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Biogeografia da conservação frente à expansão agrícola: conflitos e prioridades; Conservation Biogeography faced with agricultural expansion: conflicts and priorities

DOBROVOLSKI, Ricardo
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Ecologia e Evolucao; Ciencias Biologicas Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Ecologia e Evolucao; Ciencias Biologicas
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
Agriculture is the human activity with the greatest impact on the environment. Specifically, it represents the greatest threat to biodiversity. In the future, this activity should expand due to population growth, increased consumption and production of biofuels from food. To understand the possible impacts of this expansion on biodiversity, we used scenarios of land use change between 1970 and 2100 from IMAGE (Integrated Model to Access Global Environment) to test the following hypotheses: (i) areas considered as global priorities for conservation by international NGOs will be preferentially impacted by agricultural expansion in the XXI century, (ii) there is a conflict between the priority areas for carnivores conservation and agricultural expansion, and this conflict can be reduced by incorporating information on agricultural expansion in the prioritization process, (iii) the integration among countries for conservation planning may benefit both biodiversity and agricultural productivity, (iv) Brazilian protected areas will be impacted by agricultural expansion in the future and this impact will differ between protected areas of integral protection and those of sustainable use. We found that: (i) the impact on priority areas for conservation depends on the criteria by which they were set...

Conservation of Medicinal Plants in Central America and the Caribbean

Lagos-Witte, Sonia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The issues of medical plant conservation have been the focus of many formal and informal discussions at national and international forums, seminars, workshops, conferences and congresses in the last 10 years. Caribbean and Central American countries are adopting common policies on medicinal plant conservation and establishing collaborative projects and appropriate agreements for research programs in order to achieve a new status for the protection of medicinal plant diversity. This paper for the most part reports on the the TRAMIL Program (Scientific Research on Medicinal Plants in the Caribbean Basin) coordinated since 1982. TRAMIL has focused on conserving traditional community knowledge of folk remedies, and providing scientific validation of safety and efficacy needed to encourage national health policies that include traditional medicine in primary health care programs.

Expanding Financing for Biodiversity Conservation : Experiences from Latin America and the Caribbean

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.61%
The Latin America and Caribbean Region has been at the forefront of global biodiversity conservation, dedicating 20 percent of its land to protected areas compared to 13 percent in the rest of the developing world. This progress has stretched available budgets for conservation with estimates indicating that a twofold increase would be necessary to achieve optimal management of existing protected areas based on 2008 data. Recognizing the importance of this financing challenge, this document presents examples of how the region is successfully exploring news ways and sources of finance for biodiversity conservation. It is intended as an input to the global discussions on biodiversity financing drawing from a selective review of concrete experiences where governments are tapping nonpublic finance sources in effective partnerships. The cases reviewed point to common features contributing to their success: (i) variety in arrangements; (ii) enabling legal and institutional support; (iii) capacity based on record of experience; (iv) building social capital; (v) clarity about conservation objectives; (vi) strong government leadership in guiding biodiversity conservation policies and programs.

Solar project cost report for Irvine Elementary School, Irvine, California; Irvine Elementary School, Irvine, California

Mueller Associates (Baltimore, Md.); United States -- Dept. of Energy. -- Office for Conservation and Solar Applications; United States -- Dept. of Energy. -- Office of the Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Solar Applications; PRC Energy Analysis C
Fonte: Dept. of Energy, Office of Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Solar Applications; National Technical Information Service; Dept. of Energy, Office of Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Solar Applications ( Washington ); National Technical Information Service Publicador: Dept. of Energy, Office of Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Solar Applications; National Technical Information Service; Dept. of Energy, Office of Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Solar Applications ( Washington ); National Technical Information Service
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 28 p. in various pagings : ; 28 cm.
Publicado em //1979 ENGLISH
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Apr. 11, 1979.; National solar data program.; National solar heating and cooling demonstration program.; MONTHLY CATALOG NUMBER: gp 80007819; (Statement of Responsibility) prepared for Department of Energy, Office of Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Solar Applications, National solar heating and cooling demonstration program, under contract number EG-77-C-01-2522 ; prepared by Mueller Associates, Inc., under subcontract to PRC Energy Analysis Company.

