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Inverted pendulum virtual control laboratory

Lima, José; Gonçalves, José; Costa, Paulo; Moreira, António
Fonte: APCA, IST Publicador: APCA, IST
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.75%
This paper describes a tool for interactive learning that can be used to improve control systems design. The developed system is ready to use and allows testing different control methods. It can be used by students for problem solving and individual learning. The virtual control laboratory was implemented as a teaching aid during lectures on control systems. As there is no need to do any special programming or debugging, the students can focus on the control items. Classical control methods such as PID and State-Space approaches are available and gains can be tuned. A friendly appearance based on openGL 3D shows a simulation of the real word: A cart with an inverted pendulum is "bumped" with a force. The dynamic equations of motion for the control system are linearized assuming that the pendulum does not move more than a few degrees away from the vertical allowing to apply linear control methods. Although, the simulated system is realistic and based on a Dynamics Engine.

Métodos de controle químico de amostras de própolis; Chemical control methods of propolis samples

Rio, Ricardo Gomide Woisky Do
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/11/1996 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.74%
Propõe-se um conjunto de parâmetros e respectivos métodos para análise de amostras de própolis bruta e tinturas de própolis, com vistas ao seu controle químico. Para amostras de própolis bruta, propõe-se a determinação dos teores de fenóis totais, flavonóides, ácidos fenólicos, ceras, cinzas, substâncias voláteis e resíduo seco. Para a análise de tinturas, propõe-se a determinação dos quatro primeiros ítens acima, acrescidos do teor de álcool etílico e densidade. A adequação dos métodos apresentados para a determinação de fenóis totais, flavonóides e ácidos fenólicos foi avaliada através de sua aplicação a uma mistura contendo quantidades conhecidas de flavonóides e ácidos fenólicos. O percentual das diferenças entre os teores reais e os teores medidos na mistura padrão situaram-se sempre abaixo de 10,0%. O emprego do conjunto de análises propostas é exemplificado, através da determinação dos parâmetros em amostras de própolis bruta, coletadas em distintas localidades do Brasil, e em amostras de tinturas etanólicas e hidroalcoólicas de própolis. Todos os ensaios foram realizados em triplicata, o que permitiu verificar que os métodos propostos apresentam boa reprodutibilidade. As amostras de própolis analisadas apresentam teores de fenóis totais cerca de 30% inferiores à média dos resultados relatados para amostras de origem européia. Os teores de flavonóides encontrados são muito pequenos...

Controle modal de vibrações em estruturas flexíveis; Modal vibration control in flexible structures

Ronald Richard Huamán Ortiz
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/03/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.75%
O projeto de sistemas de controle ativo de vibrações para estruturas flexíveis envolve a síntese de controladores que, geralmente, reduzem certos picos da resposta em frequência do sistema em malha fechada. Em alguns casos é requerido controlar unicamente um modo de vibrar específico do sistema em análise que pode estar associado a uma faixa de baixa, média ou alta frequência, o que demanda de um controle modal de vibrações. Neste trabalho, propõem-se três métodos alternativos para sintetizar controladores modais utilizando a teoria de controle H-infinito em uma configuração de controle por realimentação de saída. O primeiro método é implementado utilizando funções de ponderação as quais são introduzidas no problema de controle H-infinito para definir as características do controlador de maneira que este atenue a vibração do sistema na região em frequência correspondente ao modo que se deseja controlar (modo de interesse). O segundo método procura sintetizar controladores modais de menor ordem, utilizando uma planta reduzida. Essa planta reduzida contém unicamente a informação dinâmica do modo que se deseja controlar e é obtida através de uma transformação modal. O terceiro método procura melhorar o desempenho do controlador modal (conseguir uma maior redução da vibração do modo de interesse). Este método propõe sintetizar o controlador modal formulando um problema de otimização não linear onde as variáveis do controlador modal são as variáveis de otimização e a função objetivo é definida com valores específicos da resposta em frequência do sistema dinâmico. A solução deste problema de otimização é obtida utilizando o algoritmo de programação quadrática sequencial (SQP). Os três métodos são verificados utilizando o modelo de uma viga flexível engastada que é modelada através do método dos elementos finitos. Finalmente...

