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A transição para uma matriz energética limpa : os avanços na tecnologia solar; The transition towards a clean energy matrix : the advances in solar technology

Kelly Rosana Suzigan
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/02/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
As reservas mundiais de petróleo, carvão e gás natural podem acomodar maior crescimento no uso destas fontes de energia sobre as próximas décadas, mas agrava os enormes desafios colocados pelas alterações climáticas. A produção e o consumo energético de energia têm grande impacto na sociedade e na natureza, e o uso dos combustíveis fósseis é claramente insustentável com consequências potencialmente catastróficas. Desta forma, a necessidade de transição para uma matriz energética mais limpa é evidente, podendo ser observada através do redirecionamento da política energética de algumas das nações líderes do mundo. Dentre as tecnologias energéticas limpas, a tecnologia solar tem se destacado no cenário mundial, e por hipótese a energia solar deverá ser a principal fonte para geração de eletricidade no futuro. Esta dissertação pretende contribuir com a investigação acerca do desenvolvimento e perspectivas da energia solar no mundo, trazendo alguma luz à controvérsia sobre a possibilidade de superação do paradigma energético baseado na combustão de fósseis a tempo de se evitar um possível desastre ambiental. O presente trabalho divide-se em três partes. A primeira parte trata da necessidade da transição da matriz energética baseada em uso de combustíveis fósseis para uma baseada em energia limpa...

New second-stage concentrators (XX SMS) for parabolic primaries; Comparison with conventional parabolic trough concentrators

Canavarro, Diogo; Collares-Pereira, Manuel; Chaves, Julio
Fonte: Solar Energy, Elsevier Publicador: Solar Energy, Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.03%
Parabolic Trough concentrators are the predominant Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technology today. However this technology is facing substantial challenge from the need to reduce costs and/or increase performance. This paper address this challenge by exploring the room left from the fact this type of optic falls short from the theoretical limits of concentration, proposing a new solution enabling the design of larger troughs with higher concentration or larger acceptance angles, through the use of second stage concentration of a novel type. This new optic is designed with the Simultaneous Multiple Surface (SMS) method for two reflective (X) surfaces (XX SMS) Winston et al. (2005) – of which the primary is approximately parabolic – using a different assignation of the edge rays in order to significantly reduce the Fresnel losses around the glass cover of the evacuated tubes commonly used in CSP applications. To analyze the merits of this new optic, two different comparisons are made. The first one with the SMS Helmet concentrator through the calculation of CAP (Concentration–Acceptance Product) and the second one with a commercial Parabolic Trough concentrator, using an estimate of the total amount of collected energy (kW h) for one particular location...

Simultaneous Multiple Surface method for Linear Fresnel concentrators with tubular receiver

Canavarro, Diogo; Chaves, Julio; Collares-Pereira, Manuel
Fonte: Solar Energy, Elsevier Publicador: Solar Energy, Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.06%
Linear Fresnel concentrators (LFR) are known for their potential cost-effectiveness, reliability and wide range of possible solar applications. However, this technology is still facing the challenge of increasing its overall performance, especially in the Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) field where Parabolic Trough and Central Tower Receiver concentrators are the predominant solutions. In order to increase the performance of conventional LFR concentrators it is necessary to increase their optical performance as these concentrators are still far from the theoretical limits of concentration. This paper presents a new Fresnel concentrator designed with the Simultaneous Multiple Surface (SMS) method for two reflective (X) surfaces (Fresnel XX SMS) and with a tubular receiver. This design also promotes a good light uniformity on the receiver. A comparison is made between this new Fresnel XX SMS and two present day available concentrators (a Fresnel with CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator) and a PT (Parabolic Trough) concentrator), as well as a calculation of the total amount of collected energy (kW h), before thermal losses, for a particular location, Faro (Portugal). Furthermore, a new definition of CAP (Concentration Acceptance Product) is proposed...

