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Land-Water interactions in the amazon

RICHEY, Jeffrey E.; BALLESTER, Maria Victoria; DAVIDSON, Eric A.; JOHNSON, Mark S.; KRUSCHE, Alex V.
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.82%
Biogeochemistry is hosting this special thematic issue devoted to studies of land-water interactions, as part of the Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amaznia (LBA). This compilation of papers covers a broad range of topics with a common theme of coupling land and water processes, across pristine and impacted systems. Findings highlighted that hydrologic flowpaths are clearly important across basin size and structure in determining how water and solutes reach streams. Land-use changes have pronounced impacts on flowpaths, and subsequently, on stream chemistry, from small streams to large rivers. Carbon is produced and transformed across a broad array of fluvial environments and wetlands. Surface waters are not only driven by, but provide feedback to, the atmosphere.; NASA[NNG06GE98A]; NASA[NNX08AF63A]; NASA[NNX11AF20G]; FAPESP[03/13172-2]; FAPESP[08/58089-9]; NSERC[RGPIN 366565-09]

Geotecnologias aplicadas à análise espaço temporal do uso e cobertura da terra e qualidade da água do reservatório de Barra Bonita, SP, como suporte à gestão de recursos hídricos ; Geotechnologies applied to spatial and temporal analysis of the land use and land cover basin related to the water quality Barra Bonita reservoir to support water resources management

Prado, Rachel Bardy
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/09/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.94%
Perante a situação atual de degradação dos recursos hídricos, destacando os reservatórios destinados a usos múltiplos, e a necessidade de se buscar soluções para tal problema, foi proposto o presente trabalho. O reservatório de Barra Bonita, localizado no interior do Estado de São Paulo, foi escolhido para estudo, por estar inserido em uma área densamente povoada, industrializada e ocupada por agricultura intensiva. Os dados adquiridos foram de natureza cartográfica (cartas de pedologia, geomorfologia, geologia, drenagem e malha municipal); orbitais (imagens multiespectrais dos satélites Landsat 5 e 7); censitários (produção agrícola municipal e densidade demográfica); limnológicos (característicasfísicas, químicas e biológicas do reservatório estudado, obtidas em campo e na literatura); pluviométricos e fluviométricos. A organização e o tratamento das diversas informações foram realizados com o auxílio de Sistema de Informação Geográfica (Spring 3.6), obtendo também um banco de dados limnológicos multitemporal. As ferramentas de geotecnologias foram aplicadas na caracterização dos fatores fisiográficos, no mapeamento do uso e cobertura da terra e do potencial poluidor das sub-bacias da bacia de drenagem...

Em terra vestida: contradições de um processo de territorialização camponesa na Resex Quilombo do Frechal (MA); On dressed land: contradictions of a peasant territorialization process in the Resex Quilombo do Frechal (MA)

Guerrero, Natalia Ribas
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/12/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.77%
Esta dissertação propõe uma reflexão sobre as contradições no processo de territorialização de camponeses da Reserva Extrativista Quilombo do Frechal, situada no município de Mirinzal (MA), na baixada ocidental maranhense. Distribuída em três povoados Rumo, Deserto e Frechal a população da Resex relata descender de escravos e trabalhadores livres vinculados desde o século XVIII aos proprietários da Fazenda Frechal. Nas décadas de 1970 e 1980, moradores ligados particularmente ao povoado de Frechal se viram diante de ameaças de expropriação, que desencadearam contra o fazendeiro um processo de luta pela terra que se estenderia ao longo de mais de uma década. Em sua resistência, a população de Frechal se viu envolvida no movimento das chamadas comunidades negras rurais que culminaria, em 1988, na inclusão do artigo 68 no ADCT na Constituição, a reconhecer o direito à terra dos remanescentes de quilombo. Frechal pleiteou esse reconhecimento, no que foi atendida, em 1990, tornando-se a primeira comunidade assim entendida no Brasil inteiro. No entanto, à falta de regulamentação para possibilitar a titulação nesses moldes, a garantia dos direitos territoriais de Frechal e o fim do assédio do fazendeiro viram-se assegurados por meio de uma recém-estabelecida modalidade de unidade de conservação ambiental...

