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Aumento do índice de massa corporal após os 20 anos de idade e associação com indicadores de risco ou de proteção para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis; Body mass index increase after the age of 20 and associations with risk or protection factors for chronic non-communicable diseases

COELHO, Mara Sérgia Pacheco Honório; ASSIS, Maria Alice Altenburg de; MOURA, Erly Catarina
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
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66.35%
OBJETIVO: Investigar fatores sociodemográficos, de risco ou de proteção para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT) que se associem ao aumento do índice de massa corporal (IMC) após os 20 anos de idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 769 mulheres e 572 homens do Sistema Municipal de Monitoramento de Fatores de Risco para DCNT, 2005, Florianópolis, SC. O aumento do IMC foi definido em percentagem, pela diferença entre o IMC em 2005 e aos 20 anos. RESULTADOS: Desde os 20 anos, o aumento do IMC foi superior a 10% para a maioria dos indivíduos. Nas análises múltiplas, o aumento do IMC foi associado a aumento da idade, baixo nível educacional (mulheres), ser casado (homens), não trabalhar, baixo nível de percepção de saúde, pressão alta, colesterol/triglicerídeos elevados (homens), realização de dieta, sedentarismo e ex-tabagismo (mulheres). CONCLUSÕES: Estratégias de saúde para prevenir o ganho de peso em nível populacional devem considerar principalmente os fatores sociodemográficos.; OBJECTIVE: To examine sociodemographic risk or protection factors for chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs) that may be associated with increase in body mass index (BMI) after the age of 20. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis based on data from 769 women and 572 men who participated in the 2005 Surveillance System for Risk factors for CNCDs...

Sistema de vigilância de fatores de risco relacionados à prática de atividade física e sedentarismo para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis: adaptação, avaliação e aplicação em área de atuação do PSF no município de São Paulo; Surveillance system for risk factors related to physical activity and inactivity for non-communicable diseases: adaptation, evaluation and application on the area attended by a Public Health Center

Taquecita, Leila Yuki
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/11/2010 PT
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Objetivo. Adaptar e testar um sistema de vigilância de fatores de risco relacionados à prática de atividade física e sedentarismo para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT) em uma área de atuação do Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF) no município de São Paulo. Material e métodos. Foi realizado um inquérito domiciliar em 1.805 adultos residentes em domicílios cadastrados no PSF da área de abrangência da unidade básica de saúde (UBS) Jardim Jaraguá no Município de São Paulo. O questionário utilizado foi adaptado do instrumento empregado nas entrevistas do sistema VIGITEL. Os indicadores desse sistema sobre prática de atividade física e sedentarismo foram analisados segundo gênero, faixa etária e escolaridade dos indivíduos. A reprodutibilidade dos indicadores foi avaliada comparando-se resultados obtidos na entrevista original e de outra entrevista repetida após período de 7 a 15 dias, em uma subamostra de 101 indivíduos (pelo cálculo de coeficientes kappa). Resultados. Atividades físicas no lazer, no deslocamento e na ocupação foram mais freqüentes em homens enquanto a atividade física em tarefas domésticas foi mais freqüente em mulheres. A condição de completa inatividade física foi mais freqüente em homens. Associação positiva entre escolaridade e atividade física foi encontrada...

Risk and protective factors for non communicable diseases in the Belo Horizonte population: Vigitel 2008

Duarte,Bruna Mara; Bernal,Regina Tomie Ivata; Malta,Deborah Carvalho
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2013 EN
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66.35%
Introduction: The Non Communicable Diseases (NCD) are the main causes of death in, having known, avoidable the Risk Factor (RF) and susceptible to intervention. Objective: Identify the prevalence of RF and protection for NCD in the Belo Horizonte, 2008. Methodology: Data were analyzed from Vigitel, in Belo Horizonte, 2008. They are presented to the frequencies of RF according to gender, schooling, and calculated the p-value and the PR. Results: Men showed more frequencie in the following RF: higher consumption of meat and milk with fats, soft drinks, abusive consumption of alcohol, drive after drinking, ex-smokers. Men presented in relation to protective factors statistically significant differences in consumption of beans and leisure-time physical activity. Women had the highest frequencies in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, protection against ultraviolet radiation, self-assessment of health as poor, and declared more morbidities such as: arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, asthma and osteoporosis. Adults with low levels of education compared with high education (reference) presented the following PR: smoke PR 2.09 (95%CI 1.43 - 3.05); consumption of 20 cigarettes and more PR 2.54 (95%CI 1.19 - 5.43); overweight PR 1.27 (95%CI 1.02 - 1.56); obesity PR 1.6 (95%CI 1.04 - 2.47); consumption of soft drinks PR 2...

