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Le développement des modes alternatifs de règlement des litiges de consommation : Quelques réflexions inspirées par l’expérience ECODIR

CRUQUENAIRE, Alexandre; DE PATOUL, Fabrice
Fonte: Centre de recherche en droit public (CRDP) Publicador: Centre de recherche en droit public (CRDP)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.17%
"ECODIR a vu le jour en octobre 2001, à Bruxelles, grâce à la contribution financière entre autres de l’Union européenne. C’est une plate-forme de règlement des litiges de consommation par Internet. Son champ d’action est limité, en raison des termes du contrat de recherche conclu avec la Commission européenne et de certaines contraintes juridiques. Il ne couvre que les conflits mettant en cause au moins un consommateur et relatifs à une transaction effectuée en ligne ; les litiges portant sur des questions complexes (fiscalité, droit de la famille par exemple) sont exclus. ECODIR n’est pas un processus d’arbitrage, mais de médiation : la possibilité d’ester en justice en cas d’échec du processus n’est pas exclue. Les auteurs décrivent les trois phases du processus, puis font le bilan de son fonctionnement. Ils analysent l’incidence des recommandations et des directives de la Commission européenne sur le commerce électronique avant d’examiner enfin la portée des solutions dégagées au terme de toute la procédure."; "ECODIR, an Internet based dispute resolution platform designed to solve business to consumer cases, was born in Brussels in October of 2001 thanks to the financial backing of, among others...

Le développement des modes alternatifs de règlement des litiges de consommation : quelques réflexions inspirées par l’expérience ECODIR

CRUQUENAIRE, Alexandre; DE PATOUL, Fabrice
Fonte: Centre de recherche en droit public (CRDP) Publicador: Centre de recherche en droit public (CRDP)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.17%
"ECODIR a vu le jour en octobre 2001, à Bruxelles, grâce à la contribution financière entre autres de l’Union européenne. C’est une plate-forme de règlement des litiges de consommation par Internet. Son champ d’action est limité, en raison des termes du contrat de recherche conclu avec la Commission européenne et de certaines contraintes juridiques. Il ne couvre que les conflits mettant en cause au moins un consommateur et relatifs à une transaction effectuée en ligne ; les litiges portant sur des questions complexes (fiscalité, droit de la famille par exemple) sont exclus. ECODIR n’est pas un processus d’arbitrage, mais de médiation : la possibilité d’ester en justice en cas d’échec du processus n’est pas exclue. Les auteurs décrivent les trois phases du processus, puis font le bilan de son fonctionnement. Ils analysent l’incidence des recommandations et des directives de la Commission européenne sur le commerce électronique avant d’examiner enfin la portée des solutions dégagées au terme de toute la procédure."; "ECODIR, an Internet based dispute resolution platform designed to solve business to consumer cases, was born in Brussels in October of 2001 thanks to the financial backing of, among others...

Increasing Access to Credit through Reforming Secured Transactions in the MENA Region

Alvarez de la Campa, Alejandro
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.02%
This paper provides a comparative summary of secured transactions systems related to the use of movable property as collateral in the MENA region vis a vis international practices in countries with modern secured transactions systems. The paper sets out the importance of introducing reforms in the area of secured transactions with the objective of increasing access to credit for businesses, particularly SMEs. The MENA region clearly lags behind all other regions in the introduction of secured transactions reforms. The paper summarizes many of the weaknesses common across the region. The two main critical areas that need urgent reforms are the creation of modern secured transactions laws and electronic movable collateral registries, and the need to improve enforcement mechanisms for security interests in movable property.

Do Regulation and Institutional Design Matter for Infrastructure Sector Performance?

