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Designing Community Based Development

Narayan, Deepa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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36.32%
When properly designed, community based programs can be highly effective in managing natural resources, providing basic infrastructure or ensuring primary social services. Participation in community based development (CBD) depends on reversing control and accountability from central authorities to community organizations. Successful design requires tapping into local needs, understanding and building on the strengths of existing institutions, and defining the changes needed in intermediary implementing agencies to support community action.

Community Development in the Lao Mining Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.3%
The purpose of this Briefing Note is to provide background information and analysis on the new legal requirement and relevant information and experience pertaining to community development funds in the mining sector internationally and in Lao PDR. This Briefing Note is intended to inform discussion at the Conference on Mining and Community Development in Lao PDR: Community Development Funds to be held in Vientiane and Phu Kham, 19-23 September 2011. The Briefing Note draws heavily on information from a number of existing World Bankpublications including: Lao PDR Development Report - Natural Resource Management for Sustainable Development: Hydropower and Mining and relevant background papers which examine themes of social impact mitigation andbenefit sharing. Mining Foundations, Trusts and Funds A Sourcebook which reviews developing country experience of mining sector foundations, trusts and funds. Sharing Mining Benefits in Developing Countries: the experience with foundations, trusts and funds a publication from the World Bank Oil...

Community Based Procurement : Value for Money Analysis

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.31%
In the India operations of the World Bank, there is little evidence as yet to substantiate that community based procurement results in value for money in a fair and transparent manner. In order to understand community based procurement in relation to Value for Money (VFM), governance and accountability, a study was needed to explore these concepts and their dynamics. The present study focuses on Community Based Procurement (CBP) outcomes across completed sub-projects. The study on CBP was carried out in 84 successful subprojects from three Community Driven Development (CDD) projects in India (in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu) and local government units (Gram Panchayats) in the state of Kerala, to explore linkages both in terms of enablers and outcomes. The study considers only completed and successful sub-projects to determine reasons that led to its success. The findings may have been impacted positively by this purposive selection.

Community Involvement in Health Care Financing : A Survey of the Literature on the Impact, Strengths, and Weaknesses

Jakab, Melitta; Krishnan, Chitra
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.3%
The paper reviews 45 published and unpublished reports on community financing completed between 1990 and 2001. The main objective of the study was to explore performance measures reported in the literature regarding community financing. The study concluded that the reviewed literature is rich in describing scheme design and implementation. At the same time, evidence on the performance of community financing schemes is limited. The study focused on reporting measures on three indicators in particular: Resource mobilization capacity. Community financing mechanisms mobilize significant resources for health care. However, there is a large variation in the resource mobilization capacity of various schemes. This review did not find systematic estimates about how much community financing contributes to health revenues at the local and/or national level. Social inclusion. Community financing is effective in reaching a large number of low-income populations who would otherwise have no financial protection against the cost of illness. There is large variation in the size of various schemes. At the same time...

Community Development Toolkit : Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.3%
The Pioneering New Approaches in Support of Sustainable Development in the Extractive Sector project promotes mine development and operation and improves opportunities for the sustainable development of mining communities and regions during all phases of the mining cycle. In part, the project responds to recommendations in "Breaking New Ground," the report of the Mining, Minerals, and Sustainable Development (MMSD) project (2002), for new approaches to enable governments, industry, and communities to create country-specific frameworks, including community sustainable development plans, that would ultimately reduce conflict, promote cooperation, and enhance the contribution of mineral-related investment to sustainable development. The result is this Community Development Toolkit, which has two main parts: 1) 17 Tools intended for use throughout the project cycle and which cover the assessment, planning, management, and evaluation phases of community development as well as stakeholder relationships; and 2) the Background volume...

Interactive Community Mapping : Improving Service Delivery and Empowering Communities

Shkabatur, Jennifer; Kumagai, Saki
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Mapping presents a compelling way to demystify complex data and concepts into useful visual information that most people can understand regardless of language, level of literacy, or culture. These maps can also be shared instantaneously with the world via the Internet. Interactive community mapping (ICM) is one method of information and communication technology (ICT)-enabled participatory mapping. In the development context, ICM can be a useful approach in helping community members, members of civil society organizations (CSOs), governments, and development partners to better picture and assess the needs and concerns of the mapped communities and adjust development plans, activities, and policies accordingly. This note is aimed at providing step-by-step guidance on the design and implementation of the ICM process to achieve an evidence-based and increasingly participatory decision-making approach for development projects. Relying on good practice examples from Kenya and Tanzania, this note seeks to provide a better understanding of how the potential benefits of ICM can be translated into tangible results. The note outlines some of the available ICM technology...