Integrated conservation strategy of built heritage: traditional construction systems and natural materials; Estratégia de conservação integrada do património edificado: sistemas construtivos tradicionais e materiais naturais

Costa, Alice Maria Tavares Alves da
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.55%
The risk of losing ancient construction systems is highly relevant in the whole Mediterranean region, but also in many other countries worldwide. The earthen heritage and the mixed construction systems with timber are decreasing very fast and being identified in lists of risk by UNESCO, ICOMOS and by many researchers all over the world. They represent a cultural value of the societies that is being neglected due to unbalanced development, demolitions, lack of knowledge, and guidelines for conservation, instead of the expected unique reason of decay due to natural agents or ageing. Although some conservation approaches have been successful, the results are still scarce and the mistakes continuously repeated imposing irreversible gaps in reading this relevant heritage, mainly in urban areas. This entails questions about the approach to protection, conservation, and the reasons behind such disseminated failure in these objectives. The earthen architecture shows precisely the difficulties in the establishment of a strategy able to successfully achieve the goal of preserving its cultural value. This needs continuous research and ability to communicate the best conservation strategy as just one of the steps of a balanced framework. This investigation aims to discover reasons for failure of conservation strategies involving the traditional construction systems...

Charters and the Ethics of Conservation: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

Rowney, Barry
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 53245 bytes; 125546 bytes; 22356 bytes; 103978 bytes; 482006 bytes; 1041241 bytes; 1312997 bytes; 271814 bytes; 1696891 bytes; 163057 bytes; 165187 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 EN
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The growing realisation of national identity in the face of the threatening envelopment of globalisation has been one major inducement for the increasing practice of conservation of the world's built heritage. This study examines contemporary practices of heritage conservation, analyses their assumptions and theories, and critiques their guiding instruments, the Charters. It adopts a cross-cultural perspective to assess the merits, validity and agency of the most recognised Charters, to discuss their various adaptations, particularly in the Syrian context, and to reveal their Eurocentric focus and indifference to cultural concerns. The study also identifies the inadequacies of the Charters with regard to ethics and morality and proposes a code of ethics for urban conservation. The study focuses on the notion of authenticity that has been an issue of debate since the Nara Conference on Authenticity in 1994. Although arising from, and specifically aimed at, World Heritage Listing, authenticity is recognised as a complex issue dependent on cultural understandings. The study adopts the view that authenticity judgements are linked to a great variety of sources of information, such as form, design, materials, function, traditions, techniques...

Balancing economic, social and cultural concerns within historic heritage conservation policy frameworks

Jay, Jeff
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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On 6 April 2005 the Australian Government announced a Productivity Commission inquiry into the conservation of historic heritage within Australia. As part of the inquiry, the Productivity· Commission received over 400 submissions from various groups ranging from state and local governments to professional organisations and heritage councils. Some of these submissions were made to the original inquiry and about half were filed as responses to a draft report that the Productivity Commission published before the final report. The end product, Conservation of Australia's Historic Heritage Places, was tabled in Parliament on 21 July 2006. The Productivity Commission's final report made several recommendations concerning conservation policy framework. The Productivity Commission report was notable for the emphasis it placed on the rights of private owners and the costs often incurred by them due to heritage listing. While the Productivity Commission acknowledged the great benefits provided to the community by historic heritage conservation, the Commission did not feel that those benefits justified the burdens placed on private owners of heritage properties. Many of the recommendations within the report reflected this opinion causing the final recommendations to heavily favour private interests over the greater community. Due to the vast number of submissions received by the Productivity Commission...

Conservation covenants

Allen, Jessica
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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It is now acknowledgement that private landholders should play a central role in defending Australia's natural resources. Facilitating mechanisms for private landholders to effectively conserve their land is necessary to allow for connectivity between "islands" of publicly owned and managed conservation areas and to achieve a comprehensive, adequate and representative (CAR) system of protected areas. Covenants on the title of the land, which can be held in perpetuity by a covenant body, are the most secure form of private land conservation and the only private initiatives that has the potential to be included in the National Reserve System (NRS). Across Australia, all states have legislated for covenanting schemes. These schemes vary in approach and all raise issues as to how covenants may best be used to ensure their viability and durability as long term conservation tools. Balancing Private and Public Conservation This report concludes that there is scope for partnerships between government, individual landholders and Private Conservation Organisations in conserving the land. However legislated protected areas remain should remain as the core of biodiversity protection. Thus private land conservation initiatives should be 'fillers' in the CAR system and covenants which have security of tenure should complement publicly managed conservation areas in the NRS. There is evidence that Commonwealth funding is focused on more generalised private conservation initiatives under the National Heritage Trust (NHT) and concerns are raised that the NRS Program...