Manual control methods for steerable catheters in neuroendovascular procedures: experimental comparison of various handles

Silva, Neuza Liliana Fernandes
Fonte: Universidade de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.77%
Tese de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Biomédica e Biofísica, apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2013; Desde a realização da primeira angiografia cerebral por Egas Moniz em 1927, o tratamento de várias patologias da cabeça e pescoço foi revolucionado com a introdução dos procedimentos endovasculares. A possibilidade da visualização dos vasos sanguíneos em tempo real em conjunto com o desenvolvimento de novos instrumentos médicos permitiu o estabelecimento de procedimentos menos invasivos em Neurologia, nomeadamente, no tratamento de aneurismas, arteriosclerose, acidentes vasculares cerebrais, entre outros. A introdução de um cateter no sistema vascular através de uma pequena incisão na pele possibilita o acesso a zonas de patologia na neurovasculatura e a realização do respectivo tratamento através do envio de outros dispositivos médicos ou líquidos terapêuticos pelo lúmen do cateter. Com estes procedimentos minimamente invasivos o paciente beneficia de tempos de recuperação mais rápidos e eficazes, bem como de menor desconforto. No entanto, para o médico intervencionista existem várias desvantagens. O intervencionista perde o acesso à visualização directa do local de tratamento...

New developments in alternative methods to control postharvest fruit decay

Nunes, Carla
Fonte: Universidade do Algarve Publicador: Universidade do Algarve
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
Proceedings of the International Conference “Environmentally friendly and safe technologies for quality of fruit and vegetables”, held in Universidade do Algarve, Faro, Portugal, on January 14-16, 2009. This Conference was a join activity with COST Action 924.; Public concern in food safety and the increase of pathogen resistant populations has enhanced the interest in developing methods to control postharvest fruit decay alternative to fungicides. According to their nature alternative methods can be classified as biological, chemical or physical. This article reviews research on alternative postharvest disease control methods and explores new possibilities of research to improve their efficacy.

Approaches towards tick and tick-borne diseases control

Domingos,Ana; Antunes,Sandra; Borges,Lara; Rosario,Virgilio Estolio do
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.67%
Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals as well as humans, considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases. Tick-borne diseases are responsible worldwide for great economic losses in terms of mortality and morbidity of livestock animals. This review concerns to the different tick and tick-parasites control methods having a major focus on vaccines. Control of tick infestations has been mainly based on the use of acaricides, a control measure with serious drawbacks, as responsible for the contamination of milk and meat products, as a selective factor for acaricide-resistant ticks and as an environmental contaminant. Research on alternatives to the use of acaricides is strongly represented by tick vaccines considered a more cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy. Vaccines based on the Bm86 tick antigen were used in the first commercially available cattle tick vaccines and showed good results in reducing tick numbers, affecting weight and reproductive performance of female ticks which resulted in reduction of cattle tick populations over time and consequently lower reduction of the pathogen agents they carry.

Human Antibody Response to Anopheles Saliva for Comparing the Efficacy of Three Malaria Vector Control Methods in Balombo, Angola

Brosseau, Laura; Drame, Papa Makhtar; Besnard, Patrick; Toto, Jean-Claude; Foumane, Vincent; Le Mire, Jacques; Mouchet, François; Remoue, Franck; Allan, Richard; Fortes, Filomeno; Carnevale, Pierre; Manguin, Sylvie
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/09/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.79%
Human antibody (Ab) response to Anopheles whole saliva, used as biomarker of Anopheles exposure, was investigated over a period of two years (2008–2009), in children between 2 to 9 years old, before and after the introduction of three different malaria vector control methods; deltamethrin treated long lasting impregnated nets (LLIN) and insecticide treated plastic sheeting (ITPS) - Zero Fly®) (ITPS-ZF), deltamethrin impregnated Durable (Wall) Lining (ITPS-DL – Zerovector®) alone, and indoor residual spraying (IRS) with lambdacyhalothrin alone. These different vector control methods resulted in considerable decreases in all three entomological (82.4%), parasitological (54.8%) and immunological criteria analyzed. The highest reductions in the number of Anopheles collected and number of positive blood smears, respectively 82.1% and 58.3%, were found in Capango and Canjala where LLIN and ITPS-ZF were implemented. The immunological data based on the level of anti-saliva IgG Ab in children of all villages dropped significantly from 2008 to 2009, except in Chissequele. These results indicated that these three vector control methods significantly reduced malaria infections amongst the children studied and IRS significantly reduced the human-Anopheles contact. The number of Anopheles...

16.31 Feedback Control Systems, Fall 2001; Feedback Control Systems

How, Jonathan P.
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
EN-US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
Introduction to the state-space approach to control system analysis and control synthesis. State-space representation of dynamic systems; controllability and observability; state-space realizations of transfer functions; and canonical forms. Design of controllers using state-space methods, including pole placement and optimal control methods. Introduction to the Kalman filter. Limitations on performance of control systems from classical and state-space perspectives. Introduction to robustness of multivariable control systems, using frequency domain techniques. From the course home page: Course Description The goal of this subject is to teach the fundamentals of control design and analysis using state-space methods. This includes both the practical and theoretical aspects of the topic. By the end of the course, students should be able to design controllers using state-space methods and evaluate whether these controllers are "robust," that is, if they are likely to work well in practice.