A History of Federal Control of Communicable Diseases: Section 361 of the Public Health Service Act

Vanderhook, Katherine L.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
EN_US
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The federal government possesses broad powers under Section 361 of the Public Health Service Act to regulate the entry and spread of communicable diseases into and among the United States. Though this power has played a central role in United States history since the time of the colonies and remains important today, no complete history of its development and use exists. In our era of almost unlimited communicable disease possibilities, to ignore past experience is folly—a waste of informational resources that could prove instructive today. This paper attempts to fill that gap, providing a policy history to explain the evolution of federal quarantine and inspection powers.

Intervention strategies to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases in Mexico: cost effectiveness analysis

Gutiérrez-Delgado, Cristina; Orozco, Ricardo; Mancuso, Anna; Lee, Diana; Murakami, Yuki; Sridharan, Lakshmi; Medina-Mora, María Elena; González-Pier, Eduardo; Salomon, Joshua A.; Carvalho, Natalie Ida; Hogan, Daniel R
Fonte: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Publicador: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Objective: To inform decision making regarding intervention strategies against non-communicable diseases in Mexico, in the context of health reform. Design Cost effectiveness analysis based on epidemiological modelling. Interventions 101 intervention strategies relating to nine major clusters of non-communicable disease: depression, heavy alcohol use, tobacco use, cataracts, breast cancer, cervical cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Data sources Mexican data sources were used for most key input parameters, including administrative registries; disease burden and population estimates; household surveys; and drug price databases. These sources were supplemented as needed with estimates for Mexico from the WHO-CHOICE unit cost database or with estimates extrapolated from the published literature. Main outcome measures Population health outcomes, measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs); costs in 2005 international dollars ($Int); and costs per DALY. Results: Across 101 intervention strategies examined in this study, average yearly costs at the population level would range from around ≤$Int1m (such as for cataract surgeries) to >$Int1bn for certain strategies for primary prevention in cardiovascular disease. Wide variation also appeared in total population health benefits...

Advancing Surveillance of Chronic and Non-Communicable Disease—A Path Forward

Weitzman, Elissa R.; Waheed, Nadia
Fonte: University of Illinois at Chicago Library Publicador: University of Illinois at Chicago Library
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Objective: To characterize current and future approaches to surveillance of chronic and non-communicable diseases and establish the agenda for both methodological and condition-specific progress. Introduction: Major global stakeholder groups including the United Nations, World Health Organization and Institute of Medicine seek to raise awareness of the threat to global health and security of chronic and non-communicable diseases. These conditions comprise 50–85% of the global annual morbidity burden and constitute a major drain on national economies. To move from awareness of this problem to action and amelioration of issues, we need effective means for monitoring and intervening with populations using approaches that span primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. Methods: This session will begin with a discussion of key concepts and terms and their implications for defining target problems, populations and surveillance strategies. We will also begin by reviewing the epidemiologic and economic arguments for advancing surveillance in this area. The discussion will center on a critical assessment of issues related to surveillance of chronic and non-communicable diseases: how do approaches differ from established and evolving approaches to surveillance of infectious disease? Are there opportunities for synergy with current surveillance efforts and assets? Where are new methods needed? How might surveillance approaches be advanced in different regions (e.g....

Public Policy and the Challenge of Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases

Adeyi, Olusoji; Smith, Owen; Robles, Sylvia
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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Since the early 1990s, the importance of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) to global health has gained increased recognition. This report contains an agenda for action in response to the growing economic, social, and health problems posed by NCDs. Its objective is to enable the World Bank and its clients to examine and, where appropriate, strategically shift their approaches to public policy as a tool to prevent and control NCDs. The report highlights two broad themes. First, public policies need to prevent NCDs to the greatest extent possible and, in doing so, promote healthy aging and avoid premature deaths. Second, at the same time, public policies need to recognize that the burden of NCDs will increase because of population aging, and therefore public policy has a role to play in dealing with the pressures that this will impose on health services. Thus the report has a dual purview: how to avoid the burden of NCDs as much as possible and how to prepare for the consequences of more NCDs associated with demographic change.

