I speculate on how John Bell might have reacted to QBism, and I
explain the many ways in which QBism differs importantly from the orthodox ways
of thinking about quantum mechanics associated with the term "Copenhagen
interpretation."; Comment: 14 pages. Based on a talk at the conference "Quantum [Un]Speakables
II: 50 Years of Bell's Theorem", University of Vienna, June 19, 2014

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## Decoherence and Copenhagen Interpretation : A Scenario

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

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In this paper we give a reasonable explanation (not proof) to the Copenhagen
interpretation of Quantum Mechanics from the view point of decoherence theory.
Mathematical physicists with strong mission must prove {\bf the Copenhagen
interpretation} at all costs.; Comment: Latex ; 23 pages ; 3 figures. Presentation changed and Misprints
corrected

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## The realization of the wave function collapse in the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 30/10/2015

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Recently I proposed the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics, which
is characterized as the linguistic turn of the Copenhagen interpretation of
quantum mechanics. This turn from physics to language does not only extend
quantum theory to classical theory but also yield the quantum mechanical world
view. Although the wave function collapse is prohibited in the linguistic
interpretation, in this paper I show that the phenomenon like wave function
collapse can be realized in the linguistic interpretation. And furthermore, I
propose the justification of the von Neumann-L\"uders projection postulate.
After all, I conclude that the wave function collapse should not be adopted in
the Copenhagen interpretation.; Comment: 5 pages

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## Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory and the Measurement Problem

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

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The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory is investigated from a
philosophical point of view. It is justified the opinion that the philosophical
attitude the Copenhagen interpretation is based on is in principle inevitable
for a real comprehension of quantum theory. This attitude is mainly related to
epistemological arguments. However, the measurement problem often seems not to
be treated clearly enough within the interpretation. By referring to the
property of the necessity to use macroscopic measurement instruments obeying
classical concepts it is made the attempt to solve the measurement problem.
According to this consideration the indeterministic character of quantum theory
seems to have its origin in a lack of knowledge and thus it appears in a
similar but more principle way than in statistical mechanics. It is emphasized
the ontological character of the uncertainty relation and the related non
locality of quantum theory suggesting that the existence of a position space is
not as fundamental as the assumptions of general quantum theory.; Comment: 9 pages

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## From Copenhagen to neo-Copenhagen interpretation

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 17/09/2007

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Positive and negative features of the Copenhagen interpretation are
discussed. As positive features can be mentioned its pragmatism and its
awareness of the crucial role of measurement. However, the main part of the
contribution is devoted to the negative features, to wit, its pragmatism (once
again), its confounding of preparation and measurement, its classical account
of measurement, its completeness claims, the ambiguity of its notion of
correspondence, its confused notion of complementarity. It is demonstrated how
confusions and paradoxes stemming from the negative features of the Copenhagen
interpretation can be dealt with in an amended interpretation, to be referred
to as `neo-Copenhagen interpretation', in which the role of the measuring
instrument is taken seriously by recognizing the quantum mechanical character
of its interaction with the microscopic object. The ensuing necessity of
extending the notion of a quantum mechanical observable from the Hermitian
operator of the standard formalism to the positive operator-valued measure of a
generalized formalism is demonstrated to yield a sound mathematical basis for a
transition from the Copenhagen contextualistic-realist interpretation to the
neo-Copenhagen empiricist one. Applications to the uncertainty relations and to
the Bell inequalities are briefly discussed.; Comment: To be published in the Proceedings of the Conference: Quantum Theory
- 4...

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## Popper's experiment and the Copenhagen interpretation

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 18/10/1999

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Popper conceived an experiment whose analysis led to a result that he deemed
absurd. Popper wrote that his reasoning was based on the Copenhagen
interpretation and therefore invalidated the latter. Actually, Popper's
argument involves counterfactual reasoning and violates Bohr's complementarity
principle. The absurdity of Popper's result only confirms Bohr's approach.; Comment: 13 pages LaTeX, one separate page of figures, submitted to SHPMP

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## Copenhagen Quantum Mechanics

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 03/11/2015

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In our quantum mechanics courses, measurement is usually taught in passing,
as an ad-hoc procedure involving the ugly collapse of the wave function. No
wonder we search for more satisfying alternatives to the Copenhagen
interpretation. But this overlooks the fact that the approach fits very well
with modern measurement theory with its notions of the conditioned state and
quantum trajectory. In addition, what we know of as the Copenhagen
interpretation is a later 1950's development and some of the earlier pioneers
like Bohr did not talk of wave function collapse. In fact, if one takes these
earlier ideas and mixes them with later insights of decoherence, a much more
satisfying version of Copenhagen quantum mechanics emerges, one for which the
collapse of the wave function is seen to be a harmless book keeping device.
Along the way, we explain why chaotic systems lead to wave functions that
spread out quickly on macroscopic scales implying that Schrodinger cat states
are the norm rather than curiosities generated in physicists' laboratories. We
then describe how the conditioned state of a quantum system depends crucially
on how the system is monitored illustrating this with the example of a decaying
atom monitored with a time of arrival photon detector...

