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## Learning Organizations and the Paradigm of Complexity: the Work Design Approach

Dudziak, Elisabeth Adriana; Sznelwar, Laerte Idal; Plonski, Guilherme Ary
Fonte: The International Ergonomics Association; Maui Publicador: The International Ergonomics Association; Maui
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.95%
The paper presents a framework for organizational design and management based on a new methodological approach. It is built upon two topics: learning organization and complexity theory. Concepts, characteristics, and implications of the complexity theory as applied to learning organization study are presented, considering work system design as a human process of action and decision making. They are conceived as a nonlinear dynamic systems, self-organized and self-regulated organizations, built upon relationships, learning and innovation processes. The complex approach of organizations allows the deepening of questions about organization theory. It involves the rethinking of the way organizations and work are studied, defined and built.; Programa disponível em: http://www.humanicsergosystems.com/ODAMVIIITechnicalProgram.pdf

## As organizações e a complexidade: um estudo dos sistemas de gestão da qualidade.; The organizations and complexity: a study of the quality management systems.

Giovannini, Fabrizio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
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## Modelo de gestão não-linear: a teoria do caos e complexidade aplicada à gestão de empresas de alto crescimento em ambientes dinâmicos e imprevisíveis; Non linear management model: the chaos and complexity theory aplied to the management of high growth companies operating in dynamic and unforeseeable environment

Anselmo, Estevao
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Este estudo aborda a aplicação da teoria do caos e complexidade na gestão de empresas que operam em ambientes dinâmicos e imprevisíveis. O objetivo geral do estudo consiste no desenvolvimento conceitual de um modelo de gestão não-linear, tendo como base os conceitos da teoria do caos e complexidade. Os objetivos específicos consistem em avaliar o grau de ajustamento dos princípios e das técnicas de gestão utilizados pelas empresas que operam em ambientes dinâmicos e imprevisíveis ao modelo de gestão não-linear proposto, e como esse grau de ajustamento se relaciona com o desempenho dessas empresas a longo prazo. O método de pesquisa utilizado é o do estudo de casos múltiplos com replicação teórica. O estudo analisa três pares de empresas pertencentes aos setores de construção pesada, softwares de gestão empresarial e cosméticos sendo que, em cada par, compara os modelos de gestão e os desempenhos da empresa nacional líder e de uma empresa nacional comparável. A análise dos casos evidenciou que em cada setor estudado as empresas apresentam graus diferenciados de ajustamento ao modelo de gestão não-linear proposto, e que aquelas com maiores graus de ajustamento ao modelo apresentam melhores desempenhos em termos de crescimento das vendas. O estudo conclui que...

## Um estudo sobre aplicações da teoria do caos e complexidade à gestão das cadeias de suprimentos; A study regarding applications of the chaos and complexity theory on supply chain managemen

Olivo, Rodolfo Leandro de Faria
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.03%

## Teoria da complexidade e contabilidade: estudo da utilização da aprendizagem baseada em problemas como abordagem complexa no ensino da contabilidade; Complexity theory and accounting: problem -based learning as a complex approach in accounting teaching

Benjamim Junior, Valdomiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.95%

## O desenvolvimento local a partir da teoria da complexidade: uma abordagem fenomenológica; The local development from the complexity theory: a phenomenological approach.

Segatto, Mayara
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
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## Dynamic Systems (Complexity) theory as a new conceptual model for researching PBL in dental education

Townsend, G.; Kim, M.; Sankey, K.
Fonte: Blackwell Munksgaard Publicador: Blackwell Munksgaard
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Although problem-based learning (PBL) was introduced into dental education some 20 years ago, there have been relatively few well-designed studies carried out to clarify whether, how or why it works in a dental context. This paper introduces the Dynamic Systems (Complexity) theory as a new and potentially productive theoretical framework for researching PBL in dental education. This framework emphasises the importance of emergent self-organisation, perception and brain plasticity in learning. In this paper, a brief overview of the history of PBL in dentistry is presented and then the fundamentals of a Dynamic Systems Approach (DSA) are explained, drawing on two recently published papers advocating the DSA in medical education and teacher education. We focus on three key points related to this new approach: emergent self-organisation rather than simple construction of knowledge; the notion that perception drives the learning process; and the brain as the substrate of all learning. The paper also suggests how the DSA can help us move forward, both in terms of the future application of PBL in dental education and also in relation to posing new types of research questions.; G. C. Townsend, M. Kim and D. Sankey

## On P vs. NP, Geometric Complexity Theory, Explicit Proofs and the Complexity Barrier

Mulmuley, Ketan D.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.95%
Geometric complexity theory (GCT) is an approach to the P vs. NP and related problems. This article gives its complexity theoretic overview without assuming any background in algebraic geometry or representation theory.; Comment: 65 pages