Alternatives for Batch Manufacturing Control

Karmarkar, Uday S. ; Shivdasani, Indur M.
Fonte: Graduate School of Management, University of Rochester Publicador: Graduate School of Management, University of Rochester
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.7%
The characteristics of batch manufacturing systems vary substantially from one facility to another. The choice of a control approach in terms of planning and scheduling procedures depends on these characteristics. In this paper, the components of the control task are described, and some of the techniques available for each level of control are discussed. Alternative control system configurations are related to process characteristics. The effect of automation on control is discussed together with the issue of evolution and implementation of control methods.

Controle interno da qualidade dos exames citológicos do colo do útero: pré-escrutínio rápido versus revisão rápida de 100%; Internal quality control of the cervical cytologic exams:Rapid prescreenig versus 100% rapid review

TAVARES, Suelene Brito do Nascimento
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Ciencias da Saude; Ciencias da Saude Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Ciencias da Saude; Ciencias da Saude
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.77%
False-negative rates constitute a common problem in the daily routine of cytopathology laboratories. Among the various internal quality control methods, 10% random review is the least effective in detecting false-negative results in routine screening. On the other hand, good results have been found with 100% rapid review and with rapid prescreening. Nevertheless, no studies comparing these two methods have been reported. Objective: To compare the performance of rapid prescreening and 100% rapid review as internal quality control methods in cervical cytopathology. Methods: Over 27 months, 12,208 cervical cytology smears collected from Units of Primary Health Care of Goiânia were submitted to rapid prescreening and routine screening at Rômulo Rocha Center for Clinical Analyses at the School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. The 100% rapid review method was performed on all smears classified as negative at routine screening. Conflicting results obtained with either method were reviewed in detail to define final diagnosis, which was considered the gold-standard for evaluating the performance of rapid prescreening and 100% rapid review. In cases with abnormal cytology were evaluated the results of colposcopy...

On Discrete-Time Optimality Conditions for Pseudospectral Methods, AIAA (2006; Keystone, Colorado)

Fahroo, Fariba; Ross, I. Michael
Fonte: The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Publicador: The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA)
Tipo: Conference Paper
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
The article of record as published may be located at http://arc.aiaa.org; Approved for public display, distribution unlimited; Proceedings of AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference ; Paper no. AIAA 2006-6304, Keystone, Colorado, Aug. 21-24, 2006; One of the most efficient families of techniques for solving space trajectory optimization problems are pseudospectral (PS) methods. Among the rich variety of PS methods, the class of Legendre PS methods are most thoroughly studied for optimal control and trajectory optimization applications. In particular, the Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto PS method is widely used for boundary-value type problems while the Legendre-Gauss-Radau PS method was recently proposed for solving innate-horizon optimal control problems as a means to manage conditions at inanity. Both methods satisfy the Convector Mapping Principle, the mathematical principle associated with the consistency of approximations that allows one to generate dual maps (such as Hamiltonians, adjoins etc) without resorting to solving di'cult two-point boundary-value problems. In this paper we prove that a combination of weighted interpolants, their duals, and a proper definition of orthogonality allows us to formulate a generalized Covector Mapping Theorem that applies to all such PS methods. The consequences of this theorem are that it clarifies the connections between theory and computation...

Spatial H∞ Approach to Damage Tolerant Active Control

MECHBAL, Nazih; NOBREGA, Euripedes
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.77%
Damage tolerant active control is a new research area targeting to adapt fault tolerant control methods to mechanical structures submitted to damage. Active vibration control is a mature engineering area, using modern control methods to address structural issues that may result from excessive vibration. However, the subject of structural vibration control under damage represents a novel subject in the literature. There are some difficulties to adapt regular controller designs to active control, which may not result in good performance even for healthy structures. Fault detection and diagnosing research has conducted to development of the fault tolerant control area, whose methods are equally hard to translate to damaged structure control. Spatial active vibration control encompasses some techniques that present important features to structure control, however this is not necessarily true in the general control design area, where spatial constraints are normally not involved. We propose in this paper an investigation of these spatial techniques, applied to structural damage control. Several new strategies for vibration control are presented and analyzed, aiming to attain specific objectives in damage control of mechanical structures. Finite element models are developed for a case study structure...

