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Do pets reduce the likelihood of sudden unexplained death in epilepsy?

Terra, Vera C.; Sakamoto, Americo C.; Machado, Helio R.; Martins, Luciana D.; Cavalheiro, Esper A.; Arida, Ricardo M.; Stoellberger, Claudia; Finsterer, Josef; Scorza, Fulvio A.
Fonte: W B SAUNDERS CO LTD; LONDON Publicador: W B SAUNDERS CO LTD; LONDON
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
Purpose: To assess the relationship between the presence of pets in homes of epilepsy patients and the occurrence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Methods: Parents or relatives of SUDEP patients collected over a ten-year period (2000-2009) in a large epilepsy unit were asked if the patient lived together with any domestic pet at the time of death or not. Patients who did not experience SUDEP served as controls. Results and conclusions: Eleven out of the 1092 included patients (1%) experienced SUDEP, all with refractory symptomatic epilepsy, but none of them had pets in their homes at the time of death. In contrast, the frequency of pet-ownership in the control group (n = 1081) was 61%. According to previous studies there are some indications that human health is directly related to companionship with animals in a way that domestic animals prevent illness and facilitate recovery of patients. Companion animals can buffer reactivity against acute stress, diminish stress perception and improve physical health. These factors may reduce cardiac arrhythmias and seizure frequency, factors related to SUDEP. Companion animals may have a positive effect on well-being, thus irnproving epilepsy outcome. (c) 2012 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; FAPESP; FAPESP; CInAPCeFAPESP; CInAPCe-FAPESP; CNPq; CNPq; INCT/MCT; INCT/MCT

Microbiota comensal de animais de companhia como reservatório de genes codificadores de b-lactamases de espectro estendido (ESBLs) e resistência a quinolonas mediada por plasmídeos (PMQR).; Commensal microbiota of companion animals as reservoirs of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) and Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance (PMQR) genes.

Melo, Luana Claudino de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/08/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
O presente estudo visou determinar a prevalência de bactérias Gram-negativas produtoras de produzem b-lactamases de amplo espectro (ESBL) e resistência adquirida a quinolonas mediada por plasmídeos (PMQR) em animais de estimação, investigando o potencial papel destes hospedeiros como portadores assintomáticos. Em 2012, foram coletadas 216 amostras (fezes e saliva) de 108 animais de companhia (29 gatos e 79 cães) abrigados em casas de família, um centro de acolhimento de animais abandonados, e no Centro de Controle de Zoonoses da Cidade de São Paulo. Do total de cepas estudadas, 85% apresentaram fenótipo sugestivo de PMQR; enquanto que 62% dos isolados exibiram um fenótipo característico e sugestivo para produção de ESBL, sendo na sua maioria identificadas como E. coli. Dentre os isolados, 14 carregaram variantes do gene blaCTX-M, 9 foram positivos para o gene blaTEM, e 6 foram positivos para blaSHV. Em relação às cepas resistentes às Q/FQ, 56% (n= 43) foram positivas para a presença do gene qnr, o qual foi identificado em 11 espécies diferentes. Os resultados apresentados demostram que animais de companhia podem ser portadores assintomáticos de cepas produtoras de ESBL e PMQR.; The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of Gram-negative bacteria producing b-lactamases producing broad-spectrum (ESBL) and acquired resistance to quinolones mediated by plasmids (PMQR) in pets...

Use of antimicrobials and cephamicin resistance in companion animals

Saial, Dolores Cristina Conceição
Fonte: Universidade de Lisboa. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária Publicador: Universidade de Lisboa. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 13/12/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária; Objectives: This work includes two separate studies. In study 1 the aim was to investigate the use of antimicrobials in companion animals in Portugal while in study 2 the objective was to evaluate and characterize the prevalence of blaCMY-2 gene in Enterobacteriaceae and the phylogenetic relatedness among plasmids from companion animals and humans. Materials and Methods: In study 1 in order to understand the patterns of antimicrobial prescription a national survey was submitted to veterinarians. In study 2 plasmids harboring blaCMY-2 were transferred into GeneHog® E. coli by electroporation and typed by S1 endonuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PCR-based replicon typing, and plasmid multilocus sequence typing (pMLST). Results: In study 1, the use of amoxicillin-clavulanate (28%) and enrofloxacin (18%) were the most common antimicrobials used in dogs and cats, whereas clindamycin (3%) cefovecin (2%) and pradofloxacin (2%) were the less prescribed. In study 2, twenty three blaCMY-2 genes were plasmid encoded. Replicon typing demonstrated that from animal isolates, thirteen isolates were IncFII plasmids, five isolates were IncI1 plasmid, one isolate carried an A/C plasmid and the remaining isolate was non-typeable by PBRT. Regarding human isolates...