Promoting Nature-Based Tourism for Management of Protected Areas and Elephant Conservation in Sri Lanka

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Sri Lanka's ten-year development framework aims at accelerating economic growth while ensuring a path of sustainable development and prioritizing conservation of the country's natural heritage. It is in this context that this policy note seeks to examine the scope for enhancing protection of Sri Lanka's natural assets through nature based tourism as an instrument for conservation with a specific focus on elephant conservation. This study identifies development opportunities that increase tourism revenues and offers an assessment of the human/elephant conflict, which is the primary impediment to long term elephant conservation.

Nature Tourism, Conservation, and Development in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Aylward, Bruce; Lutz, Ernst
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The book provides an evaluation of, and policy advice on key environmental, social, and economic issues concerning the development of nature tourism. Using KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa as a case study, it highlights both the benefits, and trade-offs I promoting, an managing sustainable nature-tourism development, and it assesses how policy can enhance nature tourism's contribution to economic growth, poverty reduction, and conservation. The book's contributors explore three key issues. First, they consider the importance of moving beyond development of a wildlife industry, to the creation of a true nature tourism economy, that supports biodiversity conservation. Second, they explore the role of the private sector in contributing to equitable development, and job creation, while generating conservation finance. Third, they consider alternative pricing, and other market mechanisms that can help make nature tourism more viable, and growth-oriented. Ultimately, the authors argue, economic development, equity, and conservation objectives can be balanced.

La conservation du patrimoine urbain, catalyseur du renouvellement des pratiques urbanistiques? : une réflexion théorique sur l'appropriation de la notion de patrimoine urbain par l'urbanisme

Brochu, Johanne
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Cette thèse questionne l’apport de la conservation du patrimoine urbain à l’urbanisme. Il y est avancé que l’association entre la conservation du patrimoine urbain et l'urbanisme, dans leur cadre conceptuel actuel, plutôt que d’être le catalyseur du renouvellement de l’urbanisme, a perpétué une appréhension fragmentée et une atomisation de l'établissement, consacrant ainsi le paradigme fonctionnaliste, qui conditionne encore largement les pratiques urbanistiques contemporaines, au Québec notamment. En effet, bien que depuis les années 1960 la conservation du patrimoine soit présentée comme le fil rouge dans le redéploiement de la compétence d’édifier, plusieurs études soulignent les résultats mitigés de nombreuses expériences de conservation ainsi qu’une contribution limitée relativement à la formulation des projets urbains. Plus particulièrement, malgré la reconnaissance de l’intérêt de la patrimonialisation et de la fécondité potentielle de l’idée de patrimoine en général, l’urbanisme n’est pas parvenu à en définir les termes de la contribution, tant au plan conceptuel que processuel, en regard de sa propre projectualité. De ce fait, il ne réussit pas à affranchir la réflexion patrimoniale du registre de la conservation afin de se l’approprier véritablement. Cette thèse explique les causes de cette incapacité à partir d’une analyse des conditions de l’appropriation de la notion de patrimoine urbain mises de l’avant par l’approche giovannonienne. Celle-ci...

Conservation lands of Northeast Florida; Camp Blanding military site contextual analysis

Hoctor, Tom ( Thomas ); Smith, Daniel J ( Daniel Joseph ), 1957-; University of Florida -- Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation.; University of Florida -- GeoPlan Center
Fonte: GeoPlan Center ( Gainesville Fla ) Publicador: GeoPlan Center ( Gainesville Fla )
Tipo: cartographic Formato: 1 map : col. ; 26 x 41 cm., on sheet 65 x 92 cm.
Publicado em //1996 ENGLISH
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"8/96"; "Program in Landscape Ecology, Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation and GEOPLAN Center, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Florida."; Includes locator map.; (Funding) Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Florida Heritage Project of the State University Libraries of Florida, the Institute for Museum and Library Services, and the U.S. Department of Education's TICFIA granting program.; (Statement of Responsibility) prepared by Tom Hoctor and Dan Smith.

Invoking citizen science in marine conservation: an assessment of volunteers in the North Carolina Sea Turtle Project

Mallos, Nicholas
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 838967 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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36.54%
Citizen science and the concept of surrogate species have become integral components to wildlife conservation, and resource agencies and scientists alike have benefited greatly from the work of volunteers in conservation programs. Although academia has extensively examined the ecological merit of surrogate species in conservation, little attention has been devoted to examining their effects on volunteer engagement with the environment. Volunteers in the North Carolina Sea Turtle Project (NCSTP) enthusiastically seek out opportunities to work with the North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission (NCWRC), the agency responsible for the NCSTP, to monitor the state’s beaches for sea turtle nesting activity. Based on a survey of the state’s 700 volunteers, this research interrogates the efficacy of sea turtles—a flagship species—to cultivate ocean and coastal stewardship, and the extent to which they motivate volunteers to participate in marine conservation. The findings of this study exposed significant differences in motivations between environmental volunteers and volunteers in the health and human services. Responses showed that sea turtle volunteers were highly motivated by the belief that their work is directly contributing to sea turtle conservation; while social motivations...