Promoting Healthy Living and Aging in Central America : Multi-sectoral Approaches to Prevent Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases

Bonilla-Chacin, Maria Eugenia; Vásquez, Luis T. Marcano
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the main cause of death and disability in Central America. However, communicable diseases and maternal and child conditions remain important causes of death and disability as well as injuries. With the aging of the population and improvements in the control of infectious diseases, the share of NCDs in the total burden of disease is likely to increase. However, in Central America these diseases cause death at a much younger age than in higher-income countries. It is critical to prevent and control NCDs, both for their impact on health, as well as the economy. When not controlled, they can cause costly hospitalizations and large productivity losses due to absenteeism, disability and premature deaths. Finally, they can impoverish households hit by out-of-pocket payments for health services and drugs. A large share of NCDs can be prevented since they result from exposure to health risk factors such as unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and the harmful use of alcohol. Central Americans have very high caloric diets that are rich in sodium and refined sugars...

Effective Responses to Non-communicable Diseases : Embracing Action Beyond the Health Sector

Meiro-Lorenzo, Montserrat; Villafana, Tonya L.; Harrit, Margaret N.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Effective responses to non-communicable disease: Embracing action beyond the health sector focuses on solutions, indicating opportunities for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and the kinds of actions that will achieve it. NCDs exact a heavy toll on individuals and society. They cause disease, disability, and death, and reduce productivity which is vital for development. They also impose hefty costs on health services, particularly since NCDs frequently lead to ongoing disability and need for long-term care. Prevention that results in healthy aging and the reduction of morbidity is far more cost-effective and financially sustainable than treatment alone. A small number of proven prevention measures could stem the rise of the NCD epidemic. Data indicate the potential of affordable, potent, prevention tools focused on five key areas: tobacco, alcohol, diet, exercise and nutrition. Together, programs targeting these areas could reduce the burden of NCDs by more than half, while costing only a tiny fraction of current health spending. Since successful prevention involves multiple sectors and actors...

Dietary Patterns and Non-communicable Diseases in Selected Latin American Countries

Bonilla-Chacín, María Eugenia; Marcano Vázquez, Luis T.; Sierra, Ricardo; Aldana, Úrsula
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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To raise awareness among policymakers and health practitioners about unhealthy diets, this document examines dietary patterns in selected Latin American countries using household surveys. The analysis shows that a large percentage of households in the countries examined have inadequate diets. Not only are calorie intakes higher than recommended to maintain a healthy weight, but the diets are also rich in fats, particularly saturated fats, sugars and sodium, and poor in fruits and vegetables. These unhealthy diets are present in both rural and urban areas and in households at different income levels. These dietary patterns are likely to increase the risks for developing non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, certain types of cancer, and diabetes mellitus. These diseases are increasingly representing the main causes of death and disability in Latin America, and thus there is an urgent need to increase efforts to promote healthy diets. There are cost-effective interventions that have proven to improve diets, particularly to reduce sodium and trans fat intake, and there are promising examples in the region of the implementation of some of these cost-effective interventions. In addition, given the harmful effects of these dietary patterns...

The Challenge of Non-Communicable Diseases and Road Traffic Injuries in Sub-Saharan Africa : An Overview

Marquez, Patricio V.; Farrington, Jill L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report draws on a comprehensive review of the literature and on input from policy makers, researchers, and practitioners to address four questions: (1) how is the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and road traffic injuries (RTIs) changing the epidemiology of Sub-Saharan Africa? (2) What determines and drives this burden, and what are the commonalities with communicable diseases? (3) What is the rationale for public intervention? (4) How could resource-constrained governments approach NCD prevention and treatment and road safety in a comprehensive, effective and efficient way? The data show that action against NCDs and RTIs in Sub-Saharan Africa is needed, together with continued efforts to address communicable diseases and maternal and child health as well as to reach the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The report suggests that NCDs and RTIs should not be tackled separately as a vertical program, nor should they displace communicable diseases as priorities. Instead, given resource constraints...

Should research in communicable disease be collaborative?

Zanetti, Renata
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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Collaboration occurs in many fields and is used as a 'buzz word' that can contextually mean different things. Research collaboration occurs primarily in the form of 'researchers working together on a common research problem or activity' (Rand, 1998: 11). Collaborative research continues to be an increasing phenomenon and there are higher levels of collaboration in the area of health and basic research. Research into communicable diseases is important because they are the second leading cause of death worldwide and have global impact. HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis (TB) and malaria are the 'killer three' communicable diseases, together resulting in about 6 million deaths each year. Without further research these figures are likely to continue to increase. Identifying 'best practice' for research in this area is also important if Millennium Development Goal 6 'to combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases' is to be met. Research in communicable disease can be conducted either collaboratively, such as with joint resources or shared data, or non-collaboratively. As such, evaluating the nature and outcomes of research collaboration, and the form in which research is conducted in communicable disease, is important. This study identifies seven benefits and five costs of formal research collaboration . Benefits include to (1) increase access to data...