Living with Companion Animals, Physical Activity and Mortality in a U.S. National Cohort

Gillum, Richard F.; Obisesan, Thomas O.
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
Living with a canine companion is postulated to increase physical activity. We test the hypotheses that adults living with a canine companion have a higher level of physical activity and reduced mortality risk compared to those not living with a companion animal. A U.S. national health survey with longitudinal mortality follow-up studied 11,394 American men and women aged 40 years and over examined in 1988–1994 followed an average 8.5 years. Measurements at baseline included self-reported companion animals in the household, socio-demographics, health status, physical and biochemical measurements. Outcome measures were leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and death from all causes. Death during follow-up occurred in 3,187 persons. In bivariate cross-sectional analyses living with a dog was associated with more frequent LTPA and higher survival. In proportional hazards regression analysis, no significant interaction of age, gender or ethnicity with animals was found. After adjusting for confounding by baseline socio-demographics and health status at ages 40+, the hazards ratio (95% confidence limits) for living with a canine companion compared to no animals was 1.21(1.04–1.41, p < 0.001). After also controlling for health behaviors...

Commonality among Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Sequence Type ST131 Extraintestinal Escherichia coli Isolates from Humans and Companion Animals in Australia▿†

Platell, Joanne L.; Cobbold, Rowland N.; Johnson, James R.; Heisig, Anke; Heisig, Peter; Clabots, Connie; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Trott, Darren J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.43%
Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131), an emergent multidrug-resistant extraintestinal pathogen, has spread epidemically among humans and was recently isolated from companion animals. To assess for human-companion animal commonality among ST131 isolates, 214 fluoroquinolone-resistant extraintestinal E. coli isolates (205 from humans, 9 from companion animals) from diagnostic laboratories in Australia, provisionally identified as ST131 by PCR, selectively underwent PCR-based O typing and blaCTX-M-15 detection. A subset then underwent multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, extended virulence genotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and fluoroquinolone resistance genotyping. All isolates were O25b positive, except for two O16 isolates and one O157 isolate, which (along with six O25b-positive isolates) were confirmed by MLST to be ST131. Only 12% of isolates (25 human, 1 canine) exhibited blaCTX-M-15. PFGE analysis of 20 randomly selected human and all 9 companion animal isolates showed multiple instances of ≥94% profile similarity across host species; 12 isolates (6 human, 6 companion animal) represented pulsotype 968, the most prevalent ST131 pulsotype in North America (representing 23% of a large ST131 reference collection). Virulence gene and antimicrobial resistance profiles differed minimally...

Determination of staphylococcal exotoxins, SCCmec types, and genetic relatedness of Staphylococcus intermedius group isolates from veterinary staff, companion animals, and hospital environments in Korea

Youn, Jung-Ho; Koo, Hye Cheong; Ahn, Kuk Ju; Lim, Suk-Kyung; Park, Yong Ho
Fonte: The Korean Society of Veterinary Science Publicador: The Korean Society of Veterinary Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
The Staphylococcus (S.) intermedius group (SIG) has been a main research subject in recent years. S. pseudintermedius causes pyoderma and otitis in companion animals as well as foodborne diseases. To prevent SIG-associated infection and disease outbreaks, identification of both staphylococcal exotoxins and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types among SIG isolates may be helpful. In this study, it was found that a single isolate (one out of 178 SIG isolates examined) harbored the canine enterotoxin SEC gene. However, the S. intermedius exfoliative toxin gene was found in 166 SIG isolates although the S. aureus-derived exfoliative toxin genes, such as eta, etb and etd, were not detected. SCCmec typing resulted in classifying one isolate as SCCmec type IV, 41 isolates as type V (including three S. intermedius isolates), and 10 isolates as non-classifiable. Genetic relatedness of all S. pseudintermedius isolates recovered from veterinary staff, companion animals, and hospital environments was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Strains having the same band patterns were detected in S. pseudintermedius isolates collected at 13 and 18 months, suggesting possible colonization and/or expansion of a specific S. pseudintermedius strain in a veterinary hospital.

