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Teaching Controversial Socio-Scientific Issues in Biology and Geology Classes: A Case Study

Reis, Pedro; Galvão, Cecília
Fonte: Southwestern University Publicador: Southwestern University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
Several educators in science have called for the inclusion of controversial socio-scientific issues’ discussion in science curricula because of its potential for creating a more real, humane image of scientific activity and for promoting scientific literacy, an essential tool for a responsible citizenship regarding decision-making processes related to socio-scientific issues. However, despite all the favourable opinions and empirical evidence concerning the educational potential for the discussion of socio-scientific issues, these activities are not part of many science lessons, even when the controversial socio-scientific issues comprise the curricular content and the teachers consider discussion of these issues important. This qualitative investigation, based on a case study centered on a Biology and Geology teacher, aimed to understand the factors that influence positively the conduction of discussion activities regarding controversial socio-scientific issues. By analysing data from interviews and class observations, it sought to understand the factors that motivate the teacher to implement this type of activity. This case study shows that the implementation of the discussion activities about controversial socio-scientific issues depends decisively on the teacher’s convictions about the educational relevance of these activities and the knowledge needed for their design...

Gestational diabetes mellitus. Unresolved issues and future research directions.

Okun, N.; Verma, A.; Demianczuk, N.
Fonte: College of Family Physicians of Canada Publicador: College of Family Physicians of Canada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the controversial aspects of gestational diabetes (GDM) and introduce readers to possible relevant research questions that could be examined to provide clinicians with good-quality data on which to base decisions about this relatively common pregnancy-related issue. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: Ongoing review of the English literature related to GDM. Sources were not restricted to prospective, controlled trials, as these are severely limited in number. SYNTHESIS: Controversial issues include the relevance of GDM to clinically meaningful outcomes in the index pregnancy, the effectiveness of current therapy in altering these outcomes, and the resultant questionable relevance of routine screening and diagnosis of an entity with as yet uncertain significance in pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Suggested questions to be addressed in multicentre controlled trials include randomization with respect to screening and with respect to treatment. Until such trials are completed, continuing with a standard approach to screening, diagnosis, and treatment, such as that suggested by the third international workshop on GDM, is recommended.

Neonatal Screening Part 3: Controversial Issues

Morris, Brian A. P.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1990 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.94%
This series of three articles examines different aspects of neonatal screening. In the first article, the author discussed general principles, including criteria for test selection, sensitivity and specificity of tests, cost-benefit analyses, laboratory factors in screening, and the role of neonatal screening in the spectrum of diagnostic techniques for genetic disease. The second article described the status of screening in Canada, the diseases for which screening is now applied, and the benefits of screening and treatment. In this, the final article of this series, the author describes the controversial topics that represent the possible future of screening. He examines four diseases (cystic fibrosis, hypercholesterolemia, sickle cell disease, and muscular dystrophy) for which we can screen, but currently do not screen in Canada.

Ethical Issues in Schizophrenia Research: A Commentary on Some Current Concerns

Shore, David
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.96%
An essential aspect of research on schizophrenia is ensuring that worthwhile scientific studies are done in a way that does not place vulnerable individuals at unreasonable risk. It is important to educate researchers, advocates, potential participants, reviewers, IRBs, and the general public about ethical principles and controversial issues as they impact research on schizophrenia. Federal regulations mandate IRB consideration of “the special problems of research involving… mentally disabled persons…” (45CFR46.111a3). In recent years, there has been a greater focus on subject monitoring to improve safeguards and minimize risks. The process of informed consent is also going through a process of evolution, in order to help ensure that participants are as aware as possible of key aspects of a study, including risks, benefits, alternatives, purpose and design, etc. We focus here on a few of the issues that are current, are relevant to schizophrenia research, and merit additional empirical study. They include medication discontinuation and placebo control designs, compensation for participation, and capacity to consent.

Issues in Using Progression-Free Survival When Evaluating Oncology Products

Fleming, Thomas R.; Rothmann, Mark D.; Lu, Hong Laura
Fonte: American Society of Clinical Oncology Publicador: American Society of Clinical Oncology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.89%
Several challenging and often controversial issues arise in oncology trials with the use of the end point progression-free survival (PFS), defined to be the time to detection of progressive disease or death. While this end point does not directly measure how a patient feels, functions, or survives, it does provide insights about whether an intervention affects the tumor burden process, the intended mechanism through which it is hoped that most anticancer agents will provide benefit. However, simply achieving statistically significant effects on PFS is insufficient to obtaining reliable evidence of important clinical benefit, and even is insufficient to justifying the conclusion that the experimental intervention is “reasonably likely to provide clinical benefit.” The magnitude of the effect on PFS in addition to the statistical strength of evidence is of great importance in interpreting the reliability of the evidence regarding clinical efficacy. PFS has several important properties, including being a direct measure of the effect of treatment on the tumor burden process, being sensitive to cytostatic as well as cytotoxic mechanisms of interventions, and incorporating the clinically relevant event of death, increasing its sensitivity to influential harmful mechanisms and avoiding substantial bias that arises when deaths are censored. To obtain reliable evidence about the effect of an intervention on PFS and patient survival...