Andres, Luis; Guasch, Jose Luis; Straub, Stephane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.1%
This paper evaluates the impact of economic regulation on infrastructure sector outcomes. It tests the impact of regulation from three different angles: aligning costs with tariffs and firm profitability; reducing opportunistic renegotiation; and measuring the effects on productivity, quality of service, coverage, and prices. The analysis uses an extensive data set of about 1,000 infrastructure concessions granted in Latin America from the late 1980s to the early 2000s. The analysis finds that as the theory indicates, regulation matters. The empirical work here reported shows that in three relevant economic aspects-aligning costs and tariffs; dissuading renegotiations; and improving productivity, quality of service, coverage, and tariffs-the structure, institutions, and procedures of regulation matter. Thus, significant efforts should continue to be made to improve the structure, quality, and institutionality of regulation. Regulation matters for protecting both consumers and investors, for aligning closely financial returns and the costs of capital...

Improving Protection in Financial Services for Russian Consumers

Rutledge, Sue
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.25%
Over the last decade, consumer credit in the Russian Federation has expanded from almost nothing to 9.2 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2008. This is an average increase of 84 percent a year for five years. Recent developments in financial markets have highlighted the need for consumer protection and financial literacy for the long-term health of the financial sector. The rapid growth of household lending has been accompanied by an increase in the number of households that have difficulty in understanding the risks and obligations that they assume, or the full range of choices available. In the United States mortgage markets for instance, complex financial contracts were sold to borrowers, some of whom had weak credit histories. The consequences were disastrous, and highlight the importance of consumer protection and financial education to prevent other similar events.

Working Group Session LAC 2006 of the Global Judges Forum : Summary Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.19%
Over fifty participants from 31 different Latin American, Caribbean, North American and European countries came together in the Buenos Aires Stock Exchange Building in order to discuss the following topics: Mediation and Arbitration in Commercial/Insolvency Cases, Streamlining Commercial Proceedings using Non-Judicial Entities and Processes, Delegation/Substitution in Enforcement Proceedings, and Judicial Cooperation and Court-to-Court-Communication in Cross-Border Insolvency Proceedings. The first three topics formed a unit as they all dealt explicitly with delegation of judicial work to non-judicial entities. The first topic dealt with possible alternative entities, such as mediators and arbitrators while the following two topics investigate which aspects of court and enforcement procedures respectively could be subjected to such delegation and substitution. The fourth topic, in contrast, touched on a completely different subject, the co-operation between courts, which, as a consequence of globalization...

Republic of Bulgaria : Alternative Dispute Resolution for Financial Services Options

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.48%
The objective of this technical note is to evaluate the existing legal, regulatory and institutional framework of financial Alternative dispute resolution body, for example an ombudsman (ADR) mechanisms in Bulgaria, and to present the authorities with options for reform and improvement. There is a need to further strengthen and reform the existing financial ADR framework in Bulgaria. Fortifying the design and structure of financial ADR mechanisms is an important step to increase currently low levels of consumer trust in financial services. In addition, the implementation of the recently approved European Union (EU) Directive on ADR will require a significant amount of restructuring and reorganization of the existing ADR mechanisms in Bulgaria in order to be compliant with the new required standards. An ADR will not be a success unless consumers can be confident that financial services providers will take part and will follow decisions in favor of the consumer. Bearing in mind the Bulgarian context and the limitations imposed by the Bulgarian constitution...

Can OHADA Increase Legal Certainty in Africa?

Beauchard, Renaud; Kodo, Mahutodji Jimmy Vital
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.21%
This paper describes the origins, structure, and practical impact of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA). It analyzes the institutional framework created via the OHADA treaty and the legal, jurisprudential, and functional challenges that OHADA member states are still grappling with. Details of the nine substantive laws that have so far been ratified as uniform acts by means of the treaty have also been provided. The authors conclude that in making OHADA law effective, member states face continuing and substantial resource deficits, institutional deficiencies, language ambiguities, and intransigent official attitudes toward the need for appropriate mechanisms for the pursuance and enforcement of OHADA laws and processes.

