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Incorporating IT & AT Convergence into Lean Thinking/Six Sigma via the Smarter Operation Transformation (SOT) Methodology

Pereira, Sergio Luiz; Silva, Elcio Brito da; Leonardi, Fabrizio; Dias, Maria Lídia Rebello Pinho
Fonte: Salem Publicador: Salem
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
The growing demands for industrial products are imposing an increasingly intense level of competitiveness on the industrial operations. In the meantime, the convergence of information technology (IT) and automation technology (AT) is showing itself to be a tool of great potential for the modernization and improvement of industrial plants. However, for this technology fully to achieve its potential, several obstacles need to be overcome, including the demonstration of the reasoning behind estimations of benefits, investments and risks used to plan the implementation of corporative technology solutions. This article focuses on the evolutionary development of planning and adopting processes of IT & AT convergence. It proposes the incorporation of IT & AT convergence practices into Lean Thinking/Six Sigma, via the method used for planning the convergence of technological activities, known as the Smarter Operation Transformation (SOT) methodology. This article illustrates the SOT methodology through its application in a Brazilian company in the sector of consumer goods. In this application, it is shown that with IT & AT convergence is possible with low investment, in order to reduce the risk of not achieving the goals of key indicators.

Avaliação do processo de convergência da produtividade da terra na agricultura brasileira no período de 1960 a 2001.; Evaluation of land productivity convergence in brazilian agriculture – time period from 1960 to 2001.

Lopes, Janete Leige
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/02/2005 PT
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Este trabalho analisou o comportamento da produtividade da terra na agricultura brasileira, avaliando se há ou não convergência na evolução dessa variável. A análise compreende o período de 1960 a 2001 e alguns sub-períodos desses 42 anos, mais precisamente, os sub-períodos de 1970 a 2001, 1975 a 2001 e 1980 a 2001. A convergência é um processo em que uma mesma variável (por exemplo, renda per capita, produtividade da terra) apresenta diferentes valores entre países, regiões ou estados, mas essa diferença se reduz ao longo do tempo, indicando que a desigualdade diminui. As razões para haver o processo de convergência são várias, destacando-se as mudanças estruturais no processo de produção, a difusão tecnológica, a retirada de obstáculos ao crescimento da produção, dentre outras. A ocorrência da convergência da produtividade torna mais homogênea, do ponto de vista da modernidade, a agricultura do país. Para atingir o objetivo proposto na tese, desenvolveu-se um modelo teórico sobre convergência da produtividade da terra, tomando como base o modelo de Barro e Sala-i-Martin (1990). Quatro indicadores de convergência foram testados, os quais são: convergência- β absoluta, convergência σ...

Evidências sobre curva ambiental de Kuznets e convergência das emissões; Evidences about Environmental Kuznets Curve and convergence of emissions

Ávila, Ednilson Sebastião de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/11/2011 PT
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Nos últimos anos, os impactos da poluição no meio ambiente se tornou um tema de grande relevância, uma vez que níveis desmedidos de emissões têm sido responsáveis por alterações ambientais. Muitos autores se dedicaram a estudar a relação existente entre o crescimento econômico e a poluição. Destes estudos, surgiram duas abordagens distintas: Curva Ambiental de Kuznets e convergência das emissões. A Curva Ambiental de Kuznets postula a existência de uma relação no formato U invertido entre emissões e renda. Desta forma, à medida que renda alcança um certo nível, a taxa de crescimento das emissões se reduz. Já a convergência das emissões implica em uma taxa de crescimento equilibrado no longo prazo, o que leva ao estado estacionário das emissões. Neste contexto, Brock e Taylor (2010) desenvolveram um modelo alternativo que liga estas duas metodologias. O modelo presume que, quando as emissões convergem ao estado estacionário, implicitamente ocorre o movimento descrito pela Curva Ambiental de Kuznets. O objetivo deste trabalho é estimar os dois modelos separadamente com o intuito de verificar se os resultados apontam para uma mesma direção. As estimações da CAK foram sensíveis ao modelo escolhido. Quando se utiliza a renda e a renda ao quadrado como explicativas...

Metodologia para planejamento da convergência da Tecnologia da Informação (TI) & Tecnologia da Automação (TA) em processos industriais.; Methodology for planning the convergence of Information Technology (IT) & Automation Technology (TA) in process industries.