Neonatal resuscitation: Current issues

Chadha, Indu A
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.89%
The following guidelines are intended for practitioners responsible for resuscitating neonates. They apply primarily to neonates undergoing transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life. The updated guidelines on Neonatal Resuscitation have assimilated the latest evidence in neonatal resuscitation. Important changes with regard to the old guidelines and recommendations for daily practice are provided. Current controversial issues concerning neonatal resuscitation are reviewed and argued in the context of the ILCOR 2005 consensus.

Current Challenges for HER2 Testing in Diagnostic Pathology: State of the Art and Controversial Issues

Sapino, Anna; Goia, Margherita; Recupero, Daniele; Marchiò, Caterina
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/05/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
HER2 overexpression and anti-HER2 agents represent probably the best story of success of individualized therapy in breast cancer. Due to the important therapeutic implications, the issue under the spotlight has been, since ever, the correct identification of true HER2 positivity on tissue specimens. Eligibility to anti-HER2 agents is strictly dependent on the demonstration of HER2 overexpression (by immunohistochemistry) or of HER2 gene amplification by in situ techniques (fluorescence in situ hybridization, FISH), however there are controversial issues involving cases with “equivocal” HER2 status based on conventional techniques (about 20% of specimens). In terms of HER2 expression a major debate is the presence of full-length and truncated forms of the protein and controversial clinical data have been reported on the therapeutic implications of these HER2 fragments. In terms of HER2 gene assessment, the occurrence of amplification of the chromosome 17 centromeric region (CEP17) has been proven responsible for misleading HER2 FISH results, precluding anti-HER2 based therapy to some patients. Finally HER2 activating mutations have been recently described as a biological mechanisms alternative to HER2 gene amplification. In this review we will focus on the controversies that pathologists and oncologists routinely face in the attempt to design the most tailored treatment for breast cancer patients. We will focus on the HER2 gene and on the protein...

Controversial Issues on EEG after Sleep Deprivation for the Diagnosis of Epilepsy

Giorgi, Filippo Sean; Maestri, Michelangelo; Guida, Melania; Di Coscio, Elisa; Carnicelli, Luca; Perini, Daria; Pizzanelli, Chiara; Iudice, Alfonso; Bonanni, Enrica
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.89%
EEG after sleep deprivation (SD-EEG) is widely used in many epilepsy centers as an important tool in the epilepsy diagnosis process. However, after more than 40 years of use, there are a number of issues which still need to be clarified concerning its features and role. In particular, the many scientific papers addressing its role in epilepsy diagnosis often differ remarkably from each other in terms of the type of patients assessed, their description and study design. Furthermore, also the length and the type of EEG performed after SD, as well as the length of SD itself, vary dramatically from one study to another. In this paper we shortly underscore the abovementioned differences among the different reports, as well as some interpretations of the findings obtained in the different studies. This analysis emphasizes, if needed, how SD-EEG still represents a crucial step in epilepsy diagnosis, and how additional, controlled studies might further shape its precise diagnostic/prognostic role.

Use of azacitidine for myelodysplastic syndromes: controversial issues and practical recommendations

Kim, Yoo-Jin; Jang, Jun Ho; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Lee, Je-Hwan; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon
Fonte: Korean Society of Hematology; Korean Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation; Korean Society of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology; Korean Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis Publicador: Korean Society of Hematology; Korean Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation; Korean Society of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology; Korean Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.89%
Azacitidine is recommended for patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) who are not eligible for intensive therapy or for patients with lower-risk MDS who have thrombocytopenia or neutropenia or have anemia that is unresponsive to other therapies. However, standard treatment with azacitidine has not been optimized and many issues about the use of azacitidine remain unresolved. The use of azacitidine is expanding rapidly, but limited comparative clinical trial data are available to (i) define the optimal use of azacitidine in patients with higher-risk MDS or around the time of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, (ii) identify those patients with lower-risk MDS who may benefit from treatment, and (iii) guide physicians on alternative therapies after treatment failure. Increasing evidence suggests that the clinical features, prognostic factors, and cytogenetic profiles of patients with MDS in Asia differ significantly from those of patients in Western countries, so the aim of this review is to summarize the evidence and provide practical recommendations on the use of azacitidine in patients with MDS in the Republic of Korea. Evidence considered in this review is based on published clinical data and on the clinical experience of an expert panel from the acute myeloid leukemia/MDS Working Party of the Korean Society of Hematology.