Central de produção de energia eléctrica a partir de energia solar térmica

Silva, Manuel António Pimenta da
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /12/2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.21%
O desenvolvimento económico e mudança nos hábitos estão a causar um aumento contínuo no consumo de energia eléctrica em Portugal e no Mundo. Na Europa estima-se um aumento do consumo de 25% até 2013. Ao mesmo tempo, as fontes de energia fósseis estão a diminuir e existe uma crescente preocupação global com o meio ambiente. Está provado que Portugal tem um enorme potencial em energia solar, logo, o Sistema Termoeléctrico de Concentração Solar representa uma fonte confiável e sustentável de energia. Sem o CSP, Portugal só pode colmatar o aumento do consumo estimado com energia eléctrica despachável proveniente da importação, hidroeléctrica ou o aumento da capacidade instalada das fontes térmicas. Todas estas fontes apresentam problemas sociais e ambientais. A tese aborda ainda o princípio de funcionamento, os diferentes conceitos tecnológicos, os custos e a viabilidade do CSP em Portugal. A tecnologia aconselhada para Portugal para a construção de uma primeira central CSP é a de concentradores parabólicos. O investimento na energia solar térmica eléctrica é mais elevado do que o para as centrais eléctricas alimentadas a recursos fósseis, no entanto, os seus custos de exploração são consideravelmente mais baixos...

Planeamento de curto prazo de sistemas de energia solar usando técnicas de otimização robusta

Silva, Hugo Alexandre Fernandes dos Santos e
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /12/2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
Esta dissertação aborda o problema de planeamento de curto prazo de sistemas de aproveitamento de energia solar por central de concentração solar térmica. O objetivo desta abordagem é o de propor uma nova metodologia baseada em programação linear inteira mista e otimização robusta para resolver o problema de planeamento, de forma a maximizar o lucro inerente à exploração da central de concentração solar térmica, através da otimização da produção de energia elétrica em ambiente de mercado. Para melhorar a produtividade operacional da central de concentração solar térmica durante períodos de ausência de radiação solar, sistemas de armazenamento de energia e de ‘backup’ são considerados na abordagem ao planeamento. O problema envolve o tratamento de três considerações fundamentais que justificam à necessidade de utilização da nova metodologia. As considerações respeitam à formalização de: i) restrições de rampa; ii) custos variáveis e custos de arranque do sistema de ‘‘backup’’; iii) restrições de emissões poluentes do sistema de ‘backup’. A necessidade destas considerações advém da mitigação indispensável de desgastes de equipamentos envolvidos na produção de energia elétrica. Assim...

Wind-CSP short-term coordination by MILP approach

Pousinho, Hugo Miguel Inácio; Silva, Hugo Alexandre Fernandes dos Santos e; Mendes, Victor Manuel Fernandes; Collares-Pereira, M.; Cabrita, C. Pereira
Fonte: Institution of Engineering and Technology Publicador: Institution of Engineering and Technology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
This paper is on the maximization of total profit in a day-ahead market for a price-taker producer needing a short-term scheduling for wind power plants coordination with concentrated solar power plants, having thermal energy storage systems. The optimization approach proposed for the maximization of profit is a mixed-integer linear programming problem. The approach considers not only transmission grid constraints, but also technical operating constraints on both wind and concentrated solar power plants. Then, an improved short-term scheduling coordination is provided due to the more accurate modelling presented in this paper. Computer simulation results based on data for the Iberian wind and concentrated solar power plants illustrate the coordination benefits and show the effectiveness of the approach.

Sustainability of Solar Electricity : The Role of Endogenous Resource Substitution and Market Mediated Responses

Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Satija, Gaurav; Zhao, Fu
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
This study seeks to understand how materials scarcity and competition from alternative uses affects the potential for widespread deployment of solar electricity in the long run, in light of related technology and policy uncertainties. Simulation results of a computable partial equilibrium model predict a considerable expansion of solar electricity generation worldwide in the near decades, as generation technologies improve and production costs fall. Increasing materials scarcity becomes a significant constraint for further expansion of solar generation, which grows considerably slower in the second half of the coming century. Solar generation capacity increases with higher energy demand, squeezing consumption in industries that compete for scarce minerals. Stringent climate policies hamper growth in intermittent solar photovoltaics backed by fossil fuel powered plants, but lead to a small increase in non-intermittent concentrated solar power technology. By the end of the coming century, solar electricity remains a marginal source of global electricity supply even in the world of higher energy demand...