Transmission of MRSA between Companion Animals and Infected Human Patients Presenting to Outpatient Medical Care Facilities

Ferreira, Jorge Pinto; Anderson, Kevin L.; Correa, Maria T.; Lyman, Roberta; Ruffin, Felicia; Reller, L. Barth; Fowler, Vance G.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/11/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant pathogen in both human and veterinary medicine. The importance of companion animals as reservoirs of human infections is currently unknown. The companion animals of 49 MRSA-infected outpatients (cases) were screened for MRSA carriage, and their bacterial isolates were compared with those of the infected patients using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Rates of MRSA among the companion animals of MRSA-infected patients were compared to rates of MRSA among companion animals of pet guardians attending a “veterinary wellness clinic” (controls). MRSA was isolated from at least one companion animal in 4/49 (8.2%) households of MRSA-infected outpatients vs. none of the pets of the 50 uninfected human controls. Using PFGE, patient-pets MRSA isolates were identical for three pairs and discordant for one pair (suggested MRSA inter-specie transmission p-value = 0.1175). These results suggest that companion animals of MRSA-infected patients can be culture-positive for MRSA, representing a potential source of infection or re-infection for humans. Further studies are required to better understand the epidemiology of MRSA human-animal inter-specie transmission.

Molecular Characterization of Resistance to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins in Clinical Escherichia coli Isolates from Companion Animals in the United States ▿ †

Shaheen, Bashar W.; Nayak, Rajesh; Foley, Steven L.; Kweon, Ohgew; Deck, Joanna; Park, Miseon; Rafii, Fatemeh; Boothe, Dawn M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) among members of the family Enterobacteriaceae occurs worldwide; however, little is known about ESC resistance in Escherichia coli strains from companion animals. Clinical isolates of E. coli were collected from veterinary diagnostic laboratories throughout the United States from 2008 to 2009. E. coli isolates (n = 54) with reduced susceptibility to ceftazidime or cefotaxime (MIC ≥ 16 μg/ml) and extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotypes were analyzed. PCR and sequencing were used to detect mutations in ESBL-encoding genes and the regulatory region of the chromosomal gene ampC. Conjugation experiments and plasmid identification were conducted to examine the transferability of resistance to ESCs. All isolates carried the blaCTX-M-1-group β-lactamase genes in addition to one or more of the following β-lactamase genes: blaTEM, blaSHV-3, blaCMY-2, blaCTX-M-14-like, and blaOXA-1. Different blaTEM sequence variants were detected in some isolates (n = 40). Three isolates harbored a blaTEM-181 gene with a novel mutation resulting in an Ala184Val substitution. Approximately 78% of the isolates had mutations in promoter/attenuator regions of the chromosomal gene ampC, one of which was a novel insertion of adenine between bases −28 and −29. Plasmids ranging in size from 11 to 233 kbp were detected in the isolates...

A Shared Population of Epidemic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 15 Circulates in Humans and Companion Animals

Harrison, Ewan M.; Weinert, Lucy A.; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Welch, John J.; Wilson, Katherine; Morgan, Fiona J. E.; Harris, Simon R.; Loeffler, Anette; Boag, Amanda K.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Paterson, Gavin K.; Waller, Andrew S.; Parkhill, Julian; Holmes, M
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/05/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a global human health problem causing infections in both hospitals and the community. Companion animals, such as cats, dogs, and horses, are also frequently colonized by MRSA and can become infected. We sequenced the genomes of 46 multilocus sequence type (ST) 22 MRSA isolates from cats and dogs in the United Kingdom and compared these to an extensive population framework of human isolates from the same lineage. Phylogenomic analyses showed that all companion animal isolates were interspersed throughout the epidemic MRSA-15 (EMRSA-15) pandemic clade and clustered with human isolates from the United Kingdom, with human isolates basal to those from companion animals, suggesting a human source for isolates infecting companion animals. A number of isolates from the same veterinary hospital clustered together, suggesting that as in human hospitals, EMRSA-15 isolates are readily transmitted in the veterinary hospital setting. Genome-wide association analysis did not identify any host-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or virulence factors. However, isolates from companion animals were significantly less likely to harbor a plasmid encoding erythromycin resistance. When this plasmid was present in animal-associated isolates...

Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica Isolates from Swine and Companion Animals and Detection of Resistance Genes

Prüller, Sandra; Rensch, Ulrike; Meemken, Diana; Kaspar, Heike; Kopp, Peter A.; Klein, Günter; Kehrenberg, Corinna
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/08/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
Bordetella bronchiseptica causes infections of the respiratory tract in swine and other mammals and is a precursor for secondary infections with Pasteurella multocida. Treatment of B. bronchiseptica infections is conducted primarily with antimicrobial agents. Therefore it is essential to get an overview of the susceptibility status of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyse broth microdilution susceptibility testing according to CLSI recommendations with an incubation time of 16 to 20 hours and a longer incubation time of 24 hours, as recently proposed to obtain more homogenous MICs. Susceptibility testing against a panel of 22 antimicrobial agents and two fixed combinations was performed with 107 porcine isolates from different farms and regions in Germany and 43 isolates obtained from companion animals in Germany and other European countries. Isolates with increased MICs were investigated by PCR assays for the presence of resistance genes. For ampicillin, all 107 porcine isolates were classified as resistant, whereas only a single isolate was resistant to florfenicol. All isolates obtained from companion animals showed elevated MICs for β-lactam antibiotics and demonstrated an overall low susceptibility to cephalosporines. Extension of the incubation time resulted in 1–2 dilution steps higher MIC50 values of porcine isolates for seven antimicrobial agents tested...

Companion animals for elderly women: The importance of attachment

Chur-Hansen, A.; Winefield, H.; Beckwith, M.
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
Much research exploring the relationship between companion animals and physical and psychological health is quantitative and inconclusive, and inconsistent findings have been reported. In this study, we conducted interviews with 11 elderly women and considered the themes that emerged from the data using qualitative methods. On the basis of the resultant themes we propose that “attachment” is a pivotal factor that may help disentangle the complex and contradictory findings of previous studies. Specifically, we suggest that the relationship between attachment and health benefits may follow an inverted U curve: extreme attachment may be detrimental to health, no attachment may yield no health ramifications, with optimal benefits found at the moderate points on the curve. The definitions of low, moderate, and high attachment in this sense are yet to be quantified and should be explored in future research.; Anna Chur-Hansen, Helen Russell Winefield and Melinda Beckwith

Gaps in the evidence about companion animals and human health: some suggestions for progress.

Chur-Hansen, A.; Stern, C.; Winefield, H.
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
A number of researchers have explored the relationship between companion animal ownership and human physical and psychological health. Results have been inconclusive, with positive, neutral and negative effects variously reported in the literature. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms of any influence are frustratingly unclear. A number of conceptual and methodological weaknesses have hampered progress in our understanding of how companion animals may impact upon human health. The two evidence gaps discussed in this paper, with suggestions for needed next steps, are: (i) a preponderance of anecdotal reports and cross-sectional research designs; and (ii) failure to control for a host of other known influences on human health including health habits, level of attachment to the companion animal and human social supports. Finally, an example of these gaps is provided in relation to the literature on the effects of animals on elderly nursing home residents.; Anna Chur-Hansen, Cindy Stern and Helen Winefield

Commonality among Fluoroquinolone-resistant sequence type ST131 extraintestinal Escherichia coli isolates from humans and companion animals in Australia

Platell, J.; Cobbold, R.; Johnson, J.; Heisig, P.; Heisig, A.; Clabots, C.; Kuskowski, M.; Trott, D.
Fonte: Amer Soc Microbiology Publicador: Amer Soc Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.45%
Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131), an emergent multidrug-resistant extraintestinal pathogen, has spread epidemically among humans and was recently isolated from companion animals. To assess for human-companion animal commonality among ST131 isolates, 214 fluoroquinolone-resistant extraintestinal E. coli isolates (205 from humans, 9 from companion animals) from diagnostic laboratories in Australia, provisionally identified as ST131 by PCR, selectively underwent PCR-based O typing and blaCTX-M-15 detection. A subset then underwent multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, extended virulence genotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and fluoroquinolone resistance genotyping. All isolates were O25b positive, except for two O16 isolates and one O157 isolate, which (along with six O25b-positive isolates) were confirmed by MLST to be ST131. Only 12% of isolates (25 human, 1 canine) exhibited blaCTX-M-15. PFGE analysis of 20 randomly selected human and all 9 companion animal isolates showed multiple instances of ≥94% profile similarity across host species; 12 isolates (6 human, 6 companion animal) represented pulsotype 968, the most prevalent ST131 pulsotype in North America (representing 23% of a large ST131 reference collection). Virulence gene and antimicrobial resistance profiles differed minimally...