Stakeholder Analysis for Monarch Butterfly and Pollinator Conservation in Oakland County Parks

Appel, Lisa
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 24/04/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.56%
The North American Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) population has declined by 90% in the last twenty years. Scientists cite a number of factors for their decrease, including changing pesticide use, weather, and habitat loss. In December 2014, the negative trend prompted the United States Fish and Wildlife Service to initiate a status review of the Monarch butterfly under the Endangered Species Act. Given their relatively large land-holdings in developed landscapes, parklands could serve as important habitat for Monarch butterflies and other pollinators. Park management and interpretive strategies can help shape public attitudes about the environment. This study uses stakeholder analysis to research perceptions and priorities for addressing pollinator conservation at Oakland County Parks and Recreation (OCPR). OCPR manages 13 parks encompassing 6,701 acres, including 3,146 acres of natural areas in southeastern Michigan. This research answers the following questions to assist OCPR in implementing conservation actions that appropriately engage internal and external stakeholders. 1. Who are the stakeholders involved with Monarch butterfly and pollinator conservation in Oakland County? 2. What is the extent of current Monarch butterfly and pollinator conservation both internally and externally? 3. What are external stakeholder perceptions for OCPR’s priorities in Monarch butterfly and pollinator conservation? 4. How can stakeholder values and interests be integrated into program design for an Oakland County pollinator conservation plan? 5. How do local park efforts relate to national conservation programs? The methods section reviews stakeholder theory and its application in natural resource management and program design. Past research indicates that stakeholder actions can be coordinated in ways to maximize the efficacy and efficiency of a system. Through an analytical categorization...

A Formative Evaluation of the Mount Kilimanjaro Roots & Shoots Community-based Conservation Project: Re-integrating participatory approaches into the program

Gorczyca, Angela
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 1310532 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The purpose of my Masters project was to conduct a formative evaluation of the Mount Kilimanjaro Roots & Shoots Community-based Conservation Partnership Project (Conservation Site) in Northeast Tanzania. After one year of operation in 2008, Roots and Shoots staff sought to assess the Conservation Site’s initial progress in providing demonstration workshops on tree nurseries, beekeeping, fuel-efficient stoves, and fish farming to the students, teachers and members of the Mweka Village. A formative evaluation was especially pertinent because Roots & Shoots made significant changes to the original Community-based initiative for the Conservation Site. Due to a limitation in human and financial resources, Roots & Shoots did not conduct a Community assessment before the Conservation Site was established in 2007. I implemented a participatory survey that focused on three research questions: Awareness/Adoption of selected sustainable practices, Conservation Site Awareness/Participation and Conservation Site Effectiveness/Recommendations. The 223 participants were selected using the snowball method. I coded the responses to the questions in the NVivo8 qualitative data software program and calculated the frequencies. Chi-square analyses were conducted to test for significant associations between participant demographics and environmental behavior. The results of this evaluation indicate the Conservation Site’s limited progress in engaging the Community and promoting the adoption of the four activities. Beekeeping and tree nurseries were more familiar and established...

Citizen-Based Sea Turtle Conservation Across the Developing-Developed World Divide

Cornwell, Myriah Lynne
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.59%

This dissertation research explores participatory sea turtle conservation monitoring through a comparison of two case studies, one in North Carolina (NC), USA and the other in Baja California Sur (BCS), Mexico. Participatory approaches in conservation management can supplement state capacity as well as strengthen the involvement of citizens in environmental governance and knowledge production. Despite scholarship challenging the validity of the categories of developing and developed nations, this categorical assumptions derived from this binary world divide continue to inform conservation, and theoretical vocabularies for local roles in conservation management. In developed nations, participatory conservation management is framed through the broader administrative rationalism discourse, and is identified as volunteer conservation or citizen science. In developing nations, participatory conservation management is approached through the discourse of biodiversity and the threats human society poses to it, and is identified through community-based processes of conservation stewardship. The two case studies analyzed in this dissertation serve to interrogate the ways in which these distinct discourses influence outcomes, and consider what may be obscured or overlooked due to discursive constraints.