Silva, Elcio Brito da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/10/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
A intensificação do processo de globalização da economia e o aumento da interdependência dos mercados têm imposto uma crescente necessidade de melhoria da competitividade de todos os setores industriais. A convergência da Tecnologia da Informação (TI) e da Tecnologia da Automação (TA) dos setores produtivos e administrativos das corporações é uma poderosa ferramenta para que as mesmas possam obter altos níveis de eficiência e de eficácia necessários nos cenários competitivos dos mercados atuais. Apesar dos avanços alcançados em termos de conectividade, por ambas as tecnologias, o processo de integração da TI com a TA é complexo e apresenta significativos desafios de colaboração entre os profissionais de TI, TA e os engenheiros de produção, que ultrapassam a questão técnica da convergência. Esta tese apresenta o desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para planejamento da convergência de ativos de tecnologia denominada Metodologia para Convergência de Tecnologia de Automação e Informação (MPCTAI), que visa reduzir o risco do processo de integração da TI & TA, alinhando o planejamento do desenvolvimento da convergência aos Fatores Críticos de Sucesso (FCS) da empresa. Também apresenta a aplicação da metodologia MPCTAI em um processo de convergência dentro de uma importante empresa do setor de materiais para construção...

Real convergence in the European Union

Veiga, Francisco José
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2000 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
This essay deals with real convergence in the European Union (EU). Real convergence is here defined as convergence of GDP per capita in Purchasing Power Standard. I examine whether there is empirical evidence of real convergence among EU countries or regions and if the current effort towards nominal convergence has slowed real convergence. The main findings are that there has been some real convergence at the country level, mainly before the mid- 1970s, but not much evidence of real convergence is found at the regional level. I also find that the convergence criteria set in the Treaty of Maastricht may have slowed real convergence in the European Union.

Portugal-EU convergence revisited: evidence for the period 1960-2003

Freitas, Miguel Lebre de
Fonte: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas Publicador: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2005 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
This paper uses the stochastic approach to convergence to investigate whether real per capita GDP in Portugal has been converging to the EU15 average. The estimation accounts for conditiona convergence, transitional dynamics and up to two structural breaks. It is found that per capita GDP in Portugal has indeed converged to the EU15 average, but the pace of convergence has not been uniform along time. In particular, a slow down in the convergence process is identified in 1974. This result depends, however, as to whether the choice of this break-date is viewed as uncorrelated with the data. No evidence of acceleration in the speed of convergence is found after EC accession, in 1986.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia - (FCT)

Portugal–EU convergence revisited : evidence for the period 1960–2003

Freitas, Miguel Lebre de
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2006 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
This paper uses the stochastic approach to convergence to investigate whether real per capita GDP in Portugal has been converging to the EU15 average. The estimation accounts for conditional convergence, transitional dynamics and up to two structural breaks. It is found that per capita GDP in Portugal has indeed converged to the EU15 average, but the pace of convergence has not been uniform along time. In particular, a slow down in the convergence process is identified in 1974. This result depends, however, as to whether the choice of this break-date is viewed as uncorrelated with the data. No evidence of acceleration in the speed of convergence is found after EC accession, in 1986.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) - POCI/EGE/55423/2004 (partially funded by FEDER).

Regional income convergence in Portugal (1991-2012)

Guerreiro, Gertrudes
Fonte: SEA 2012 Publicador: SEA 2012
Tipo: Aula
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.55%
Our research aims to address the problem of inequality in income distribution from a different perspective than the usual. We intend to verify if geography influences the pattern of inequality, that is, if the standard of living varies from region to region and if, in the process of growth, spatial units in Portugal have been converging in terms of most relevant variables, such as income. We search the answers to these questions by introducing the treatment of convergence between smaller territorial units, the municipalities as individuals. We intend to evaluate convergence or divergence in income growth and test empirically the theoretical hypothesis that β-convergence, although necessary, is not a sufficient condition for σ-convergence. To study convergence, we use information about GDP and wages for NUTS III regions, and wages for municipalities. We observe spatial dependence between municipalities, so we estimate spatial econometric models to test convergence. With regard to conditional convergence between municipalities, the model most appropriate is the one which includes in the explanatory variables the weight of primary sector employment...