Peer-Led Team Learning in an Online Course on Controversial Medication Issues and the US Healthcare System

Pittenger, Amy L.; LimBybliw, Amy L.
Fonte: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education Publicador: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/09/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
Objective. To implement peer-led team learning in an online course on controversial issues surrounding medications and the US healthcare system.

Issues in current management of chronic myeloid leukemia: Importance of molecular monitoring on long term outcome

Menon, Hari
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.89%
Monitoring of CML patients while on therapy is vitally important and ENL has come up with specific guidelines for the same. Since we are currently talking about operational cure, this review shall focus on evaluating the emerging data to optimize response. This requires attention to all outstanding controversial issues. Only careful, accurate and regular monitoring with specific attention to grey areas will help us select first line therapy, decide when to discontinue TKIs and also move to second line TKIs in a timely manner.

Controversial Issues in Kyphoplasty and Vertebroplasty in Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures

Papanastassiou, Ioannis D.; Filis, Andreas; Gerochristou, Maria A.; Vrionis, Frank D.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
Kyphoplasty (KP) and vertebroplasty (VP) have been successfully employed for many years for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The purpose of this review is to resolve the controversial issues raised by the two randomized trials that claimed no difference between VP and SHAM procedure. In particular we compare nonsurgical management (NSM) and KP and VP, in terms of clinical parameters (pain, disability, quality of life, and new fractures), cost-effectiveness, radiological variables (kyphosis correction and vertebral height restoration), and VP versus KP for cement extravasation and complications profile. Cement types and optimal filling are analyzed and technological innovations are presented. Finally unipedicular/bipedicular techniques are compared. Conclusion. VP and KP are superior to NSM in clinical and radiological parameters and probably more cost-effective. KP is superior to VP in sagittal balance improvement and cement leaking. Complications are rare but serious adverse events have been described, so caution should be exerted. Unilateral procedures should be pursued whenever feasible. Upcoming randomized trials (CEEP, OSTEO-6, STIC-2, and VERTOS IV) will provide the missing link.

The controversial world of sirtuins

Dang, Weiwei
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.94%
The controversy around sirtuins and their functions in aging has drawn in the past few years as much attention, if not more, from the scientific community and the public as they did when first proposed as the key conserved aging regulators in eukaryotes. With some of the basic observations on sirtuin longevity promoting functions being questioned in popular model systems, researchers are wondering if this family of conserved enzymes still holds strong potential as therapeutic targets. This review examines the several controversial issues around sirtuins and their functions in aging, calorie restriction, as well as age-related diseases in light of recent studies in mammalian systems and discusses whether modulators of sirtuins still hold the secret of life.

Political Perspectives on Uncertified Home Care Agencies

Silberberg, Mina; Estes, Carroll L.; Harrington, Charlene
Fonte: CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES Publicador: CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1994 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36%
This article examines the political agendas of public sector and organized private sector interests concerned with policies affecting uncertified home care agencies in three metropolitan areas. Using a telephone survey, the study found substantial differences across these groups in both the frequency with which they work on given issues and in some key attitudes. Overall, respondents were most likely to work on policies related to home care quality, and had particularly diverse—and at times conflicting—concerns in this area. Policymakers need to actively solicit the diverse attitudes of key interest groups towards controversial issues in order to understand less dominant perspectives, keep in mind the interconnection of policy issues, and arrive at politically viable solutions to home care policy problems.

Ethical Considerations for Psychologists Taking a Public Stance on Controversial Issues: The Balance Between Personal and Professional Life

Haeny, Angela M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
Previous literature has documented the general issues psychologists often face while balancing their personal and professional lives. The struggle stems from attempting to satisfy the need to maintain a life outside of work while having the professional obligation to follow the American Psychological Association’s (APA’s) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (Ethics Code) to prevent their personal lives from interfering with their professional roles and relationships. The present paper analyzes the subject of psychologists taking a public position on controversial public issues. Although the APA Ethics Code does not restrict how psychologists conduct themselves during their personal time, taking a public stance on a controversial issue could potentially strain professional relationships and inadvertently reflect negatively on the profession. The present paper examines ethical issues that a) should be taken into account before psychologists take a public position on a controversial issue, and b) are in conflict with APA’s Ethics Code or current research.

Tecnificación de los procesos formativos. Cuestiones necesarias para el necesario debate.; Modernization of the educational processes. Necessary issues for the necessary debate.