Carbapenemase-producing bacteria in companion animals: a public health concern on the horizon

Abraham, S.; Wong, H.S.; Turnidge, J.; Johnson, J.R.; Trott, D.J.
Fonte: Oxford University Press (OUP) Publicador: Oxford University Press (OUP)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
Clinical infections attributed to carbapenemase-producing bacteria are a pressing public health concern owing to limited therapeutic options and linked antimicrobial resistance. In recent years, studies have reported the emergence and spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and their public health impact. This has been closely followed by the global dissemination of highly resistant and virulent zooanthroponotic extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) ST131 clones. It has also been hypothesized that companion animals may act as a reservoir for Gram-negative multidrug-resistant pathogens in the community. Two recent reports have documented the emergence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in companion animals. This phenomenon is of great concern because of the close contact between humans and their pets, and the potential for cross-species transmission. This scenario suggests a role for multifaceted control of Gram-negative multidrug-resistant infections in companion animals. This short article addresses this issue and identifies steps that could facilitate this process.; Sam Abraham, Hui San Wong, John Turnidge, James R. Johnson and Darren J. Trott

Clonal group distribution of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli among humans and companion animals in Australia

Platell, J.; Cobbold, R.; Johnson, J.; Trott, D.
Fonte: Oxford Univ Press Publicador: Oxford Univ Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
Objectives: To determine the phylogenetic group distribution and prevalence of three major globally disseminated clonal groups [clonal group A (CGA) and O15:K52:H1, associated with phylogenetic group D, and sequence type ST131, associated with phylogenetic group B2] among fluoroquinolone-resistant extra-intestinal Escherichia coli isolates from humans and companion animals in Australia. Methods: Clinical extra-intestinal fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli isolates were obtained from humans (n = 582) and companion animals (n  = 125), on Australia's east coast (October 2007–October 2009). Isolates were tested for susceptibility to seven antimicrobial agents, and for phylogenetic group, O type and clonal-group-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms by PCR. Results: The fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were typically resistant to multiple agents (median of four). Analysis revealed that clonal group ST131 accounted for a large subset of the human isolates (202/585, 35%), but for a much smaller proportion of the companion animal isolates (9/125, 7.2%; P ≤ 0.001). In contrast, CGA and O15:K52:H1 were uncommon among both human (7.2%) and companion animal (0.8%) isolates. Conclusions: In Australia, a large proportion (42%) of recent fluoroquinolone-resistant extra-intestinal E. coli isolates from humans are represented by three major globally disseminated clonal groups...

Multidrug-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli of sequence type ST131 in animals and foods

Platell, J.; Johnson, J.; Cobbold, R.; Trott, D.
Fonte: Elsevier Science BV Publicador: Elsevier Science BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) has recently emerged as a globally distributed cause of extraintestinal infections in humans. Diverse factors have been investigated as explanations for ST131's rapid and successful dissemination, including transmission through animal contact and consumption of food, as suggested by the detection of ST131 in a number of nonhuman species. For example, ST131 has recently been identified as a cause of clinical infection in companion animals and poultry, and both host groups have been confirmed as faecal carriers of ST131. Moreover, a high degree of similarity has been shown among certain ST131 isolates from humans, companion animals, and poultry based on resistance characteristics and genomic background and human and companion animal ST131 isolates tend to exhibit similar virulence genotypes. However, most ST131 isolates from poultry appear to possess specific virulence genes that are typically absent from human and companion animal isolates, including genes associated with avian pathogenic E. coli. Since the number of reported animal and food-associated ST131 isolates is quite small, the role of nonhuman host species in the emergence, dissemination, and transmission of ST131 to humans remains unclear. Nevertheless...

The "Right to Autonomous Agency" and the "Right to Exit/ Sever Relationships": Theorizing our Obligations to Companion Animals in a Post-Animal Rights World

Roy, Shitangshu
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.54%
This thesis expands on the model presented in Sue Donaldson and Will Kymlicka’s Zoopolis for how companion animals might be treated as co-citizens in a post-Animal Rights world. I will attempt to clarify the distinct political obligations owed to companion animals throughout their lifetimes by individual caregivers and by the state. In particular, I argue that there is nothing in the genetic make-up of most companion animals that precludes them from being “autonomous agents” in adulthood, meaning that if allowed to develop their agency, most animals would be able to lead flourishing lives independent of human companions. I suggest that, for young companion animals, guardians have political obligations to develop the autonomous agency of their dependents, with help from the state. That said, for adult animals which develop autonomous agency, I argue that both a human caregiver and the animal have a right to sever their relationship with each other, just as we give adult children the right to leave their parents’ care and also give parents the “right to kick out” adult children who are capable of supporting themselves. However, while advocating for human caregivers’ rights to sever relationships with autonomous pets, I nonetheless maintain that the state will always retain obligations to its citizens to provide them with a basic level of welfare...