A high-flux solar simulator system for investigating the influence of concentrated solar radiation on turbulent reacting flows

Dong, X.; Ashman, P.; Nathan, G.
Fonte: Australian Solar Council; online Publicador: Australian Solar Council; online
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
Simulations of the output from a high flux solar simulator are presented for a low cost system, designed to assess the influence of Concentrated Solar Radiation (CSR) on turblent flows. This radiant heat source comprises 30 X 6 kW Metal Halide lamsp, each positioned at the focus of an ellipsoidal reflector (3m focal length) and arrayed to provide 54 kW of radiative power (180 kWe). The simulator will be used in combination with a water-cooled heat sink to avoid background radiation from walls. In contrast to previous simulator designs that focus only on a single point, these lamps can be configured to focus along a line to provide a nominally homogeneous radiant flux within the targeted volume. A model, programmed in Matlab, is used to assess and optimize the radiant heat flux profile for different arrangements of the lamp array. A comparison of costs with previous simulator designs is also presented.; http://solar.org.au/solar2012/conference-papers/; X. Dong, P.J. Ashman and G.J. Nathan

Adequacy of generation system with large-scale deployment of solar power and energy storage

Gafurov, Tokhir
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.27%
Solar power and energy storage technologies are expected to have a large contribution in future electricity supply mix. This implies their significant impact on generation system adequacy (GSA) and creates the need for their inclusion into reliability studies. The most precise approach for performing such analyses, particularly in the presence of time-dependent power sources and complex operating policies, is the sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) technique. The general objective of this thesis was to develop new or adapt the existing models for creating chronological time series of power production/consumption from solar power and energy storage plants that would allow incorporating the given power sources into the SMC-based adequacy assessments. The final models had to be reasonably simplified to reduce the overall calculation time. The simplification also concerned the minimization of the required specific knowledge and input data. To achieve the goal of the thesis, the following four tasks were completed. First, a solar radiation model (SRM) was developed to create synthetic values of the hourly total, beam and diffuse radiation for single or multiple locations. SRM represents a set of single-site univariate stochastic algorithms and other auxiliary models which deploy the clearness index as a primary predictor. The SRM extension for multiple locations...

Clean Technology Fund Investment Plan Approved for Concentrated Solar Power in the MENA Region

Coma-Cunill, Roger; Govindarajalu, Chandra; Pariente-David, Silvia; Walters, Jonathan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.19%
The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) clean technology fund investment plan proposes co-financing of $750 million and mobilizes an additional $4.85 billion from other sources to accelerate deployment of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) by investing in the CSP expansion programs of Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia. Specifically, the Investment Plan will support MENA countries to achieve their development goals of energy security, industrial growth and diversification, and regional integration. The international energy agency has identified concentrating solar power (CSP) as one of the key technologies that 'are at the heart of the energy technology revolution because they can make the largest contributions to reducing greenhouse gas emissions.' However, CSP (like most new technologies) has higher costs and risks than current technologies. Therefore, international collaboration is required to accelerate the global deployment of technologies like CSP through targeted schemes providing positive incentives for their adoption at scale.

Development of Local Supply Chain : A Critical Link for Concentrated Solar Power in India

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.19%
Amid the success of Solar Photovoltaic (PV) projects in India, Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technology also provides a compelling case for support by the government as among solar technologies; CSP is the only techno-economically viable option at present that provides a storage option for dispatchable and dependable solar energy. Furthermore, the conversion of solar to steam is a relatively high-efficiency process versus the conversion efficiency of PV. This process can effectively supplement fossil fuels and renewable fuel, such as biomass, and thus contribute to the overall energy security of the country. The specific objective of the study is to assess the potential of India's industries to set up a manufacturing base to produce CSP technology components and equipment. The study assesses competitive positioning and the potential of Indian companies in the manufacturing of important CSP components. Various analysis models were prepared for the analysis, and the details have been explained in the elaborated version of the report. The report also proposes an action plan to help develop this potential and evaluate the resulting economic benefits. This report includes the following activities: i) assessment of the competitive position of local industries to support the development of CSP technologies in India; ii) evaluation of short...