Justicia, Sebastián; Peralta, Dolors
Fonte: Universidade de Múrcia Publicador: Universidade de Múrcia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.89%
Las posibilidades de mejora que ofrecen los avances tecnológicos en el sector educativo son innumerables. El patrón de presencialidad está siendo complementado con las diferentes modalidades que hacen posible la tecnología informática y las comunicaciones. Persisten empero cuestiones en las que existe controversia. Hace falta un debate multidisciplinar y en el que se involucre a todos los sectores implicados, docentes, pedagogos, tecnólogos, alumnado, administración pública y empresas relacionadas. Pretendemos aflorar algunos planteamientos presentes en el debate de la asunción tecnológica en los ambientes pedagógicos. La sociedad del conocimiento en este siglo XXI exige tasas de adquisición, tratamiento y generación cada vez más rápidas del mismo en este ciclo virtuoso socio productivo, donde el modelo virtualizado en la formación, constituye sin duda un factor coadyuvante.; Potential improvements offered by technological advances in education are innumerable. Pattern of presence is being supplemented with different modalities enabled by information and communication technology. Nevertheless, controversial issues remain. It takes a multidisciplinar discussion which involves all the sectors involved, teachers, educators...

Análise crítica da prisão preventiva na Lei 12.403/2011: proposta à luz de modelos estrangeiros e da Convenção Americana de Direitos Humanos; A critical analysis of preventive detention in accordance with the law 12.403/2011: proposal in the light of foreign models and the American Convention on Human Rights

Mendonça, Andrey Borges de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/03/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Este trabalho analisa os principais pontos controvertidos introduzidos pela Lei 12.403, de 4 de maio de 2011, no tocante à prisão preventiva, à luz dos modelos estrangeiros e do sistema interamericano de Direitos Humanos, sempre pautado pela busca de equilíbrio entre o garantismo e a eficiência. O principal objetivo do trabalho foi buscar subsídios para a interpretação das disposições internas controvertidas, pautando-se nos modelos e standards internacionais, com o intuito de se aprofundar o estudo do tema. Para se chegar ao contexto de edição da referida lei e melhor compreendê-la, analisam-se as influências que deram origem ao atual Código de Processo Penal e a sua fisionomia originária, que possuía, sobretudo no tema da prisão preventiva, contexto marcadamente autoritário. Após, são analisadas as diversas alterações pelas quais o Código sofreu em relação ao tema, sob o influxo de movimentos internacionais existentes no século XX, que culminaram com a edição da Lei 12.403. Em seguida, é analisada a Convenção Americana de Direitos Humanos, especialmente tendo em vista a jurisprudência da Corte Interamericana de Direitos Humanos, buscando verificar os standards internacionais relativos ao tema da prisão preventiva...

Surgical issues in locally advanced rectal cancer treated by preoperative chemoradiotherapy

Lim, Seok-Byung; Kim, Jin Cheon
Fonte: The Korean Surgical Society Publicador: The Korean Surgical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.89%
The standard treatment for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer is preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision. This approach is supported by randomized trials, but there are still many unanswered questions about the multimodal management of rectal cancer. In surgical terms, these include the optimal time interval between completion of chemoradiotherapy and surgery; adequate distal resection margin and circumferential radial margin; sphincter preservation; laparoscopic surgery; and conservative management, including a 'wait and see' policy and local excision. This review considers these controversial issues in preoperative chemoradiotherapy.

Endoscope Reprocessing: Update on Controversial Issues

Choi, Hyun Ho; Cho, Young-Seok
Fonte: The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Publicador: The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Several issues concerning endoscope reprocessing remain unresolved based on currently available data. Thus, further studies are required to confirm standard practices including safe endoscope shelf life, proper frequency of replacement of some accessories including water bottles and connecting tubes, and microbiological surveillance testing of endoscopes after reprocessing. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of newer technology that allows automated cleaning and disinfection is one such controversial issue. In addition, there are no guidelines on whether delayed reprocessing and extended soaking may harm endoscope integrity or increase the bioburden on the external or internal device surfaces. In this review, we discuss the unresolved and controversial issues regarding endoscope reprocessing.

History textbooks facing controversial issues - case study of the Martial law in Poland

Wojdon,Joanna
Fonte: Yesterday and Today Publicador: Yesterday and Today
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
Martial law is one of the most controversial periods in the post-WWII history of Poland. Introduced on December 13, 1981 it ended the 16-month-long "festival of Solidarity". Official reasons for its imposition were to prevent further degradation of Poland's economy and social structures, but a threat of Soviet military intervention was also suggested. The opposition activists perceived it as an attempt of the totalitarian regime to save its falling position with the use of most brutal methods, unknown in Poland since the Stalinist period. The article is based on the analysis of contemporary Polish school history textbooks for all levels of education. It aims to present the strategies adopted by the textbook authors to deal with this controversial issue. The author will attempt to find answers to the following questions: Do the text book authors notice the controversies? Do they show one or more points of view? Do they ask students about their own opinions or about the opinions of their friends or relatives? Are the textbooks open for different interpretations or do they, explicitly or implicitly, prefer only one? How emotional is the text and other materials? How have the textbooks changed since the collapse of the communist regime in 1989?