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## The Copenhagen Interpretation as an Emergent Phenomenon

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 18/02/2013

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The Copenhagen interpretation has been remarkably successful but seems at
odds with the underlying linearity of quantum mechanics. We show how it can
emerge in a simple way from the underlying microscopic quantum world governed
by Schrodinger's equation without the need for observers or their brains. In
order to achieve this, we assemble pieces of various pre-existing ideas.
Firstly, we adopt a relational approach and use the eigenvectors of the reduced
density matrix of a quantum sub-system, or equivalently the Schmidt
decomposition, to define the `internal state' of a sub-system. Previous work
has identified serious objections to such an interpretation because it
apparently leads to macroscopic superpositions and physically unacceptable
instabilities near degeneracies. We show that both these problems are solved if
the sub-system consists of a large number of coarse grained degrees of freedom
as one expects in order to make contact with the classical world. We further
argue that coarse graining is a necessary ingredient because measuring devices
have both finite spatial and temporal resolutions. What results is an
interpretation in which both decoherence and coarse graining play key roles and
from which the rules of the Copenhagen interpretation are seen to emerge in
realistic situations that include the measurement of the position of a particle
and a decay process.; Comment: 33 pages...

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## The Copenhagen interpretation, and pragmatism

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 15/05/2007

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In the past both instrumentalism and empiricism have inspired certain
pragmatic elements into the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. The
relation of such pragmatisms with the correspondence principle is discussed. It
is argued that neither Bohr nor Heisenberg did take `correspondence' in one of
these forms, and that it, in particular, was Bohr's classical attitude which
caused him to apply in an inconsistent way his correspondence principle to the
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment, thus causing much confusion. It is
demonstrated that an empiricist pragmatism is conducive to an explanation of
violation of the Bell inequalities as a consequence of `complementarity' in the
sense of `mutual disturbance in a joint nonideal measurement of incompatible
observables' rather than as being caused by `nonlocal influences'.; Comment: Contribution to the Conference on ``Pragmatism & quantum mechanics'',
CREA, Ecole Polytechnique & CNRS, Paris, February 22-23, 2007

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## Which causality? Differences between the trajectory and Copenhagen analyses of an impulsive perturbation

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

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The trajectory and Copenhagen representations render different predictions
for impulse perturbations. The different predictions are due to the different
roles that causality plays in the trajectory and Copenhagen interpretations. We
investigate a small perturbing impulse acting on the ground state of an
infinitely deep square well. For the two representations, the first-order
perturbation calculations for the temporal change in energy differ. This
temporal change in energy for the trajectory representation is dependent upon
the microstate of the wave function. We show that even under Copenhagen
epistemology, the two representations predict different theoretical results.; Comment: 12 pages of LaTeX 2.09. No figures. Errata [Int. J. Mod. Phys. A16
(2001) 2447] appended to end. The errata strengthen the findings. Key words:
causality, hidden variables, trajectory interpretation, Copenhagen
interpretation, interpretations of quantum mechanics, impulse perturbations

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## The Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics: Many Worlds or Many Words?

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 15/09/1997

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As cutting-edge experiments display ever more extreme forms of non-classical
behavior, the prevailing view on the interpretation of quantum mechanics
appears to be gradually changing. A (highly unscientific) poll taken at the
1997 UMBC quantum mechanics workshop gave the once all-dominant Copenhagen
interpretation less than half of the votes. The Many Worlds interpretation
(MWI) scored second, comfortably ahead of the Consistent Histories and Bohm
interpretations. It is argued that since all the above-mentioned approaches to
nonrelativistic quantum mechanics give identical cookbook prescriptions for how
to calculate things in practice, practical-minded experimentalists, who have
traditionally adopted the ``shut-up-and-calculate interpretation'', typically
show little interest in whether cozy classical concepts are in fact real in
some untestable metaphysical sense or merely the way we subjectively perceive a
mathematically simpler world where the Schrodinger equation describes
everything - and that they are therefore becoming less bothered by a profusion
of worlds than by a profusion of words.
Common objections to the MWI are discussed. It is argued that when
environment-induced decoherence is taken into account, the experimental
predictions of the MWI are identical to those of the Copenhagen interpretation
except for an experiment involving a Byzantine form of ``quantum suicide''.
This makes the choice between them purely a matter of taste...