Chinese urban community construction as a grassroots governance strategy: social capital with Chinese characteristics.

Zhao, Min
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
Since 1978, the implementation of reform agenda and opening up policy, China has undergone the most rapid economic change and along with a significant urbanization process, which has changed the social, political and cultural structures of Chinese society. However, social transition along with urbanization has caused widespread social problems and citizen dissatisfaction, to the point of threatening the Communist Party‘s (CCP) political legitimacy. To address this political decline the CCP organised a grassroots form of community-based response, titled the Community Construction Project in urban China. This was a top-down project designed to solve or at least ease many social problems caused by rapid urbanisation, the decline in the welfare policies associated with the danwei (work-unit, 单位) and to reaffirm support for the CCP within the community. It was also hoped that this would assist in, keep the society stable and peaceful in a period where material inequality was growing. This process can be read as top-down but reality has involved many social actors, such as governments at all levels, scholarly engagement in applied and theoretical research, social organizations and community residents. Therefore its actual practice and outcomes vary according to concrete social and material settings due to the interaction among these different actors. To understand the community construction project and its potential impacts on the future of Chinese society...

Funding Models for Community Organisations in Canberra

Temple, Jessie
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
Community organisations are a vital part of the Canberra Community that work to ensure basic human rights and set an acceptable standard of living for those in the community. Community organisations take on a majority of the community service responsibilities in the ACT illustrating the merits behind the provision of services via a community-based method as opposed to delivering services directly from the government. Additionally, community organisations provide a number of job opportunities in Australia, employing over half a million people in 2009. In 2005, the community service sector added substantially to the economy of Australia contributing approximately 3 per cent to the GDP. Aside from the social and economic arenas, community organisations also play a large role in increasing political participation of the community via lobbying, events, and the sharing of knowledge. Community organisations use funding models in order to run effectively and efficiently and to allocate resources in the most beneficial way. The main ways that community organisations receive funding include applying for tax exemptions, appealing for funds, obtaining a grant from government, foundations, or corporations and through earning funds from trading activities. Currently in the ACT...

Mining Community Development Agreements : Source Book

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Mining/Oil and Gas; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The World Bank oil, gas and mining unit, in its capacity as a driver for best practice related to extractive industry contributions to poverty alleviation, has a strong interest in the sustainable development of mine-impacted communities. As part of the growing global expectation that the extractive industry should contribute positively to long-term local development, a discourse has grown surrounding a variety of structures and processes aiming to deliver development benefits to communities affected by mineral resource projects. Examples of these strategies include social/community investment programs, development forums, community-controlled trusts, development funds, and foundations. These strategies may be led by government, the companies, the impacted community, or through collaborative bilateral or multi sector partnerships and agreements. They may be a regulatory requirement or negotiated voluntarily in response to mining companies' commitment to corporate social responsibility (CSR) principles. This document describes some of the main considerations and processes regarding the development and implementation of these strategies...

The Social Impact of Social Funds in Jamaica : A Mixed-Methods Analysis of Participation, Targeting, and Collective Action in Community-Driven Development

Rao, Vijayendra; Ibáñez, Ana María
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.32%
The authors develop an evaluation method that combines qualitative evidence with quantitative survey data analyzed with propensity score methods on matched samples to study the impact of a participatory community-driven social fund on preference targeting, collective action, and community decision-making. The data come from a case study of five pairs of communities in Jamaica where one community in the pair has received funds from the Jamaica social investment fund (JSIF) while the other has not-but has been picked to match the funded community in its social and economic characteristics. The qualitative data reveal that the social fund process is elite-driven and decision-making tends to be dominated by a small group of motivated individuals. But by the end of the project there was broad-based satisfaction with the outcome. The quantitative data from 500 households mirror these findings by showing that ex-ante the social fund does not address the expressed needs of the majority of individuals in the majority of communities. By the end of the construction process...

Analyzing Community Responses to HIV and AIDS : Operational Framework and Typology

Rodriguez-García, Rosalía; Bonnel, Réne; N'Jie, N'Della; Olivier, Jill; Pascual, F. Brian; Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
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This paper presents a framework for analyzing the community response to HIV and AIDS. On the basis of a review of the literature, six criteria are proposed for characterizing such community responses: (1) the types of organizations and structures implementing the response, (2) the types of activities or services implemented and the beneficiaries of these, (3) the actors involved in and driving community responses, (4) the contextual factors that influence community responses, (5) the extent of community involvement in the response, and (6) the extent to which community responses involve wider partnerships and collaboration.