## A complexity theory of constructible functions and sheaves

Basu, Saugata
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In this paper we introduce constructible analogs of the discrete complexity classes $\mathbf{VP}$ and $\mathbf{VNP}$ of sequences of functions. The functions in the new definitions are constructible functions on $\mathbb{R}^n$ or $\mathbb{C}^n$. We define a class of sequences of constructible functions that play a role analogous to that of $\mathbf{VP}$ in the more classical theory. The class analogous to $\mathbf{VNP}$ is defined using Euler integration. We discuss several examples, develop a theory of completeness, and pose a conjecture analogous to the $\mathbf{VP}$ vs. $\mathbf{VNP}$ conjecture in the classical case. In the second part of the paper we extend the notions of complexity classes to sequences of constructible sheaves over $\mathbb{R}^n$ (or its one point compactification). We introduce a class of sequences of simple constructible sheaves, that could be seen as the sheaf-theoretic analog of the Blum-Shub-Smale class $\mathbf{P}_{\mathbb{R}}$. We also define a hierarchy of complexity classes of sheaves mirroring the polynomial hierarchy, $\mathbf{PH}_{\mathbb{R}}$, in the B-S-S theory. We prove a singly exponential upper bound on the topological complexity of the sheaves in this hierarchy mirroring a similar result in the B-S-S setting. We obtain as a result an algorithm with singly exponential complexity for a sheaf-theoretic variant of the real quantifier elimination problem. We pose the natural sheaf-theoretic analogs of the classical $\mathbf{P}$ vs. $\mathbf{NP}$ question...

## An overview of mathematical issues arising in the Geometric complexity theory approach to VP v.s. VNP

Buergisser, Peter; Landsberg, J. M.; Manivel, Laurent; Weyman, Jerzy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.92%
We discuss the geometry of orbit closures and the asymptotic behavior of Kronecker coefficients in the context of the Geometric Complexity Theory program to prove a variant of Valiant's algebraic analog of the P not equal to NP conjecture. We also describe the precise separation of complexity classes that their program proposes to demonstrate.; Comment: 29 pages, v2: role of symmetric Kronecker coefficients explained

## Geometric Complexity Theory VI: the flip via saturated and positive integer programming in representation theory and algebraic geometry

Mulmuley, Ketan D.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This article belongs to a series on geometric complexity theory (GCT), an approach to the P vs. NP and related problems through algebraic geometry and representation theory. The basic principle behind this approach is called the flip. In essence, it reduces the negative hypothesis in complexity theory (the lower bound problems), such as the P vs. NP problem in characteristic zero, to the positive hypothesis in complexity theory (the upper bound problems): specifically, to showing that the problems of deciding nonvanishing of the fundamental structural constants in representation theory and algebraic geometry, such as the well known plethysm constants--or rather certain relaxed forms of these decision probelms--belong to the complexity class P. In this article, we suggest a plan for implementing the flip, i.e., for showing that these relaxed decision problems belong to P. This is based on the reduction of the preceding complexity-theoretic positive hypotheses to mathematical positivity hypotheses: specifically, to showing that there exist positive formulae--i.e. formulae with nonnegative coefficients--for the structural constants under consideration and certain functions associated with them. These turn out be intimately related to the similar positivity properties of the Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials and the multiplicative structural constants of the canonical (global crystal) bases in the theory of Drinfeld-Jimbo quantum groups. The known proofs of these positivity properties depend on the Riemann hypothesis over finite fields and the related results. Thus the reduction here...

## Geometric Complexity Theory II: Towards explicit obstructions for embeddings among class varieties

Mulmuley, Ketan D; Sohoni, Milind
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In part I we reduced the arithmetic (characteristic zero) version of the P \not \subseteq NP conjecture to the problem of showing that a variety associated with the complexity class NP cannot be embedded in the variety associated the complexity class P. We call these class varieties. In this paper, this approach is developed further, reducing the nonexistence problems, such as the P vs. NP and related lower bound problems, to existence problems: specifically to proving existence of obstructions to such embeddings among class varieties. It gives two results towards explicit construction of such obstructions. The first result is a generalization of the Borel-Weil theorem to a class of orbit closures, which include class varieties. The recond result is a weaker form of a conjectured analogue of the second fundamental theorem of invariant theory for the class variety associated with the complexity class NC. These results indicate that the fundamental lower bound problems in complexity theory are intimately linked with explicit construction problems in algebraic geometry and representation theory.; Comment: 46 pages

## Complexity Theory for Operators in Analysis

Kawamura, Akitoshi; Cook, Stephen
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.99%
We propose an extension of the framework for discussing the computational complexity of problems involving uncountably many objects, such as real numbers, sets and functions, that can be represented only through approximation. The key idea is to use (a certain class of) string functions as names representing these objects. These are more expressive than infinite sequences, which served as names in prior work that formulated complexity in more restricted settings. An advantage of using string functions is that we can define their "size" in the way inspired by higher-type complexity theory. This enables us to talk about computation on string functions whose time or space is bounded polynomially in the input size, giving rise to more general analogues of the classes P, NP, and PSPACE. We also define NP- and PSPACE-completeness under suitable many-one reductions. Because our framework separates machine computation and semantics, it can be applied to problems on sets of interest in analysis once we specify a suitable representation (encoding). As prototype applications, we consider the complexity of functions (operators) on real numbers, real sets, and real functions. For example, the task of numerical algorithms for solving a certain class of differential equations is naturally viewed as an operator taking real functions to real functions. As there was no complexity theory for operators...