Caracterização molecular da resistência a antimicrobianos em Escherichia coli produtoras de β-lactamases de espectro alargado isoladas em cães e estudo da partilha de clones bacterianos entre animais de companhia e coabitantes humanos

Meireles, Diana
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico do Porto. Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde do Porto Publicador: Instituto Politécnico do Porto. Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde do Porto
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
A pressão seletiva originada pelo uso excessivo de antimicrobianos na medicina humana e veterinária tem contribuído para a emergência de estirpes bacterianas multirresistentes, sendo os estudos mais escassos relativamente à sua presença nos animais de companhia. Porque os animais e os seus proprietários partilham o mesmo espaço habitacional, apresentando comportamentos de contacto próximo, existe uma hipótese elevada de transferência microbiana inter-espécie. Ante esta possibilidade é importante escrutinar o papel dos animais de companhia enquanto reservatórios de estirpes e de genes de resistência, bem como a sua envolvência na disseminação de estirpes bacterianas multirresistentes. Importa também, investigar o papel das superfícies e objetos domésticos partilhados por ambos, como potenciadores deste fenómeno. O objetivo deste trabalho foi, identificar o filogrupo e fazer a caracterização molecular dos genes que conferem resistência aos β-lactâmicos e às quinolonas, em quarenta isolados de Escherichia coli produtoras de β-lactamases de espectro alargado (ESBL), obtidas em zaragatoas fecais de cães consultados no Hospital Veterinário do ICBAS-UP. Complementarmente pretendeu-se inferir sobre a partilha de clones de Escherichia coli e Enterococcus spp. com elevadas resistências...

Transmission and Epidemiology of Zoonotic Protozoal Diseases of Companion Animals

Esch, Kevin J.; Petersen, Christine A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
Over 77 million dogs and 93 million cats share our households in the United States. Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of pets in their owners' physical and mental health. Given the large number of companion animals in the United States and the proximity and bond of these animals with their owners, understanding and preventing the diseases that these companions bring with them are of paramount importance. Zoonotic protozoal parasites, including toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease, babesiosis, giardiasis, and leishmaniasis, can cause insidious infections, with asymptomatic animals being capable of transmitting disease. Giardia and Toxoplasma gondii, endemic to the United States, have high prevalences in companion animals. Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi are found regionally within the United States. These diseases have lower prevalences but are significant sources of human disease globally and are expanding their companion animal distribution. Thankfully, healthy individuals in the United States are protected by intact immune systems and bolstered by good nutrition, sanitation, and hygiene. Immunocompromised individuals, including the growing number of obese and/or diabetic people, are at a much higher risk of developing zoonoses. Awareness of these often neglected diseases in all health communities is important for protecting pets and owners. To provide this awareness...

A Shared Population of Epidemic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 15 Circulates in Humans and Companion Animals

Harrison, Ewan M.; Weinert, Lucy A.; Holden, Matthew T. G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
This is the final published version distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 2.0, which can also be found on the publisher's website at: http://mbio.asm.org/content/5/3/e00985-13.full.pdf+html; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) is a global human health problem causing infections in both hospitals and the community. Companion animals, such as cats, dogs, and horses, are also frequently colonized by MRSA and can become infected. We sequenced the genomes of 46 multilocus sequence type (ST) 22 MRSA isolates from cats and dogs in the United Kingdom and compared these to an extensive population framework of human isolates from the same lineage. Phylogenomic analyses showed that all companion animal isolates were interspersed throughout the epidemic MRSA-15 (EMRSA-15) pandemic clade and clustered with human isolates from the United Kingdom, with human isolates basal to those from companion animals, suggesting a human source for isolates infecting companion animals. A number of isolates from the same veterinary hospital clustered together, suggesting that as in human hospitals, EMRSA-15 isolates are readily transmitted in the veterinary hospital setting. Genome-wide association analysis did not identify any host-speci?c single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or virulence factors. However...