Indonesia : Evaluation of the Urban Community Driven Development Program, Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri Perkotaan; Indonesia - Evaluasi program pembangunan berbasis masyarakat (CDD) perkotaan : Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri Perkotaan (PNPM-Urban)

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Indonesia's Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (PNPM) is the largest Community Driven Development (CDD) program in the world covering all urban wards (PNPM-Urban) and rural villages (PNPM-Rural) in Indonesia. This policy note summarizes a comprehensive process evaluation of the PNPM-Urban program which has been carried by the Research and Development (RAND) corporation in collaboration with survey meter, as well as a rapid appraisal of two pilot subcomponents of the PNPM-Urban program: the Neighborhood Development Scheme (ND), and Poverty Alleviation Partnership Grant Mechanism (PAPG) carried out by a small team of consultants. The RAND evaluation was designed to look at how specific aspects of the program are working, document good practice, distill lessons learned, and identify options for program reform based mainly on a qualitative field study in a sample of kelurahans. This paper is organized as follows: section one gives introduction and approach. The main findings of the evaluation and rapid appraisal are summarized in section two...

Adapting Community Driven Approaches for Post-Disaster Recovery : Experiences from Indonesia

MDF-JRF Secretariat
Fonte: World Bank, Jakarta Publicador: World Bank, Jakarta
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
The Multi Donor Fund for Aceh and Nias (MDF) and the Java Reconstruction Fund (JRF) have played significant roles in the remarkable recovery of Aceh, Nias and Java, following some of the worst disasters in Indonesia in recent years. The MDF and the JRF, which is patterned after it, are each considered a highly successful model for post-disaster reconstruction. This paper presents the lessons from the MDF and JRF's use of large-scale, government-implemented community driven development programs to deliver reconstruction at the village level in Aceh, Nias and Java. It documents how local level recovery using a community driven approach can result in not only cost effective physical outputs, but also empowered communities with greater capacities and more prepared to face future disasters. The MDF and JRF experiences have demonstrated many less tangible social benefits. These include faster social recovery from the impact of disasters and increased confidence and capacities of local actors to engage in local level planning. Most importantly...

A Review of the Literature on Participatory Approaches to Local Development for an Evaluation of the Effectiveness of World Bank Support for Community-Based and Driven Development Approaches

Pozzoni, Barbara; Kumar, Nalini
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
This paper explores the available literature on participatory approaches to development as an input to the operations evaluation department (OED) evaluation of World Bank-supported community-based development (CBD) and community-driven development (CDD) interventions. Participatory approaches to development have gained substantial support in the international community over the past quarter century, and have become increasingly important in the work of the World Bank and other donors. Undertaking this literature review has been a particularly challenging exercise for two reasons. The Bank categories CDD approaches in a three-fold typology, which encompasses both community participation efforts and participatory governance initiatives. This paper is primarily concerned with regularized participatory spaces, in which community members deliberate over the provision of services and the allocation of resources, rather than transient spaces, which entail one-off events or exercises aimed at generating discussion on specific policy issues with no direct link to decision making. This review was undertaken with a four-fold objective. First...

Community-Based and Driven Development: A Critical Review

Mansuri, Ghazala; Rao, Vijayendra
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
Community-based (and driven) development (CBD/CDD) projects have become an important form of development assistance, with the World Bank's portfolio alone approximating 7 billion dollars. The authors review the conceptual foundations of CBD/CDD initiatives. Given the importance of the topic, there are, unfortunately, a dearth of well-designed evaluations of such projects. But there is enough quantitative and qualitative evidence from studies that have either been published in peer-reviewed publications or have been conducted by independent researchers to glean some instructive lessons. The authors find that projects that rely on community participation have not been particularly effective at targeting the poor. There is some evidence that CBD/CDD projects create effective community infrastructure, but not a single study establishes a causal relationship between any outcome and participatory elements of a CBD project. Most CBD projects are dominated by elites and, in general, the targeting of poor communities as well as project quality tend to be markedly worse in more unequal communities. However...

Boundary - walkers: contexts and concepts of community music

Higgins, Lee David
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: Doctoral thesis; all_ul_research; ul_theses_dissertations; none
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
peer-reviewed; This study develops conceptual tools in which Community Music practices in the United Kingdom (UK) can be analysed and understood. From a proposition that suggests that the effectiveness of Community Music has been reduced due to the neglect of theoretical enquiry, this thesis attempts to redress the balance between Community Music practice and theory. Data collection includes interviews, questionnaires, participant observation, auto-ethnographic memory, documentation, journals and texts. Circumnavigating the fields of anthropology, community arts, cultural theory, sociology, philosophy, ethnomusicology and music education, this thesis pushes the boundaries of current notions of Community Music and presents a theoretical framework that can support claims that Community Music is a distinctive area of musical discourse. The thematic threads of identity, context, community, participation and pedagogy provide the organizational structure that helps guide the work throughout its six chapters. After Chapter One outlines the thesis' proposition and the parameters in which it will proceed, Chapter Two examines the practice of Community Music from historical perspectives. Seen initially as a line of flight within the ferments of the community arts movement...