Kyrgyz Republic : Diagnostic Review of Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy, Volume 2. Comparison with Good Practices

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
The Diagnostic Review for Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy (CPFL) provides a detailed assessment of the institutional, legal and regulatory framework for consumer protection in two segments of the financial sector: banking and microfinance. The review was undertaken in response to a request for technical assistance in the field of financial consumer protection made by the National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic (NBKR) in November 2012.

El procedimiento arbitral de consumo como mecanismo efectivo en la solución de conflictos entre consumidores y empresarios en México y España

Steele Garza, José Guadalupe
Fonte: Universidade de Múrcia Publicador: Universidade de Múrcia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.3%
Resumen El objetivo central de ésta investigación es el análisis del Sistema Arbitral de Consumo en España y México, su ámbito de aplicación y sus principales características, así como la Mediación y la Conciliación de una forma general, que tienen lugar dentro del mismo contexto. Por ello se investigaron las distintas normativas que regulan el procedimiento especial en el ámbito del consumo en ambos países respecto a sus bondades, ventajas, limitaciones y los campos de oportunidad, en este sentido se utilizó el método de investigación de estudio de casos de tipo explicativo, apoyándose en fuentes de Investigación Jurídica, como leyes, jurisprudencia y doctrina, concluyendo con propuestas de algunas adiciones de ambos sistemas sustanciales y destacando los logros que se obtendrán de la instalación de una reforma legislativa al sistema en beneficio de la comunidad. PALABRAS CLAVE: Arbitraje, Mediación, Conciliación, Consumidores y Usuarios Empresarios, Ordenamientos Jurídicos. THE CONSUMER ARBITRATION AS EFFECTIVE RESOLUTION OF DISPUTES BETWEEN CONSUMERS AND BUSINESSES, IN MEXICO AND SPAIN The objective of this research is the analysis of Consumer Arbitration System in Spain and Mexico, its scope and its main features...

Mediation in Consumer Matters. An Approach in European and Spanish Law

Vázquez de Castro, Eduardo
Fonte: Universitat Oberta de Catalunya Publicador: Universitat Oberta de Catalunya
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.65%
Given the obvious inadequacy of ordinary legal procedures to resolve consumer disputes, it is necessary to look for alternative models which, without excluding administrative and judicial proceedings, are more accessible to consumers. Although arbitration is the most widely used model, consumer mediation is becoming increasingly more important. Consumer mediation lacks a systematic organisation in Spanish law and the rules on consumer arbitration only refer to mediation, remitting to regulation by the autonomous communities, some of which have exclusive competence in mediation in their Statutes of Autonomy. Although mediation in consumer affairs often falls within arbitration procedures, the optimal solution would be to separate mediation linked to arbitration procedures (intra-arbitration) from consumer mediation detached from arbitration (extra-arbitration) to offer more alternatives for out-of-court conflict resolution, taking into account that a resolution obtained in a process of mediation will be enforceable if it is in the form of a court settlement or if it is recorded by a notary. The conclusion is that consumer affairs are especially suitable for mediation, although the rules on consumer arbitration are inadequate for normalisation...

Building a global redress system for low-value cross-border disputes

Cort??s Di??guez, Juan Pablo; Esteban de la Rosa, Fernando
Fonte: Cambridge University Press; British Institute of International and Comparative Law Publicador: Cambridge University Press; British Institute of International and Comparative Law
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
This article examines UNCITRAL's draft Rules for Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) and argues that in low-value e-commerce cross-border transactions, the most effective consumer protection policy cannot be based on national laws and domestic courts, but on effective and monitored ODR processes with swift out-of-court enforceable decisions. The draft Rules propose a tiered procedure that culminates in arbitration. Yet, this procedure neither ensures out-of-court enforcement, nor does it guarantee compliance with EU consumer mandatory law. Accordingly, this article argues that the draft Rules may be inconsistent with the European approach to consumer protection.