Conducting ethnographic research in each case study site...

Finding Opportunities for Pre-Compliance Species Conservation in North Carolina

Whelan, Andrew
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 25/04/2013 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.56%
POLICY QUESTION: Which pre-compliance conservation strategies have the greatest potential to conserve multiple unprotected species in North Carolina? BACKGROUND: Pre-compliance conservation involves landowners working cooperatively with conservation managers to conserve imperiled yet unprotected species. The Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) wants to pursue pre-compliance measures in North Carolina. Unfortunately, species require different mitigation strategies on the basis of the threats they faced and their ecological characteristics. EDF is unclear which strategies could potentially conserve the greatest number of species. This project analyzes different conservation strategies on their ability to protect multiple species simultaneously in several geographic regions of North Carolina. It hopes to provide a tool to aid EDF in its ability to optimize preemptive species conservation. RECOMMENDED CONSERVATION STRATEGIES: EDF should consider the following criteria when deciding between pre-compliance strategies in each region: • Address the primary threats or stressors facing populations in the region • Align with the ecological characteristics of the species in the region • Align with the incentives, motivations, and opportunities of the region’s landowners Accounting for these criteria...

An Information Systems Strategy for the Environmental Conservation Community

Barker, Kristin
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 477565 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
As the cause of environmental conservation emerges as a global priority, the need for a practical information systems strategy shared among conservation organizations becomes imperative. Historically, researchers and practitioners in conservation have met their own information management and analysis needs with inevitable variation in methodology, semantics, data formats and quality. Consequently, conservation organizations have been unable to systematically assess conditions and set informed priorities at various scales, measure performance of their projects and improve practices through adaptive management. Moreover, the demands on conservation are changing such that the bottom-up approach to information systems will become an increasing constraint to effective environmental problem solving. Where we have historically focused on the protection of “important” places and species and more recently “biodiversity,” conservation is moving to a systems view, specifically ecosystem-based management, where relationships and process are as important as the individual elements. In parallel, awareness of the human dependency on functioning natural systems is on the rise and with it the need to explicitly value ecosystem services and inform tradeoffs. Climate change requires conservation to develop dynamic adaptation scenarios at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Finally...

State-level incentives for promoting private land conservation in North Carolina

Selbst, Elizabeth
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 26/04/2012 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
Private land conservation confers a number of public benefits, including ecosystem services, access to recreation, and protection of natural and cultural heritage elements. North Carolina’s population is expected to grow by more than 30% by 2030, creating new urgency for conservation priorities such as watershed and open space protection around the state’s growing population centers. State budget cuts resulted in historically low levels of public grant funding for nonprofit land conservation in FY 2011-2012. However, depressed land markets represent a significant window of opportunity for land trusts to acquire and protect ecologically significant properties from development. Federal, state, and local governments employ a variety of incentive programs to encourage private citizens to donate real property to nonprofit land trusts. Following Eugene Bardach’s method for qualitative policy analysis, I use four criteria - (1) strengthening partnerships between DENR and nonprofit conservation organizations, (2) minimizing costs to state agencies, (3) supporting the state’s long-term economic development goals, and (4) protecting DENR’s authority to oversee future conservation initiatives - to evaluate seven options for increasing private conservation in FY 2012-2103 in North Carolina: (a) property tax rebates...

State-level incentives for promoting private land conservation in North Carolina

Selbst, Elizabeth
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 26/04/2012 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
Private land conservation confers a number of public benefits, including ecosystem services, access to recreation, and protection of natural and cultural heritage elements. North Carolina’s population is expected to grow by more than 30% by 2030, creating new urgency for conservation priorities such as watershed and open space protection around the state’s growing population centers. State budget cuts resulted in historically low levels of public grant funding for nonprofit land conservation in FY 2011-2012. However, depressed land markets represent a significant window of opportunity for land trusts to acquire and protect ecologically significant properties from development. Federal, state, and local governments employ a variety of incentive programs to encourage private citizens to donate real property to nonprofit land trusts. Following Eugene Bardach’s method for qualitative policy analysis, I use four criteria - (1) strengthening partnerships between DENR and nonprofit conservation organizations, (2) minimizing costs to state agencies, (3) supporting the state’s long-term economic development goals, and (4) protecting DENR’s authority to oversee future conservation initiatives - to evaluate seven options for increasing private conservation in FY 2012-2103 in North Carolina: (a) property tax rebates...