Regional Income Convergence in Portugal (1991-2002)

Guerreiro, Gertrudes
Fonte: Fifth meeting of the Society for the Study of Economic Inequality (ECINEQ) Publicador: Fifth meeting of the Society for the Study of Economic Inequality (ECINEQ)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.55%
Our research aims to address the problem of inequality in income distribution from a different perspective than the usual. We intend to verify if geography influences the pattern of inequality, that is, if the standard of living varies from region to region and if, in the process of growth, spatial units in Portugal have been converging in terms of most relevant variables, such as income. We search the answers to these questions by introducing the treatment of convergence between smaller territorial units, the municipalities as individuals. We intend to evaluate convergence or divergence in income growth and test empirically the theoretical hypothesis that β-convergence, although necessary, is not a sufficient condition for σ-convergence. To study convergence, we use information about GDP and wages for NUTS III regions, and wages for municipalities. We observe spatial dependence between municipalities, so we estimate spatial econometric models to test convergence. With regard to conditional convergence between municipalities, the model most appropriate is the one which includes in the explanatory variables the weight of primary sector employment, leading us to conclude that this variable distinguishes the "steady state" of the small economies. Variables like the activity rate and percentage of active population with higher education also reveal highly significant on the growth of wages...

Why Has Regional Convergence in the U.S. Stopped?

Ganong, Peter Nathan; Shoag, Daniel W
Fonte: John F. Kennedy School of Government Publicador: John F. Kennedy School of Government
Tipo: Research Paper or Report
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The past thirty years have seen a dramatic decrease in the rate of income convergence across U.S. states. This decline coincides with a similarly substantial decrease in population flows to wealthy states. We develop a model where labor mobility plays a central role in convergence and can quantitatively account for its disappearance. We then link this decline in directional migration to a large increase in housing prices and housing regulation in high-income areas. The model predicts that these housing market changes generate (1) a divergence in the skill-specific economic returns to living in rich places, (2) a decline in low-skilled migration to rich places and continued low-skilled migration to places with high income net of housing costs, (3) a decline in the rate of human capital convergence and (4) continued income convergence among places with unconstrained housing supply. Using Census data, we find support for the first three hypotheses. To test the fourth hypothesis, we develop a new state-level panel measure of housing supply regulations. Using this measure as an instrument for housing prices, we document the central role of housing prices and building restrictions in the end of income convergence.

Inequality Convergence

Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Comparing changes in inequality with initial levels, using new data, the author finds that within-country inequality in income or per capita consumption is converging toward medium levels--a Gini index around 40 percent. The finding is robust to allow for serially independent measurement error in inequality data and for short-run dynamics around longer-term trends. However, the convergence process is neither rapid nor certain, and more observations over time are needed to be confident of the pattern. The author offers an approach to modeling the determinants of inequality that may be a starting point for estimating richer models.

Implications of global demographic convergence for fertility theory

Wilson, Chris
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Conference paper Formato: 161313 bytes; 96742 bytes; 356 bytes; 614 bytes; 356 bytes; 358 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Introduction: Concern with below-replacement fertility first emerged in Europe in the 1930s. At the end of a steep decline in marital fertility that had begun in most of western and central Europe in the last third of the 19th century, total fertility fell below two in several countries, and in many urban areas, even in countries whose national fertility remained above replacement level. This was a cause of great alarm to governments wherever it occurred, raising the spectre of absolute declines in population size in the near future (Teitelbaum and Winter 1985). Dire economic and political consequences were predicted for countries whose populations failed to replace themselves (Reddaway 1939). The postwar baby boom of the 1950s and early 1960s generally erased such fears, but they have returned, albeit in somewhat less strident form, over the last two decades. Ever since the 1930s the concern with low fertility has been strongest within developed countries and especially in Europe. The theoretical frameworks used to explain such low fertility have been, therefore, almost exclusively oriented towards conditions in the rich world. Today however, we are rapidly moving into a world in which below-replacement fertility is common in both developing and developed countries. As is shown below...

New regional convergence in productivity and productive structure : application to european southern countries

Maroto Sánchez, Andrés; Cuadrado Roura, Juan R.
Fonte: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social Publicador: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Diverse approaches have been used to analyse the hypothesis of convergence between European regions. This paper is particularly focused on productivity trends and the effects of changes in regional productive structures, which seems to be the main source of the observed productivity convergence. The crucial mechanism explaining this last process (labour apparent productivity) is the transfer of labour from the less productive activities to the most ones, a fact that has been particularly important in the poorest regions. The apparent exhaustion of this process runs in parallel to the progressive end of regional convergence in income per capita. So convergence of productive structures seems to be the factor explaining the apparent contradiction between the observed convergence of aggregate productivity levels and the absence (or clear reduction) of productivity convergence within the different sectors. The analysis intends to show that the convergence process is probably exhausted through this way. The core point of the paper is sigma convergence in GDP approach as well as the productive structure convergence. The paper takes as a reference those regions included in five European Mediterranean countries (Spain, France...