Cases, Materials and Text on Consumer Law

Fonte: Hart Publicador: Hart
Tipo: Livro
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.44%
The objective of this casebook, like others in the Ius Commune Series, is to help uncover common roots, notwithstanding differences in approach, of the European legal systems, with a view to strengthening the common legal heritage of Europe. It covers the big legal families in the EU and contains judgments from the supreme courts and other courts of the Member States. In view of the importance of EC legislation (eg harmonisation directives and regulations) in this field, the consumer law casebook contains much material derived from Community law, such as extracts from directives (eg on unfair contract terms, distance selling, doorstep selling, product liability, unfair commercial pratices etc) and judgments of the ECJ and national court decisions. Furthermore, attention is paid to the way in which, when interpreting EC directives in the consumer field, the ECJ refers to concepts common to the legal systems of the Member States and how the courts of the Member States incorporate the concepts found in the directives (as interpreted by the ECJ) in their legal systems. The casebook also compares harmonised and pre-harmonised law, especially in the case law of the Member States. It concentrates on private law in the field of consumer protection but also addresses topics...

Open Skies for Africa : Implementing the Yamoussoukro Decision

Schlumberger, Charles E.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.1%
For the purposes of this book, "open skies" refers to a bilateral or multilateral air service agreement that liberalizes the rules for international aviation markets and minimizes government intervention. It can apply to passenger or cargo services or both, for both scheduled and charter air services. This book evaluates Africa's progress toward liberalizing air services. It specifically examines what the term implementation means in the context of applying the principles of one of the major pan-African multilateral agreements, the Yamoussoukro decision. It also highlights the shortcomings of the 20-year-old effort toward liberalizing air services in Africa by analyzing pending or completed implementation steps both on a pan-Africa level and within various regions. The book focuses on the challenges posed by the poor aviation safety and security standards in most African countries. Finally the sector work measures the impact of certain policy steps of the decision and evaluates the economic significance of air transportation and its full liberalization in Africa. It concludes with policy recommendations that aim at completing implementation to fully liberalize Africa's air services.

Sri Lanka : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Procurement Assessment (CPAR); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.19%
This country procurement assessment report (CPAR) is presented in two volumes: Volume I is the Summary Report and Volume II is the Detailed Report. Volume I describes the key findings on the effectiveness and transparency of the present Public Procurement System and includes a recommended action plan for improving the system. Vol. II presents the in-depth study of the existing Financial Regulations, Guidelines and the legal system in relation to procurement (in the absence of a Public Procurement Law), procedures followed for Government-funded programs vis-à-vis those funded with external assistance, standardization of documents, and the organizational setup for procurement processing and implementation, together with a General Risk Assessment. The CPAR is based on the responses to the questionnaires received, documents reviewed and interviews held. The team sent out three sets of questionnaires: one for selected government ministries, a second for the selected implementing agencies which had major procurements...

Arbitrage en ligne et les litiges du commerce électronique

Ndiaye, Penda
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation Formato: 8834032 bytes; application/pdf
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.35%
Le commerce électronique n'est plus un simple support promotionnel de la distribution des biens de consommation: il s'apparente de plus en plus à un marché parallèle à la distribution classique. Cependant, quel que soit le schéma emprunté, les rapports humains suscitent inévitablement des conflits et le commerce électronique ne fait pas exception à la règle. Ce nouveau vecteur n'a pas pour seule vertu le rapprochement des individus; de la même façon qu'il a affecté nos relations, il a eu un impact sur les litiges eux-mêmes. Le contexte particulier dans lequel s'inscrivent les transactions privées sur Internet, ont pour conséquence des litiges portant sur de faibles sommes d'argent et qui sont qui plus est - conditionnés par certains aspects techniques ou certaines particularités du monde en ligne. A cela s'ajoute une dimension internationale qui accentue encore la complexité du règlement des litiges, dans la mesure où elle implique pour les parties de délicates délibérations sur la question du forum et du droit applicable. La dispersion des parties ne facilite pas l'exercice de l'action en justice. Aussi l'arbitrage en ligne a-t-il pour ambition éthérée d'éluder la voie judiciaire et, plus encore, la voie judiciaire à l'étranger. La Toile...