Dying Too Young : Addressing Premature Mortality and Ill Health Due to Non-Communicable Diseases and Injuries in the Russian Federation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The poor health status of Russia's economically active adult population-its human capital-is imperiling sustainable economic and social development. What factors contribute to the excessive mortality, ill health, and disability in Russia, particularly among working-age adults? What are the demographic, social, and economic consequences of this phenomenon? Most importantly, what can be done to reduce these burdens? This report shows that non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and injuries are the leading causes of death, illness, and disability in Russia, and assesses the factors associated with the onset of these conditions, the demographic, financial, and economic consequences of NCDs and injuries; summarizes relevant evidence and emerging lessons from international experience, proposes a comprehensive program for addressing this problem; and projects the health and economic gains that could result from such a program.

Non-Communicable Diseases in Jamaica : Moving from Prescription to Prevention

Chao, Shiyan; Carpio, Carmen; Geyndt, Willy de
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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Reducing the burden of Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Jamaica is a national policy. The Government of Jamaica has recognized the importance of preventing and controlling NCDs and created the National Health Fund (NHF) to reduce the cost of treating them by providing free or subsidized medicines to patients with NCD conditions and finance some prevention programs. The World Bank undertook a study to learn from Jamaica's experience in tackling major NCDs and related risk factors, provide policy options for Jamaica to improve the NCD Program, and share with other Caribbean countries lessons learned from this experience. The study answered three questions: (i) whether Jamaica's NHF and its drug subsidy Program have reduced out of pocket spending on NCD treatment; (ii) whether access to treatment of NCDs has improved in the country; and (iii) what is the economic burden on patients with NCDs and their families.

Brazil : Addressing the Challenge of Non-Communicable Diseases in Brazil; Enfrentando o Desafio das Doencas Nao Transmissiveis no Brasil

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.66%
Non-communicable diseases account for a large and growing share of Brazil's burden of disease. Currently, about 66 percent of the disease burden in Brazil is due to non-communicable diseases, compared to 24 percent from communicable diseases and 10% from injuries. Brazil's shift towards non-communicable diseases is a consequence of urbanization, improvements in health care, changing lifestyles, and globalization. Most of this disease burden i s not an inevitable result of a modern, aging society, but preventable-often at low cost. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the changing non-communicable disease burden in Brazil and its root causes, to examine costs and effectiveness of alternative policy interventions to address this growing burden, and the costs disease and potential returns from expanding non-communicable disease prevention and control activities, and to consider policy implication of expanding activities to effectively address the shifting burden.

Desenvolvimento de um questionário de freqüência alimentar para o estudo de dieta e doenças não transmissíveis; Development of a food frequency questionnaire to study diet and non-communicable diseases in adult population

Furlan-Viebig, Renata; Pastor-Valero, Maria
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2004 POR
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The study purpose was to develop a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to investigate potential relationships between diet and non-communicable diseases. Two hundred adults were selected among attendees at the general outpatient clinic of Heart Institute of São Paulo, Brazil. A 98-food item list was created from 24-hour recalls, based on the weighted contribution of each food to energy intake and 21 nutrients. The questionnaire represented 96.8% of energy and at least 95% of the selected nutrients consumed by the study population. Once adapted and validated, this FFQ could be used in epidemiological studies in adult population.; O objetivo do estudo foi desenvolver um questionário de freqüência alimentar com o intuito de investigar possíveis relações entre dieta e doenças não transmissíveis. Foram estudados 200 indivíduos adultos, atendidos no ambulatório geral de um hospital cardiológico de São Paulo, SP. A lista de 98 alimentos do questionário de freqüência alimentar foi construída a partir de recordatórios de 24 horas, estimando-se a contribuição percentual de cada alimento para o consumo de energia e de 21 nutrientes. O questionário desenvolvido representou 96,8% das calorias consumidas pela população estudada e ao menos 95% da ingestão dos nutrientes selecionados. Uma vez adaptado e validado...