European Integration and Income Convergence : Lessons for Central and Eastern European Countries

Martin, Carmela; Velazquez, Francisco J.; Funck, Bernard
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The prospect of enlarging the European Union (EU) to Central and Eastern European countries with income levels far below those of present members, questions how, and when the candidates' aspiration to converge towards EU standards of living, could possibly by fulfilled. To address these questions, this paper seeks to assess of the convergence experience of the four less developed EU members, i.e., Spain, Portugal, Ireland, and Greece, after joining the EU, and, to explore what lessons can be learned from that experience. The discussion suggests that, while theoretically possible, there is little empirical reason to fear that European integration would cause economies to diverge. Rather than being spontaneous, however, real convergence would seem to depend crucially, on the capacity of countries to tap international technological spillovers, particularly through foreign direct investment. Macroeconomic stability, effective competition on goods, and factor markets, and, a good human capital endowment are essential to harness benefits. Nonetheless...

La convergence réelle selon la Théorie de la Croissance: Quelles explications pour l’Union Européenne?

Simões, Marta Cristina Nunes
Fonte: FEUC. Grupo de Estudos Monetários e Financeiros Publicador: FEUC. Grupo de Estudos Monetários e Financeiros
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
FRA
Relevância na Pesquisa
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L'Union Européenne est toujours et restera sûrement pendant quelque temps (avec l'élargissement) un groupe de pays marqué par des différences importantes dans les niveaux de revenu. Bien que les pays européens du Sud, qui dans les années 50 étaient classés par la Banque Mondiale comme des pays en voie de développement, fassent maintenant partie du monde développé, la vérité est qu’ils sont encore loin d’atteindre les niveaux de revenu de leur contre-partie nordique. Il semble alors que comprendre le processus de convergence réelle qui s'est produit en Europe, soit tout à fait important et puisse être utile dans un proche avenir. La Théorie Néoclassique de la Croissance peut nous aider à étudier la convergence réelle dans l'UE. Il semble y avoir deux explications qui s’opposent: pour les théoriciens de la croissance exogène, la convergence existe et est due à des productivités marginales décroissantes des facteurs; pour les théoriciens de la croissance endogène, il peut n’y avoir aucune convergence. Après avoir présenté brièvement ces deux approches théoriques, nous évaluerons l'hypothèse de convergence pour les quinze Etats membres entre 1960 et 1990 en utilisant des données en cross section et en séries temporelles et nous vérifierons s' il y a eu convergence due aux rendements décroissants. En plus de l’obtention de résultats qui supportent l’hypothèse de la convergence...

Intercontinental Community Convergence of Ecology and Morphology in Desert Lizards

Harmon, Luke J.; Melville, Jane; Losos, Jonathan
Fonte: The Royal Society of London Publicador: The Royal Society of London
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Evolutionary ecologists have long debated the extent to which communities in similar environments but different geographic regions exhibit convergence. On the one hand, if species' adaptations and community structure are determined by environmental features, convergence would be expected. However, if historical contingencies have long-lasting effects convergence would be unlikely. Most studies to date have emphasized the differences between communities in similar environments and little quantitative evidence for convergence exists. The application of comparative phylogenetic methods to ecological studies provides an opportunity to further investigate hypotheses of convergence. We compared the evolutionary patterns of structural ecology and morphology of 42 species of iguanian lizards from deserts of Australia and North America. Using a comparative approach, we found that evolutionary convergence of ecology and morphology occurs both in overall, community-wide patterns and in terms of pairs of highly similar intercontinental pairs of species. This result indicates that in these desert lizards, deterministic adaptive evolution shapes community patterns and overrides the historical contingencies unique to particular lineages.; Organismic and Evolutionary Biology