Assessing impacts of Common Agricultural Policy changes on regional land use

Borjes, P.J; Fragoso, R.; Garcia-Gonzalo, J.; Borges, J.G.; Marques, S.; Lucas, M.R.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.89%
This paper discusses research aiming at assessing Common Agricultural Policy impacts on agriculture and forestry. For this purpose an approach is developed that includes a linear programming model to estimate the Positive Mathematical Programming production cost function coefficients of current agricultural– forestry activities. It further includes a heuristic — simulated annealing — to generate solutions for each policy scenario. This model base approach is integrated within a decision support system (DSS) for testing purposes. The DSS further encompasses a relational database that stores agricultural–forestry technical and economic data and a geographic information system that stores topological data of regional farm-type land units. The DSS Graphical User Interface provides tabular and geographical reporting capabilities. Results are discussed for an application to the Alentejo region in Southern Portugal. Results demonstrate the usefulness and relevance of the proposed approach to assess the impact of changes in prices and in agricultural policy on land use patterns and on forestry.

Assessing impacts of Common Agricultural Policy changes on regional use patterns with a decision support system. An application in Southern Portugal

Borges, P.J.; Fragoso, R.; Borges, J.G.; Marques, S.A.; Lucas, M.R.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.85%
This paper discusses research aiming at assessing Common Agricultural Policy impacts on agriculture and forestry. For this purpose an approach is developed that includes a linear programming model to estimate the Positive Mathematical Programming production cost function coefficients of current agricultural– forestry activities. It further includes a heuristic — simulated annealing — to generate solutions for each policy scenario. This model base approach is integrated within a decision support system (DSS) for testing purposes. The DSS further encompasses a relational database that stores agricultural–forestry technical and economic data and a geographic information system that stores topological data of regional farm-type land units. The DSS Graphical User Interface provides tabular and geographical reporting capabilities. Results are discussed for an application to the Alentejo region in Southern Portugal. Results demonstrate the usefulness and relevance of the proposed approach to assess the impact of changes in prices and in agricultural policy on land use patterns and on forestry

Biofuels and Climate Change Mitigation : A CGE Analysis Incorporating Land-Use Change

Timilsina, Govinda R.; Mevel, Simon
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
The question of whether biofuels help mitigate climate change has attracted much debate in the literature. Using a global computable general equilibrium model that explicitly represents land-use change impacts due to the expansion of biofuels, this study attempts to shed some light on this question. The study shows that if biofuel mandates and targets currently announced by more than 40 countries around the world are implemented by 2020 using crop feedstocks, and if both forests and pasture lands are used to meet the new land demands for biofuel expansion, this would cause a net increase of greenhouse gas emissions released to the atmosphere until 2043, since the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions released through land-use change would exceed the reduction of emissions due to replacement of gasoline and diesel until then. However, if the use of forest lands is avoided by channeling only pasture lands to meet the demand for new lands, a net increase of cumulative greenhouse gas emissions would occur but would cease by 2021...

Uganda Sustainable Land Management : Public Expenditure Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.97%
This report summarizes the findings of the Uganda Sustainable Land Management Public Expenditure Review (SLM PER). The SLM PER was undertaken to achieve six main objectives: (i) establish a robust data base on SLM-related public expenditure that can support credible empirical analysis; (ii) develop a sound methodology for conducting SLM PERs, which could guide similar work in the future; (iii) analyze the level and composition of SLM spending in the recent past; (iv) identify potential entry points for public support based on the concept of development pathways; (v) understand the institutional arrangements for coordination on SLM issues; and (vi) draw policy recommendations for the land use sector. Overall the SLM PER aims at informing the current policy dialogue with and within Uganda and thereby contributing to the development of a common national strategy for the efficient and effective scale-up of SLM interventions. The review is expected to provide important input to: (i) the on-going Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP) process...

Brazil Land Governance Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.93%
This report on the assessment of land governance in Brazil summarizes and discusses the results of a series of standardized self-assessments of the land governance situation in Brazil, conducted entirely by Brazilian speakers. Therefore, these findings represent the perception of local experts based on their experience of news and data available. The main aim of this report are federal and state authorities directly involved in land governance in the evaluated states and other states. The general objective of the development of this assessment is to measure reliably the skills and the performance of land governance in a cross section of the country. This assessment is highly relevant and timely, as the land and real estate of natural resources linked to the land are the central core of the current competitiveness of Brazil and its strategically valuable position in the changing world economy. The evaluation methodology was the Assessment Framework of Land Governance (LGAF) developed by the World Bank. It focused on five key areas of good land governance and three additional topics. Key areas were: legal...