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## The Copenhagen Interpretation Born Again

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

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An approach to quantum mechanics is developed which makes the Heisenberg cut
between the deterministic microscopic quantum world and the partly
deterministic, partly stochastic macroscopic world explicit. The microscopic
system evolves according to the Schrodinger equation with stochastic behaviour
arising when the system is probed by a set of coarse grained macroscopic
observables whose resolution scale defines the Heisenberg cut. The resulting
stochastic process can account for the different facets of the classical limit:
Newton's laws (ergodicity broken); statistical mechanics of thermal ensembles
(ergodic); and solve the measurement problem (partial ergodicity breaking). In
particular, the usual rules of the Copenhagen interpretation, like the Born
rule, emerge, along with completely local descriptions of EPR type experiments.
The formalism also re-introduces a dynamical picture of equilibration and
thermalization in quantum statistical mechanics and provides insight into how
classical statistical mechanics can arise in the classical limit and in a way
that alleviates various conceptual problems.; Comment: 44 pages, updated references and typos corrected

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## Towards a Neo-Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 31/07/2003

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The Copenhagen interpretation is critically considered. A number of
ambiguities, inconsistencies and confusions are discussed. It is argued that it
is possible to purge the interpretation so as to obtain a consistent and
reasonable way to interpret the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics,
which is in agreement with the way this theory is dealt with in experimental
practice. In particular, the essential role attributed by the Copenhagen
interpretation to measurement is acknowledged. For this reason it is proposed
to refer to it as a neo-Copenhagen interpretation.

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## Justifying the Classical-Quantum Divide of the Copenhagen Interpretation

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 23/07/2014

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Perhaps the most significant drawback, which the Copenhagen interpretation
(still the most popular interpretation of quantum theory) suffers from, is the
classical-quantum divide between the large classical systems that carry out
measurements and the small quantum systems that they measure. So, an "ideal"
alternative interpretation of quantum theory would either eliminate this divide
or justify it in some reasonable way. The present paper demonstrates that it is
possible to justify the classical-quantum dualism of the Copenhagen
interpretation by way of the analysis of the time complexity of Schrodinger's
equation.; Comment: 9 pages; Latex

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## Popper's experiment, Copenhagen Interpretation and Nonlocality

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

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A thought experiment, proposed by Karl Popper, which has been experimentally
realized recently, is critically examined. A basic flaw in Popper's argument
which has also been prevailing in subsequent debates, is pointed out. It is
shown that Popper's experiment can be understood easily within the Copenhagen
interpretation of quantum mechanics. An alternate experiment, based on discrete
variables, is proposed, which constitutes Popper's test in a clearer way. It
refutes the argument of absence of nonlocality in quantum mechanics.; Comment: Thoroughly revised. To appear in Int. J. Quantum Information

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## The double-slit quantum eraser experiments and Hardy's paradox in the quantum linguistic interpretation

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Relevância na Pesquisa

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Recently we proposed the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics
(called quantum and classical measurement theory), which was characterized as a
kind of metaphysical and linguistic turn of the Copenhagen interpretation. This
turn from physics to language does not only extend quantum theory to classical
systems but also yield the quantum mechanical world view (i.e., quantum
philosophy or quantum language). The purpose of this paper is to formulate the
double-slit experiment, the quantum eraser experiment, Wheeler's delayed choice
experiment, Hardy's paradox and the three boxes paradox (the weak value
associated with a weak measurement due to Aharonov, et al.) in the linguistic
interpretation of quantum mechanics. Through these arguments, we assert that
the linguistic interpretation is just the final version of so called Copenhagen
interpretation. And therefore, we conclude that the Copenhagen interpretation
does not belong to physics (i.e., the realistic world view) but the linguistic
world view.; Comment: arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1404.2664

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## Werner Heisenberg e a Interpretação de Copenhague: a filosofia platônica e a consolidação da teoria quântica

Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas

Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ;
Formato: application/pdf

Publicado em 01/06/2010
POR

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#Mecânica quântica#Teoria quântica#Werner Heisenberg#Interpretação de Copenhague#Filosofia platônica#Idealismo#Materialismo#Quantum mechanics#Quantum theory#Werner Heisenberg#Copenhagen interpretation

Este artigo discute o uso que Werner Heisenberg faz da filosofia grega clássica no âmbito dos debates acerca da teoria quântica realizados na primeira metade do século xx. Para esse autor, a ciência foi determinada pelo influxo de duas correntes de pensamento que surgiram na Grécia antiga: o materialismo e o idealismo. A partir de tal clivagem, Heisenberg fundamenta sua crítica aos opositores da Interpretação de Copenhague, além de justificar filosoficamente suas próprias teses sobre a mecânica quântica. Apesar de suas concepções filosóficas não serem passíveis de uma sistematização completa, a relação que Heisenberg estabeleceu entre a filosofia grega e os problemas da teoria dos quanta acabou por resultar em uma interpretação da realidade física na qual é predominante um platonismo e um incipiente estruturalismo matemático.; This article discusses Werner Heisenberg's use of ancient Greek philosophy in the debates about quantum theory that occurred during the first half of the 20th century. For Heisenberg, science was determined by two concurrent streams of thought that arose in ancient Greece: materialism and idealism. Starting from this separation, Heisenberg not only develops his criticism of the opponents of the Copenhagen interpretation...

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