Tests for Convergence Clubs

Corrado, Luisa; Weeks, Melvyn
Fonte: Faculty of Economics Publicador: Faculty of Economics
Tipo: Working Paper; not applicable
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
In many applications common in testing for convergence the number of cross-sectional units is large and the number of time periods are few. In these situations tests which are founded upon an omnibus null hypothesis are characterised by a number of problems. In this paper we consider a broad class of tests of convergence based on multivariate time series and panel data methodologies, and track a gradual progression away from tests based on an omnibus null, to sequential tests and tests that are founded upon multiple pairwise comparisons. In a previous study Corrado, Martin and Weeks (2005) test for regional convergence across the European Union allowing for an endogenous selection of regional clusters using a multivariate test for stationarity. Given that the time series are relatively short, there are potential problems in basing inference on asymptotic results for stationarity tests. To circumvent this problem we bootstrap the stationarity test and explore the robustness of the cluster outcomes. In general our results show that the size distortion which a icts the asymptotic tests, and resulting in a bias towards nding less convergence, is resolved when we apply the bootstrap generated critical values. To interpret the composition of the resulting convergence clusters...

A Pair-wise Approach to Testing for Output and Growth Convergence

Pesaran, M. Hashem
Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Formato: 671448 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
EN_GB
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This paper proposes a pair-wise approach to testing for output convergence that considers all N(N-1)/2 possible pairs of log per capita output gaps across N economies. A general probabilistic definition of output convergence is also proposed. The approach is compatible with individual output series having unit roots, does not involve the choice of a reference country in computation of output gaps, and can be applied when N is large relative to T. The test is applied to output series in the Penn World Tables (1950-2000), and to Maddison's historical series (1870-2000). Overall, the results do not support output convergence and suggest that the findings of convergence clubs in the literature might be spurious. However, significant evidence of growth convergence is found. Non-convergence of log per capita outputs combined with growth convergence suggests that there are important country-specific factors that render output gaps highly persistent.

Case Studies for the Research Triangle Foundation’s Global Convergence Center

Khaled, Tyseer
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 18/04/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.55%
As the Research Triangle Foundation proceeds to implement its 2011 Master Plan for the Research Triangle Park (RTP), the Global Convergence Center will likely play an important role as a centerpiece and symbol for the park. The Foundation envisions the Convergence Center as a campus for cutting-edge, collaborative research that serves as a common ground where Triangle university researchers can work together. In addition to building RTP’s reputation as a premier research hub in both the United States and the world, the Convergence Center could contribute to local economic development by leading to entrepreneurial spin-offs from the research conducted at the center. This paper seeks to help answer what the Research Triangle Foundation can do to develop a center that is cutting-edge, collaborative, and draws on local talent. We explore three case studies: the MIT Media Lab, multi-university teams, and RTI International. The MIT Media Lab serves as an example of cutting-edge research. The study of multi-university teams provides insight on effective collaboration, and RTI International serves as an example of how an organization attracted local talent. These case studies point to some best practices that may guide the Foundation’s design of the Convergence Center. Best Practices: 1. Select a leader for the Convergence Center that has deep relationships with the Triangle universities and has worked across academia and industry. 2. Develop a unifying vision for research that the Convergence Center will host. 3. Ensure researchers and administrators have ample opportunity to develop relationships with industry. 4. Reduce faculty concern about working with industry by creating processes that match faculty interests with market or industry needs. 5. Reduce and eliminate the organizational boundaries that researchers must work across. 6. Recruit diverse teams from uncommonly grouped areas of research. 7. Recruit prestigious researchers and leverage their reputation to attract more talent and research dollars. 8. Ensure that the Global Convergence Center offers a unique research opportunity that cannot be found at local universities.

Regional Productivity Convergence in Peru

Iacovone, Leonardo; Sanchez-Bayardo, Luis F.; Sharma, Siddharth
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.64%
This paper examines whether labor productivity converged across Peru’s regions (“departments”) during 2002-12. Given the large differences in labor productivity across the regions of Peru, such convergence has the potential to raise aggregate productivity and incomes, and also reduce regional inequalities. The paper finds that labor productivity in the secondary sector (especially manufacturing) and the mining sector has converged across Peruvian departments. The paper does not find robust evidence for labor productivity convergence in agriculture and services. These patterns are consistent with recent cross-country evidence and with the hypothesis that productivity convergence is more likely in sectors with greater scope for market integration, because of the effects of competition and knowledge flows. The convergence in labor productivity within manufacturing and mining has been sufficient to lead to convergence in aggregate labor productivity across departments. But because services and agriculture continue to employ the majority of workers in Peru...