## Writing and Editing Complexity Theory: Tales and Tools

Hemaspaandra, Lane A.; Selman, Alan L.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Each researcher should have a full shelf---physical or virtual---of books on writing and editing prose. Though we make no claim to any special degree of expertise, we recently edited a book of complexity theory surveys (Complexity Theory Retrospective II, Springer-Verlag, 1997), and in doing so we were brought into particularly close contact with the subject of this article, and with a number of the excellent resources available to writers and editors. In this article, we list some of these resources, and we also relate some of the adventures we had as our book moved from concept to reality.; Comment: 11 pages. Will appear in the SIGACT News Complexity Theory Column

## Smoothed Complexity Theory

Bläser, Markus; Manthey, Bodo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.97%
Smoothed analysis is a new way of analyzing algorithms introduced by Spielman and Teng (J. ACM, 2004). Classical methods like worst-case or average-case analysis have accompanying complexity classes, like P and AvgP, respectively. While worst-case or average-case analysis give us a means to talk about the running time of a particular algorithm, complexity classes allows us to talk about the inherent difficulty of problems. Smoothed analysis is a hybrid of worst-case and average-case analysis and compensates some of their drawbacks. Despite its success for the analysis of single algorithms and problems, there is no embedding of smoothed analysis into computational complexity theory, which is necessary to classify problems according to their intrinsic difficulty. We propose a framework for smoothed complexity theory, define the relevant classes, and prove some first hardness results (of bounded halting and tiling) and tractability results (binary optimization problems, graph coloring, satisfiability). Furthermore, we discuss extensions and shortcomings of our model and relate it to semi-random models.; Comment: to be presented at MFCS 2012

## What can quantum optics say about computational complexity theory?

Rahimi-Keshari, Saleh; Lund, Austin P.; Ralph, Timothy C.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.95%
Considering the problem of sampling from the output photon-counting probability distribution of a linear-optical network for input Gaussian states, we obtain results that are of interest from both quantum theory and the computational complexity theory point of view. We derive a general formula for calculating the output probabilities, and by considering input thermal states, we show that the output probabilities are proportional to permanents of positive-semidefinite Hermitian matrices. It is believed that approximating permanents of complex matrices in general is a #P-hard problem. However, we show that these permanents can be approximated with an algorithm in BPP^NP complexity class, as there exists an efficient classical algorithm for sampling from the output probability distribution. We further consider input squeezed-vacuum states and discuss the complexity of sampling from the probability distribution at the output.; Comment: 5 pages, 1 figure

## Some Facets of Complexity Theory and Cryptography: A Five-Lectures Tutorial

Rothe, Jörg
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.93%
In this tutorial, selected topics of cryptology and of computational complexity theory are presented. We give a brief overview of the history and the foundations of classical cryptography, and then move on to modern public-key cryptography. Particular attention is paid to cryptographic protocols and the problem of constructing the key components of such protocols such as one-way functions. A function is one-way if it is easy to compute, but hard to invert. We discuss the notion of one-way functions both in a cryptographic and in a complexity-theoretic setting. We also consider interactive proof systems and present some interesting zero-knowledge protocols. In a zero-knowledge protocol one party can convince the other party of knowing some secret information without disclosing any bit of this information. Motivated by these protocols, we survey some complexity-theoretic results on interactive proof systems and related complexity classes.; Comment: 57 pages, 17 figures, Lecture Notes for the 11th Jyvaskyla Summer School

## Kolmogorov Complexity Theory over the Reals

Ziegler, Martin; Koolen, Wouter M.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.02%
Kolmogorov Complexity constitutes an integral part of computability theory, information theory, and computational complexity theory -- in the discrete setting of bits and Turing machines. Over real numbers, on the other hand, the BSS-machine (aka real-RAM) has been established as a major model of computation. This real realm has turned out to exhibit natural counterparts to many notions and results in classical complexity and recursion theory; although usually with considerably different proofs. The present work investigates similarities and differences between discrete and real Kolmogorov Complexity as introduced by Montana and Pardo (1998).

## Additive Complexity and the Roots of Polynomials Over Number Fields and p-adic Fields

Rojas, J. Maurice
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.97%
Consider any nonzero univariate polynomial with rational coefficients, presented as an elementary algebraic expression (using only integer exponents). Letting sigma(f) denotes the additive complexity of f, we show that the number of rational roots of f is no more than 15 + sigma(f)^2 (24.01)^{sigma(f)} sigma(f)!. This provides a sharper arithmetic analogue of earlier results of Dima Grigoriev and Jean-Jacques Risler, which gave a bound of C^{sigma(f)^2} for the number of real roots of f, for some constant C with 1