From Port-of-Spain Summit to United Nations High Level Meeting: CARICOM and the global non-communicable disease agenda

Samuels,TA; Hospedales,CJ
Fonte: West Indian Medical Journal Publicador: West Indian Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The English-speaking Caribbean has the highest per capita burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs) in the region of the Americas. Building on a long history of cooperation in health among the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and past successes in eliminating/reducing communicable diseases through collective action, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have now been targeted. CARICOM convened a "first-in-the-world" summit of Heads of Government to address NCDs, which generated the Port-of-Spain NCD Summit Declaration, "Uniting to Stop The Epidemic of Chronic Non-communicable Diseases". This 15-point declaration calls on all of government, civil society and the private sector to jointly tackle the common risk factors for the major chronic diseases, and improve the care of such diseases. Implementation of this declaration has been mixed, being most successful where there were regional supports, and in countries with populations > 250 000 reflecting country capacity. CARICOM has elevated this approach to the global level through successful advocacy for a United Nations High Level Meeting on NCDs to be convened in September 2011. Jamaica will be one of two co-facilitators of this meeting, a reflection of the role of CARICOM countries in advancing the NCD agenda at the global level. CARICOM Heads of Government should attend this meeting...

Chronic non-communicable diseases and the economy

Theodore,K
Fonte: West Indian Medical Journal Publicador: West Indian Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.35%
There is no question that chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs) pose the single, greatest sustained threat to the stability of health systems worldwide. While undoubtedly the main dimension of the CNCDs challenge is in respect of the health and well-being of the population, it is becoming increasingly obvious that CNCDs are also posing a serious challenge to economies. Health system costs are increasing faster than national income in almost all nations and the main cause is the growing incidence of CNCDs and the diverse spill-over effects. The concern is that if this continues, there will come a time when the economic system will simply no longer be capable of coping with the burden of the CNCDs. In these circumstances the economist has two major concerns. The first is to understand and explain how CNCDs affect the functioning of the economic system. It is argued that while the analysis will necessarily begin on the qualitative level, for policy purposes it must also be taken to the quantitative level. The second major concern of the economist is to understand and explain how the working of the economy influences the incidence of CNCDs in particular countries. The author suggests that at a time when the prevention and management of CNCDs are high on the agenda of many nations...

Risk and protective factors for non communicable diseases in the Belo Horizonte population: Vigitel 2008

Duarte,Bruna Mara; Bernal,Regina Tomie Ivata; Malta,Deborah Carvalho
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Pós -Graduação em Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Pós -Graduação em Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.35%
Introduction: The Non Communicable Diseases (NCD) are the main causes of death in, having known, avoidable the Risk Factor (RF) and susceptible to intervention. Objective: Identify the prevalence of RF and protection for NCD in the Belo Horizonte, 2008. Methodology: Data were analyzed from Vigitel, in Belo Horizonte, 2008. They are presented to the frequencies of RF according to gender, schooling, and calculated the p-value and the PR. Results: Men showed more frequencie in the following RF: higher consumption of meat and milk with fats, soft drinks, abusive consumption of alcohol, drive after drinking, ex-smokers. Men presented in relation to protective factors statistically significant differences in consumption of beans and leisure-time physical activity. Women had the highest frequencies in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, protection against ultraviolet radiation, self-assessment of health as poor, and declared more morbidities such as: arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, asthma and osteoporosis. Adults with low levels of education compared with high education (reference) presented the following PR: smoke PR 2.09 (95%CI 1.43 - 3.05); consumption of 20 cigarettes and more PR 2.54 (95%CI 1.19 - 5.43); overweight PR 1.27 (95%CI 1.02 - 1.56); obesity PR 1.6 (95%CI 1.04 - 2.47); consumption of soft drinks PR 2...

International law and communicable diseases

Aginam,Obijiofor
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.5%
Historically, international law has played a key role in global communicable disease surveillance. Throughout the nineteenth century, international law played a dominant role in harmonizing the inconsistent national quarantine regulations of European nation-states; facilitating the exchange of epidemiological information on infectious diseases; establishing international health organizations; and standardization of surveillance. Today, communicable diseases have continued to re-shape the boundaries of global health governance through legally binding and "soft-law" regimes negotiated and adopted within the mandate of multilateral institutions - the World Health Organization, the World Trade Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the Office International des Epizooties. The globalization of public health has employed international law as an indispensable tool in global health governance aimed at diminishing human vulnerability to the mortality and morbidity burdens of communicable diseases.