Development of Local Supply Chain : The Missing Link for Concentrated Solar Power Projects in India

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.29%
Amid the success of Solar Photovoltaic (PV) projects in India, Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technology also provides a compelling case for support by the government as among solar technologies; CSP is the only techno-economically viable option at present that provides a storage option for dispatchable and dependable solar energy. Furthermore, the conversion of solar to steam is a relatively high-efficiency process versus the conversion efficiency of PV. This process can effectively supplement fossil fuels and renewable fuel, such as biomass, and thus contribute to the overall energy security of the country. The specific objective of the study is to assess the potential of India's industries to set up a manufacturing base to produce CSP technology components and equipment. The study assesses competitive positioning and the potential of Indian companies in the manufacturing of important CSP components. Various analysis models were prepared for the analysis, and the details have been explained in the elaborated version of the report. The report also proposes an action plan to help develop this potential and evaluate the resulting economic benefits. This report includes the following activities: i) assessment of the competitive position of local industries to support the development of CSP technologies in India; ii) evaluation of short...

Small scale hybrid concentrated solar power - biomass system. Development, time dependent modelling and validation.

TORTORA, EILEEN
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.19%
Proceeding from the sustainable development principle and the current energy issues, in the present work a small-scale fully renewable power plant was designed, modelled in a time-dependent environment and validated. The plant is design in order to produce both thermal and electric power either in on- or off-grid configuration. With respect to the state of the art, the power plant is composed by standard and well-known technologies. The novelties brought with the present study are entailed in the arrangement and size of the technologies themselves. Thus the selected parabolic trough solar field is a small size one, i.e. 1,2 MW, on the contrary of the usual multi-MW design. Moreover, the solar section is co-powered with a biomass furnace in place of the typical fossil fuel power generators. Finally, a steam engine is used in a saturated steam Rankine cycle substituting the most common configuration based on steam turbine and superheated steam cycle. In order to properly evaluate the plant performances, a time-dependent simulation tool was used, allowing to take into account the meteorological variations during a one year period, which has a direct influence on the solar field, affecting the whole system behaviour. Three different working configurations were proposed...

Análise dos sistemas termo-solares de produção de energia eléctrica

Ferreira, Sérgio Fernando Oliveira
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico do Porto Publicador: Instituto Politécnico do Porto
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
Actualmente a humanidade depara-se com um dos grandes desafios que é o de efectivar a transição para um futuro sustentável. Logo, o sector da energia tem um papel chave neste processo de transição, com principal destaque para a energia solar, tendo em conta que é uma das fontes de energias renováveis mais promissoras, podendo no médiolongo prazo, tornar-se uma das principais fontes de energia no panorama energético dos países. A energia solar térmica de concentração (CSP), apesar não ser ainda conhecida em Portugal, possui um potencial relevante em regiões específicas do nosso território. Logo, o objectivo deste trabalho é efectuar uma análise detalhada dos sistemas solares de concentração para produção de energia eléctrica, abordando temas, tais como, o potencial da energia solar, a definição do processo de concentração solar, a descrição das tecnologias existentes, o estado da arte do CSP, mercado CSP no mundo, e por último, a análise da viabilidade técnico-económica da instalação de uma central tipo torre solar de 20 MW, em Portugal. Para que este objectivo fosse exequível, recorreu-se à utilização de um software de simulação termodinâmica de centrais CSP, denominado por Solar Advisor Model (SAM). O caso prático foi desenvolvido para a cidade de Faro...