Adapted Control Methods for Cerebral Palsy Users of an Intelligent Wheelchair

Faria, Brígida Mónica; Reis, Luis Paulo; Lau, Nuno
Fonte: Kimon P. Valavanis Publicador: Kimon P. Valavanis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/01/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.75%
The development of an intelligent wheelchair (IW) platform that may be easily adapted to any commercial electric powered wheelchair and aid any person with special mobility needs is the main objective of this project. To be able to achieve this main objective, three distinct control methods were implemented in the IW: manual, shared and automatic. Several algorithms were developed for each of these control methods. This paper presents three of the most significant of those algorithms with emphasis on the shared control method. Experiments were performed by users suffering from cerebral palsy, using a realistic simulator, in order to validate the approach. The experiments revealed the importance of using shared (aided) controls for users with severe disabilities. The patients still felt having complete control over the wheelchair movement when using a shared control at a 50% level and thus this control type was very well accepted. Thus it may be used in intelligent wheelchairs since it is able to correct the direction in case of involuntary movements of the user but still gives him a sense of complete control over the IW movement.

Evaluation of community - based strategies for Aedes aegypti control inside houses

Pérez Flórez, Mauricio; Ocampo, Clara Beatriz; González, Camila; Morales, Carlos A.; Wesson, Dawn; Apperson, Charles S.
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Salud Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Salud
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; Artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf; 16 p.
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
Introducción. Los virus del dengue transmitidos principalmente por el mosquito urbano Aedes aegypti, causan uno de los mayores problemas de salud pública que confrontan las ciudades tropicales. La aplicación de insecticidas ha sido la base para el control de mosquitos; sin embargo, su continuo uso ha servido para seleccionar individuos resistentes en las poblaciones de mosquitos. Otro método importante para el control involucra la participación comunitaria. Objetivo. Este estudio evaluó dos métodos de control para Ae. aegypti que podrían ser usados por la comunidad: las ovitrampas letales (OL) y las briquetas de Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis (Bti). Materiales y métodos. El estudio se llevó a cabo en cuatro barrios similares de la Comuna 16 de Cali, Colombia. Se evaluaron tres intervenciones (OL, Bti, OL y Bti) más educación y un área control (sólo educación) para medir la eficacia de la vigilancia entomológica posterior a la intervención. Además, los índices entomológicos se compararon con los resultados de una vigilancia antes de la intervención llevada a cabo en bloques de casas seleccionadas aleatoriamente en los mismos barrios. La abundancia relativa del vector en relación con las condiciones climáticas se comparó usando los mismos métodos del muestreo entomológico. Resultados. Las intervenciones no produjeron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos en la abundancia del vector. Sin embargo...

A Survey of Quantum Lyapunov Control Methods

Cong, Shuang; Meng, Fangfang
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.68%
The condition of a quantum Lyapunov-based control which can be well used in a closed quantum system is that the method can make the system convergent but not just stable. In the convergence study of the quantum Lyapunov control, two situations are classified: non-degenerate cases and degenerate cases. In this paper, for these two situations, respectively, the target state is divided into four categories: eigenstate, the mixed state which commutes with the internal Hamiltonian, the superposition state, and the mixed state which does not commute with the internal Hamiltonian state. For these four categories, the quantum Lyapunov control methods for the closed quantum systems are summarized and analyzed. Especially, the convergence of the control system to the different target states is reviewed, and how to make the convergence conditions be satisfied is summarized and analyzed.; Comment: 14

Advanced Discrete-Time Control Methods for Industrial Applications

Khatamianfar, Arash
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.73%
This thesis focuses on developing advanced control methods for two industrial systems in discrete-time aiming to enhance their performance in delivering the control objectives as well as considering the practical aspects. The first part addresses wind power dispatch into the electricity network using a battery energy storage system (BESS). To manage the amount of energy sold to the electricity market, a novel control scheme is developed based on discrete-time model predictive control (MPC) to ensure the optimal operation of the BESS in the presence of practical constraints. The control scheme follows a decision policy to sell more energy at peak demand times and store it at off-peaks in compliance with the Australian National Electricity Market rules. The performance of the control system is assessed under different scenarios using actual wind farm and electricity price data in simulation environment. The second part considers the control of overhead crane systems for automatic operation. To achieve high-speed load transportation with high-precision and minimum load swings, a new modeling approach is developed based on independent joint control strategy which considers actuators as the main plant. The nonlinearities of overhead crane dynamics are treated as disturbances acting on each actuator. The resulting model enables us to estimate the unknown parameters of the system including coulomb friction constants. A novel load swing control is also designed based on passivity-based control to suppress load swings. Two discrete-time controllers are then developed based on MPC and state feedback control to track reference trajectories along with a feedforward control to compensate for disturbances using computed torque control and a novel disturbance observer. The practical results on an experimental overhead crane setup demonstrate the high performance of the designed control systems.; Comment: PhD Thesis...