Customary land tenure & registration in Australia and Papua New Guinea: anthropological perspectives

Weiner, James; Glaskin, Katie
Fonte: Australian National University, E Press; RMAP (Resource Management in Asia-Pacific Program), Crawford School of Public Policy, ANU College of Asia & the Pacific; http://epress.anu.edu.au Publicador: Australian National University, E Press; RMAP (Resource Management in Asia-Pacific Program), Crawford School of Public Policy, ANU College of Asia & the Pacific; http://epress.anu.edu.au
Tipo: Book; Published Version Formato: 326 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
Anthropologists 50 years ago would probably have regarded a collaborative presentation of essays on indigenous land tenure in Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG) as a dubious undertaking, if not a category error. Aboriginal and Melanesian systems were functionally distinct, one adapted to the needs of a hunting and gathering economy, the other to sedentary horticulture. Going back another 50 years, such a conjunction would have been intelligible only if its purpose was to exhibit lower and higher stages in cultural evolution. As the authors of the present volume are not motivated by a desire either to overturn functionalism or advance evolutionism, what brings them together in common cause? An important clue is to be found in the curious fact that the Native Title Act of 1993, passed by the Federal Government on behalf of the indigenous people of Australia, grew directly out of a High Court action by three Torres Strait Islanders whose ancestors probably came from PNG and whose people traditionally lived as subsistence cultivators. In the course of documenting the denigration of Aborigines in colonial legal history, Justice Brennan made it clear he would have no sympathy with any attempt to represent the plaintiffs as belonging to a higher level of native society than any that existed on the mainland (Bartlett 1993: 27). His colleague Justice Toohey acknowledged significant cultural differences between the two peoples but insisted that the principles relevant to a determination of interests in land were the same (ibid: 140). Although the Mabo decision was the first positive determination by the judiciary of the rights of native Australians to land at common law...

Paths of diversification: Land use, livelihood strategies and social learning along the aging of a land reform settlement in Acre, Brazil

Ludewigs, Thomas; Brondizio, Eduardo S.
Fonte: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Sociais Publicador: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Sociais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.84%
Copyright 2009 Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Sociais; This paper explores the story of settlers overcoming challenges common to the environment of expanding agricultural frontiers, and how this is reflected on the land-use and livelihood choices that unfold with the aging of settlements. The study site is a land reform project in the State of Acre, Brazil. We found that most families seek to diversify their livelihood strategies and take advantage of new opportunities as a way to cope with income uncertainties largely present on the frontier setting. As in other parts of the Amazon, cattle-ranching is the single most important activity to secure income, but complementary activities such as agroforestry and fish breeding are key for economic security and improvements.

Lao People's Democratic Republic - Investment and Access to Land and Natural Resources : Challenges in Promoting Sustainable Development, A Think Piece (A Basis for Dialogue)

Lao PDR Ministry of Planning and Investment; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
The aim of this discussion paper is to ascertain the government of Lao's (GoL) current practices in negotiating, awarding, and managing land concessions; enhance GoL understanding and commitments to develop national capacities targeting improved land management, that will generate revenues for GoL, and ensure sustainable development as an urgent priority; and provide a basis for dialogue within the government to enable its determination of priorities to better address land development issues in Laos, to enable the achievement of sustainable, responsible economic development. The paper also examines key issues revolving around the sustainable utilization of land, and the mechanisms, through an examination of GoL s policy statements. The findings are provided, and the report advises that GoL pay special attention to four major points: the availability of adequate and accurate information on which to make decisions on concessions; adequate capacity within GoL agencies to determine, award and monitor/oversee the operation of concessions; and governance over land and natural resources. These points of guidance are expected to contribute towards developing sustainable approaches for land administration and management programs in Lao PDR...

Uganda - Post-Conflict Land Policy and Administration Options : The Case of Northern Uganda

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Social Analysis
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
This is the second part of land studies on Northern Uganda designed to inform the Peace, Recovery and Development Plan (PRDP). This second part of the study, undertaken during the second half of 2007 in the Lango and Acholi regions, builds on the first phase conducted in 2006 in the Teso region. This second study has been designed to present a more quantitative analysis of trends on disputes and claims on land before displacement, during displacement and on return of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in the greater conflict areas of Acholi and Lango regions. The study found that the return from IDP camps to original homes was progressing with varied results tied to the length of time spent in the camps, from 5 to 15 years. About 85 percent of the respondents had experienced threats to tenure security, and many felt these threats were significant. Misgivings exist about the Central Government's intentions towards land. Disputes mainly occurred on land abandoned upon displacement, with border disputes being the most prevalent. The study also looked into land administration...