Measuring and estimating solar direct normal Irradiance using LIDAR, solar station and satellite data in qatar

Bachour, Dunia Antoine; Fernández Sánchez, Enrique
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
La medición precisa de la Irradiancia Directa Normal (DNI) es esencial para el diseño e implementación de proyectos CSP (energía solar concentrada). Qatar cuenta con abundante radiación solar; por lo tanto, el aprovechamiento de la misma es de gran interés en esta región, en particular para sistemas de concentración solar. Antes de embarcarse en dichos proyectos, se debe contar con datos de irradiancia directa normal confiables y de buena calidad. Actualmente, los mapas existentes de radiación solar en Qatar basados en mediciones a nivel de la superficie terrestre son rudimentarios. Los mapas solares basados en datos de satélite proveen una mayor cobertura espacial, pero con resoluciones espacial y temporal relativamente pobres, además de que los datos satelitales de radiaion solar aun no han sido calibrados con mediciones directas en Qatar, por lo que no proveen valores muy precisos de DNI. Por esto, datos confiables basados en mediciones directas con altas resoluciones son necesarios en regiones como Qatar, con medio ambiente desértico arenoso y con altas concentraciones de aerosoles. Dependiendo de su composición, un aerosol puede dispersar o absorber DNI. Entre más aerosoles hay presentes en el aire, mayor es la dispersión y/o absorción del componente directo de la radiación solar...

Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Power Plants: Paving the Way for Thermal Solar

Alqahtani, Bandar Jubran
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%

Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Power Plants (ISCCs), composed of a Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant and a Natural Gas-fired Combined Cycle (NGCC) power plant, have been recently introduced in the power generation sector as a technology with the potential to simultaneously reduce fossil fuel usage and the integration costs of solar power. This study quantifies the economic benefits of an ISCC power plant relative to a stand-alone CSP with energy storage, and a NGCC plant. A combination of tools is used to estimate the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) and the cost of carbon abatement (CoA) for CSP, NGCC and ISCC technologies under different natural gas prices, and at several locations experiencing different ambient temperatures and solar resources. Results show that an ISCC with up to 10-15% of nameplate capacity from solar energy can be cost effective as a dispatchable electricity generation resource. Integrating the CSP into an ISCC reduces the LCOE of solar-generated electricity by 35-40% relative to a stand-alone CSP plant, and provides the additional benefit of dispatchability. An ISCC also outperforms a CSP with energy storage in terms of LCOE and CoA. The current LCOE of an ISCC is lower than that of a stand-alone NGCC when fuel price reaches 13.5 $/MMBtu...

Nitriding VI-group metals (Cr, Mo and W) in stream of NH3 gas under concentrated solar irradiation in a solar furnace at PSA (Plataforma Solar de Almería)

Oliveira, F. A. Costa; Rosa, Luís Guerra; Fernandes, Jorge Cruz; Rodriguez, José; Canadas, Inmaculada; Magalhães, Teresa; Shohoji, Nobumitsu
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
Carbides and nitrides of d-group transition metals are classified as refractory hard material and their industrial importance has been recognized for long. In recent years, unique functionalities including catalytic function and superconductivity are discovered for this group of materials to raise serious attention of materials researchers and engineers to refractory carbides and nitrides as novel functional materials. Synthesis of refractory carbides and nitrides demands high temperature reaction route to consume considerable amount of electricity or gas in conventional industrial process. In view of saving cost of such conventional energy, feasibility of using concentrated solar beam as heat source for synthesizing carbide and nitride has been investigated by the authors since 1997. After verifying usefulness of concentrated solar beam as heat source for carbide forming reactions, similar attempts of employing concentrated solar beam as heat source for nitride synthesis were initiated recently. After brief experimental verification of nitride synthesis for IVa group metal, Ti, and Vg group metals, V, Nb and Ta, in N2 gas environment under irradiation with concentrated solar beam to 2000 °C, the authors decided to undertake nitride synthesis of VIa group metals...