Liquid State NMR as a Test-bed for Developing Quantum Control Methods

Ryan, C. A.; Negrevergne, C.; Laforest, M.; Knill, E.; Laflamme, R.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/03/2008
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.8%
In building a quantum information processor (QIP), the challenge is to coherently control a large quantum system well enough to perform an arbitrary quantum algorithm and to be able to correct errors induced by decoherence. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) QIPs offer an excellent test-bed on which to develop and benchmark tools and techniques to control quantum systems. Two main issues to consider when designing control methods are accuracy and efficiency, for which two complementary approaches have been developed so far to control qubit registers with liquid-state NMR methods. The first applies optimal control theory to numerically optimize the control fields to implement unitary operations on low dimensional systems with high fidelity. The second technique is based on the efficient optimization of a sequence of imperfect control elements so that implementation of a full quantum algorithm is possible while minimizing error accumulation. This article summarizes our work in implementing both of these methods. Furthermore, we show that taken together, they form a basis to design quantum-control methods for a block-architecture QIP so that large system size is not a barrier to implementing optimal control techniques.; Comment: 15 pages...

Autonomous Sensor Path Planning and Control for Active Information Gathering

Lu, Wenjie
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.8%

Sensor path planning and control refer to the problems of determining the trajectory and feedback control law that best support sensing objectives, such as monitoring, detection, classification, and tracking. Many autonomous systems developed, for example, to conduct environmental monitoring, search-and-rescue operations, demining, or surveillance, consist of a mobile vehicle instrumented with a suite of proprioceptive and exteroceptive sensors characterized by a bounded field-of-view (FOV) and a performance that is highly dependent on target and environmental conditions and, thus, on the vehicle position and orientation relative to the target and the environment. As a result, the sensor performance can be significantly improved by planning the vehicle motion and attitude in concert with the measurement sequence. This dissertation develops a general and systematic approach for deriving information-driven path planning and control methods that maximize the expected utility of the sensor measurements subject to the vehicle kinodynamic constraints.

The approach is used to develop three path planning and control methods: the information potential method (IP) for integrated path planning and control, the optimized coverage planning based on the Dirichlet process-Gaussian process (DP-GP) expected Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence...

Analysis of production control methods for semiconductor research and development fabs using simulation

Ramamurthi, Vikram
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1326761 bytes; 181214 bytes; 2061 bytes; 698 bytes; 5008 bytes; 49 bytes; 1326761 bytes; application/pdf; text/plain; text/plain; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.75%
The importance of semiconductor device fabrication has been rising steadily over many years. Integrated circuit technology and innovation depends on successful research and development (R&D). R&D establishes the direction for prevailing technology in electronics and computers. To be a leader in the semiconductor industry, a company must bring technology to the market as soon as its application is deemed feasible. Using suitable production control methods for wafer fabrication in R&D fabs ensures reduction in cycle times and planned inventories, which in turn help to more quickly, transfer the new technology to the production fabs, where products are made on a commercial scale. This helps to minimize the time to market. The complex behavior of research fabs produces varying results when conventional production control methodologies are applied. Simulation modeling allows the study of the behavior of the research fab by providing statistical reports on performance measures. The goal of this research is to investigate production control methods in semiconductor R&D fabs. A representative R&D fab is modeled, where an appropriate production load is applied to the fab by using a representative product load. Simulation models are run with different levels of production volume...

Control of emission rates

SKIBA,Y. N.; PARRA-GUEVARA,D.
Fonte: Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM Publicador: Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.8%
The advection-diffusion equation is used for describing the dispersion of pollutants in a limited area. Methods for preventing dangerous levels of pollutants in ecologically important zones are suggested. The methods are based on the control of emission rates of sources and use the direct and adjoint estimates of the average pollution concentration in the zones. While the direct estimates use solutions of the pollution transport problem and permit to study the ecological situation in the whole domain, the adjoint estimates allow getting information only in the selected zones of the domain. The adjoint estimates are obtained with solutions to the adjoint problem and depend explicitly on the positions of the sources and their emission rates, and on the initial distribution of pollutants in the region. In each such estimate, the adjoint problem solution serves as the influence function that shows the quantitative contribution of every source into the pollution of the corresponding zone. This makes the adjoint estimates very efficient tools in the study of the model response to changes in emission rates and initial conditions, as well as in the development of control strategies. Bothnon-optimal (sufficient) and optimal control strategies are suggested. Each strategy consists in reducing the emission rates of sources...