Analysis of the Impact of Land Tenure Certificates with Both the Names of Wife and Husband in Vietnam

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Women in Development and Gender Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.92%
The 2003 land law defines that the Land Tenure Certificate (LTCs) carries both the wife's and husband's names. Theoretically, the requirement of both the wife's and husband's names on the LTCs aims at enabling the wife to participate more actively in household economic production for poverty reduction, and to protect the rights of the woman in the event of civil disputes over the land that has been provided with a LTCs. A field-based research was conducted in order to assess whether the joint-title LTCs has had positive impacts on the household in general and on the woman's roles in the household in particular, as intended by the 2003 land law. The report is organized in three sections: (1) introduction; (2) study findings with five contents: access to credit; investment opportunities and outcomes; land use rights security; impacts on women's position in family and in community; and issuance and conversion of LTCs; and (3) proposals to land administration agencies.

Nigeria - An Economic Analysis of Natural Resources Sustainability : Land Tenure and Land Degradation Issues

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Environmental Analysis (CEA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.07%
The scope and urgency of the threats to Nigeria's rural land are no secret. In 2005, a working group dedicated to formulating a national agricultural land policy began the process with a comprehensive articulation of the challenges facing Nigeria's agricultural land. The litany included recognition that: 1) agricultural land use in the country has been unsustainable, resulting in no fewer than eleven types of extensive land degradation and significant degradation of water resources; 2) the country has not classified its land - including its prime agricultural land - according to its use capabilities, and thus has no foundation for allocating land among uses or creating the mechanisms and processes for such allocation; 3) the majority of Nigeria's farmers are smallholders relying on subsistence-level cultivation practices; 4) the country's agricultural labor pool is shrinking, and practices that promote better conservation of natural resources have been too limited; and 5) the rural areas of the country lack of basic and necessary infrastructure...

Sustainable Land Management : Challenges, Opportunities, and Trade-offs; Manejo sostenible de la tierra : desafios, posibilidades, y costos de oportunidad

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: Wolrd Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: Wolrd Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
Land is the integrating component of all livelihoods depending on farm, forest, rangeland, or water (rivers, lakes, coastal marine) habitats. Due to varying political, social, and economic factors, the heavy use of natural resources to supply a rapidly growing global population and economy has resulted in the unintended mismanagement and degradation of land and ecosystems. This book provides strategic focus to the implementation of sustainable land management (SLM) components of the World Bank's development strategies. Sustainable land management is a knowledge-based procedure that integrates land, water, biodiversity, and environmental management to meet rising food and fiber demands while sustaining livelihoods and the environment. This book articulates priorities for investment in sustainable land management and natural resource management and identifies the policy, institutional, and incentive reform options that will accelerate the adoption of productivity improvements and pro-poor growth with sustainable land management.

The Land Governance Assessment Framework : Identifying and Monitoring Good Practice in the Land Sector

Deininger, Klaus; Selod, Harris; Burns, Anthony
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
Seventy-five percent of the world's poor live in rural areas and most are involved in agriculture. In the 21st century, agriculture remains fundamental to economic growth, poverty alleviation, and environmental sustainability. The World Bank's Agriculture and rural development publication series presents recent analyses of issues that affect the role of agriculture, including livestock, fisheries, and forestry, as a source of economic development, rural livelihoods, and environmental services. The series is intended for practical application, and hope that it will serve to inform public discussion, policy formulation, and development planning. Increased global demand for land because of higher and more volatile food prices, urbanization, and use of land for environmental services implies an increased need for well-designed land policies at the country level to ensure security of long-held rights, to facilitate land access, and to deal with externalities. Establishing the infrastructure necessary to proactively deal with these challenges can require large amounts of resources. Yet with land tenure deeply rooted in any country's history...