Reverse osmosis powered by concentrating solar power (CSP): a case study for Trapani, Sicily

Ahmed, Mahran K. A.; Cardoso, João P.; Mendes, J. Farinha; Casimiro, Sergio
Fonte: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia Publicador: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.96%
The objective of this paper is to analyse the physical performance of two technologies in a water and electricity co-generation scheme: Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant coupled to a Reverse Osmosis (RO) unit for a location in the city of Trapani, in southern Italy. The modelled system is compared with the results of another study [2], in which a Multi-Effect Desalination (MED) is powered by a CSP plant for the same location in Italy, using as reference an existing stand-alone gas powered MED plant located at Trapani [3] (which has operated until very recently). The overall aim is to assess and compare these two cogeneration schemes, using as reference the existing MED plant. This work was conducted using as the main simulation tool: the System Advisor Model (SAM) developed by the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); a recent upgrade to SAM made available to this work through Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia I.P. (LNEG); and the Reverse Osmosis System Analysis (ROSA) developed by the Dow Chemical Company. A technical visit to a real commercial RO plant in the south of Portugal (Alvor) was conducted, and the data gathered was used in the validation of the ROSA model. The results for the Trapani case study show that the CSP-RO arrangement has the capability to produce ~50% of the total production of the full scale plant at Trapani...

Efficiency and costs of different concentrated solar power plant configurations for sites in Gauteng and the Northern Cape, South Africa

Telsnig,Thomas; Eltrop,Ludger; Winkler,Hartmut; Fahl,Ulrich
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.15%
Concentrated solar power (CSP) plants can play a major role in the future South African electricity mix. Today the Independent Power Producer (IPP) Procurement Programme aims to facilitate renewable energy projects to access the South African energy market. In spite of this incentive programme, the future role of CSP plants in South Africa has yet to be defined. Using hourly irradiance data, we present a new method to calculate the expected yield of different parabolic trough plant configurations at a site in each of Gauteng and the Northern Cape, South Africa. We also provide cost estimates of the main plant components and an economic assessment that can be used to demonstrate the feasibility of solar thermal power projects at different sites. We show that the technical configurations, as well as the resulting cost of electricity, are heavily dependent on the location of the plant and how the electricity so generated satisfies demand. Today, lev-elised electricity costs for a CSP plant without storage were found to be between 101 and 1.52 ZAR2010/kWh el, assuming a flexible electricity demand structure. A CSP configuration with Limited Storage produces electricity at costs between 1.39 and 1.90 ZAR2010/kWh el, whereas that with Extended Storage costs between 1.86 and 2.27 ZAR2010/kWh el. We found that until 2040 a decrease in investment costs results in generating costs between 0.73 ZAR2010/kWh el for a CSP plant without storage in Upington and 1.16 ZAR2010/ kWh el for a configuration with Extended Storage in Pretoria. These costs cannot compete...

Harnessing Nigeria's abundant solar energy potential using the DESERTEC model

Akuru,Udochukwu B; Okoro,Ogbonnaya I; Maduko,Chibuike F
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.12%
The DESERTEC project, a European Union (EU) initiative to harness solar energy by means of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) from Africa for use in Europe, shows the enormous potential that exists in alternative energy sources for the sub-region once there is political will. The Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Corporation (TREC), a network of scientists and politicians who have taken it upon themselves to solve Europe's energy problem using sun from Africa, conducted three studies which evaluated the potential of renewable energy resources in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), the expected needs for water and power in EU-MENA between now and 2050 and issues relating to the construction of an electricity transmission grid connecting the EU and MENA (EU-MENA-Connection), with a formula to turn the North African desert sun into electricity and transport same to Europe. This paper harnesses the TREC fact-finding studies in order to estimate how much the same ideas can be applied in many other parts of the world, Nigeria in particular. Investigation reveals that this association exists with huge potentials for an energy-starved country like Nigeria in harnessing her abundant hot sun in the north, which could go a long way in meeting the energy needs in that part of the country and beyond. Other benefits include unlimited supplies of clean electricity...