A systematic review of studies evaluating Australian indigenous community development projects: the extent of community participation, their methodological quality and their outcomes

Snijder, Mieke; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Stephens, Anne; Calabria, Bianca
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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BACKGROUND: Community development is a health promotion approach identified as having great potential to improve Indigenous health, because of its potential for extensive community participation. There has been no systematic examination of the extent of community participation in community development projects and little analysis of their effectiveness. This systematic review aims to identify the extent of community participation in community development projects implemented in Australian Indigenous communities, critically appraise the qualitative and quantitative methods used in their evaluation, and summarise their outcomes. METHODS: Ten electronic peer-reviewed databases and two electronic grey literature databases were searched for relevant studies published between 1990 and 2015. The level of community participation and the methodological quality of the qualitative and quantitative components of the studies were assessed against standardised criteria. RESULTS: Thirty one evaluation studies of community development projects were identified. Community participation varied between different phases of project development...

Establishing Roots: Recommendations for Land Trusts' Role in Community Forestry

Cook, Betsy
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 25/04/2014 EN_US
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36.3%
Community forests ensure that community members actively participate in land management decisions and have secure access to economic and non-economic benefits of forestland. The community forest movement in the United States has been growing for the past thirty years. Currently, only a small handful of land trusts are deeply involved in the movement. There may be opportunity for this to change as land trusts are looking to employ new, innovative, community based tools of land conservation. Community forests could act as one of these new conservation tools. Through case studies and semi-structured interviews this study analyzes the current state of land trusts' involvement in community forestry. Through formal surveys, this study then assesses land trust professionals and community member’s perspectives on the role land trusts should play in future community forest projects. Interviews and surveys were analyzed with NVivo 10 software. Case study analysis shows that community forests range in size from 62 to 27,080 acres and the majority are located in the Northeast. Results of the survey show that both land trust professionals and community members are interested in pursuing community forest projects. These two groups would most like to see land trusts facilitate land transactions for municipalities looking to acquire and manage community forests. Land trust professionals and community members disagreed on the other roles land trusts should play in community forest projects. Land trust practitioners identified funding and staff capacity as the biggest challenges to land trusts involvement in community forestry. Land trust practitioners identified an increase in the number of people connected to land and an increase in the amount of land conserved as the biggest successes. The majority of land trust practitioners and community members agreed they would like communities to receive both recreational and economic benefits from sustainable forestry on a potential community forest. This study has implications for land trusts future involvement in community forestry and thus recommendations are given to Triangle Land Conservancy...

Plotting identity, place, and culture: the community garden vernacular landscape

Schmidt, Laura
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Sheppard, Rebecca; The community garden cultural landscape, from early American communal agrarian plots to the twentieth century Victory Garden movement, is part of American history. This historic cultural landscape continues to play a role in American identity today. At the turn of the twenty-first century, a combination of factors has caused the expansion of community garden landscapes; these factors include increasing interest in civic agriculture and environmental sustainability, influenced by economic recession. The community garden cultural landscape expresses the changing culture of food, agriculture, and man's relationship with land in history and today. The community garden is a model example of vernacular landscape. A distinct type of cultural landscape, the vernacular landscape is formed by everyday human activity, rather than by action or design imposed upon people, resulting in an authentic sense of place. The suburban community garden cultural landscape demonstrates a synergistic relationship between the land and people, expresses a wide breadth of human needs and desires, and represents greater society and its social interactions. Vernacular landscapes are defined by these very qualities; thus, the community garden is an archetypal vernacular landscape. Cultural landscapes...

A Call to Action: Building a Community-based Plan for Delaware

Commission on Community-Based Alternatives for Persons with Disabilities
Fonte: Educational Testing Services Publicador: Educational Testing Services
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The Commission on Community-Based Alternatives for Persons with Disabilities developed a blueprint for a diversified, individualized, cost effective service and support system that enables individuals with disabilities to live and work in the most integrated setting of their choice. The report includes the following subject areas: determining individual needs and preferences: fair assessments and process; aspects of community living: residential, health care, employment, transportation, and education; funding; and priority recommendations, which provide a catalyst for immediate action.; ETS: Educational Testing Service