Implementing Low-Cost Rural Land Certification : The Case of Ethiopia

Deininger, Klaus
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
This report is about implementing low-cost rural land certification. Prior to 1975, Ethiopia's land tenure system was complex and semi-feudal. Tenure was highly insecure, arbitrary evictions were common, and many lands underutilized. High inequality of land ownership reduced productivity and investment, leading to political grievances and eventually the overthrow of the imperial regime in 1975. The Marxist government that took power transferred ownership of all rural land to the state, leading to declines in productivity and soil degradation. A 1997 federal proclamation (law) devolved responsibility for land policy to the regions. Although this has led to considerable inter-regional diversity, a number of common issues emerge, namely (i) administrative land redistribution is not an empty threat; (ii) while land rental is now allowed, the fact that in most regions the amount that can be rented is limited and that land rights are contingent on physical residence in the village could undercut efforts at non-agricultural development and migration from rural areas; and (iii) mortgaging and sale of land are universally prohibited

Finding Common Ground: Building Equitable Planning Futures with First Nations in Ontario, Canada

McLeod, Fraser
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.96%
This thesis analyzes selective land use and resource management policies in the province of Ontario, Canada and their relative capacity at recognizing and supporting First Nations. Written in a manuscript format, this thesis addresses the three following questions: 1. How have land use and resource management legislation and policies in Ontario recognized and supported First Nations’ rights and notions of honouring past Crown-First Nation relationships? 2. How are First Nations recognized and supported in the current and past versions of the Provincial Policy Statement in the province of Ontario? 3. How can top-down territorial planning policies in Ontario take a fundamental shift towards promoting new types of relationships and mutual understanding between municipalities and Indigenous peoples by learning from the Aotearoa New Zealand planning context? The common approach to address these research questions is content analysis of policy documents through two separate analytical frameworks. The first manuscript addresses questions one and provides a baseline review of 337 provincial texts and their relative capacity at recognizing First Nations and Aboriginal and treaty rights, and embodying past Crown-First Nations relationships. The second manuscript then addresses the remaining questions by engaging in a comparative between the Ontario Provincial Policy Statement (PPS) (2014) and the Auckland Council Regional Policy Statement (ACRPS) (1999) from the Aotearoa New Zealand planning context. The results highlight the relative limits of Ontario’s current approach and practical areas of improvement. From a theoretical standpoint...

Implications for food production, land use and rural development of the European Union’s single farm payment: Indications from a survey of farmers’ intentions in Germany, Portugal and the UK

Tranter, R. B.; Swinbank, A.; Wooldridge, M. J.; Costa, L.; Knapp, T.; Little, G. P. J.; Sottomayor, M. L.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.82%
The 2003 reform of the European Union's (EU) Common Agricultural Policy introduced a decoupled income support for farmers called the Single Farm Payment (SFP). Concerns were raised about possible future land use and production changes and their impact on rural communities. Here, such concerns are considered against the workings of the SFP in three EU Member States. Various quantitative studies that have determined the likely impact of the SFP within the EU and the study countries are reviewed. We present the results of a farm survey conducted in the study countries in which farmers' responses to a decoupling scenario similar to the SFP were sought. We found that little short-term change was proposed in the three, rather di erent, study countries with only 30% of the farmers stating that they would alter their mix of farm activities. Furthermore, less than 30% of all respondents in each country would idle any land under decoupling. Of those who would adopt a new activity, the most popular choices were forestry, woodland and non-food crops.

Multiple scale landscape pattern index interpretation for the persistent monitoring of land-cover and land-use

Spivey, Alvin
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Dissertação
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
Mapping land-cover land-use change (LCLUC) over regional and continental scales, and long time scales (years and decades), can be accomplished using thematically identified classification maps of a landscape--a LCLU class map. Observations of a landscape's LCLU class map pattern can indicate the most relevant process, like hydrologic or ecologic function, causing landscape scale environmental change. Quantified as Landscape Pattern Metrics (LPM), emergent landscape pat- terns act as Landscape Indicators (LI) when physically interpreted. The common mathematical approach to quantifying observed landscape scale pattern is to have LPM measure how connected a class exists within the landscape, through nonlinear local kernel operations of edges and gradi- ents in class maps. Commonly applied kernel-based LPM that consistently reveal causal processes are Dominance, Contagion, and Fractal Dimension. These kernel-based LPM can be difficult to interpret. The emphasis on an image pixel's edge by gradient operations and dependence on an image pixel's existence according to classification accuracy limit the interpretation of LPM. For example, the Dominance and Contagion kernel-based LPM very similarly measure how connected a landscape is. Because of this...