Genome-wide linkage analysis studies in families with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have revealed consistent evidence of linkage to several regions of the genome. In a previous issue of this journal, Graham and colleagues described their approach to following up the linkage data for one of these regions, 1q41–42. Using methods based on the transmission disequilibrium test, the region likely to harbour a SLE disease gene was refined to 2.3 Mb. This commentary discusses their approach and identifies lessons that may be applicable to the investigation of other complex diseases.
The problems associated with the ageing immune system coupled with possible solutions were discussed recently at the British Society for Immunology Annual Congress in Harrogate in December 2004. The session "Ageing and the Immune System in vivo" dealt in details with the immune risk phenotype and the potential methods of reversing the problems of an ageing immune system. This is a commentary on that session.
The article by Miranda et al. presents data showing significant synergism between NEO and certain NSAIDs administered i.p. in the mouse. Their conclusions follow from isobolar analysis accompanied by statistical confidence limits that show significant differences between the additive (expected) and experimental potencies. This commentary discusses the features of the graphical method of analysis and points out other experimental designs and the methods used to analyse them.
A recent meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials reported by Bongartz and coworkers raised concerns about an increased rate of malignancy and serious infection in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor monoclonal antibodies. This commentary discusses some of the methodological issues in their analysis and urges caution in interpreting the results.
Listening to Mothers II provides great insight into the birth experiences of women today. The findings clearly demonstrate that practices that interfere with the physiology of reproduction permeate birth settings across the nation. This commentary identifies strategies for increasing awareness of the study and the long-term implications of common birth practices.
This is an accompanying commentary on the article by Gert Bronfort and colleagues about the effectiveness of manual therapy. The two commentaries were provided independently and combined into this single article by the journal editors.
Case-control studies on adults point to an increased risk of brain tumours (glioma and acoustic neuroma) associated with the long-term use of mobile phones. Recently, the first study on mobile phone use and the risk of brain tumours in children and adolescents, CEFALO, was published. It has been claimed that this relatively small study yielded reassuring results of no increased risk. We do not agree. We consider that the data contain several indications of increased risk, despite low exposure, short latency period, and limitations in the study design, analyses and interpretation. The information certainly cannot be used as reassuring evidence against an association, for reasons that we discuss in this commentary.
This commentary reviews the international radiation protection policy that resulted in the evacuation of more than 90,000 residents from areas near the Fukushima Daiichi NPS and the enormous expenditures to protect them against a hypothetical risk of cancer. The basis for the precautionary measures is shown to be invalid; the radiation level chosen for evacuation is not conservative. The actions caused unnecessary fear and suffering. An appropriate level for evacuation is recommended. Radical changes to the ICRP recommendations are long overdue.
This issue of The Journal of Medical Toxicology includes a position statement regarding the use of pressure immobilization for the pre-hospital treatment of North American Crotalinae envenomation. This commentary discusses the background behind the creation of the position statement and explores the issues involved in applying science to real-world public health recommendations and practice.
Although many researchers agree that applying conventional drug-trial quality criteria to CAM studies lacks plausibility, few take on the burden of devising alternative criteria in a specific area of CAM. This commentary points out strengths and weaknesses in the approach taken in the work of Mathie and colleagues to do this for homeopathy.
Pediatric chronic pain is widespread, under-recognized and undertreated. Best management usually involves a multimodal approach coordinated by a multidisciplinary team. The present commentary specifically discusses common pharmacological approaches to chronic pain in children, identifies gaps in knowledge and suggests several research directions that would benefit future clinical care.
As exhibited throughout the medical literature over many decades, there is a lack of uniformity in the manner in which spine pain patients have historically qualified for and received manipulation under anesthesia (MUA). Also, for different professions that treat the same types of spinal conditions via the same means, fundamental MUA decision points vary within the published protocols of different professional associations. The more recent chiropractic literature communicates that the evidence to support the efficacy of MUA of the spine remains largely anecdotal. In addition, it has been reported that the types of spinal conditions most suitable for MUA are without clear-cut consensus, with various indications for MUA of the low back resting wholly upon the opinions and experiences of MUA practitioners. This article will provide a narrative review of the MUA literature, followed by a commentary about the current lack of high quality research evidence, the anecdotal and consensus basis of existing clinical protocols, as well as related professional, ethical and legal concerns for the chiropractic practitioner. The limitations of the current medical literature related to MUA via conscious/deep sedation need to be recognized and used as a guide to clinical experience when giving consideration to this procedure. More research...
This commentary addresses a recent article on the characterization of muscle
dysmorphia as an addiction. The commentary examines the larger issue of the
possible relationship of compulsions to addictions. It also questions whether
understanding the heterogeneity within disorders may be a useful tactic to
develop more targeted treatment approaches.
This letter is a response to commentary by Skinner et al. on an evaluation by Burke et al. of the HealthMPowers program, an elementary-school-based program developed to improve child health and wellness. In their commentary, Skinner et al. make the criticism that our results for changes in BMI-for-Age Z score were simply reflective of Regression to the Mean (RTM). In this response, we show that while some of our results are consistent with RTM, with adjustment we do still observe some small effects in BMI-for-Age Z score over the course of the school year. We conclude that while our evaluation was not definitive, we still believe that programs of similar design to HealthMPowers merit further rigorous study.
This paper examines commentary as a mode of speaking that has not received sufficient
attention by social and cultural geographers. In contrast to a representational understanding of commentary, where commentary is the expert interpretation of an environment, this paper develops a more passive understanding of commentary where the commentator is a figure through which the affective, material forces that constitute environments become expressed. Based on qualitative fieldwork in Sydney, Australia, the paper examines three modes of everyday commentary related to commuting. The commentaries of reportage, anecdote and autoventriloquy each demonstrate in different ways how the affective, material environments of commuting become spoken. The paper shows, first, how commentary is a constitutive rather than derivative aspect of the experience of commuting. Second, it shows that commentary is an expression of
affective, material environments, rather than either the willed self-expression of the
speaker, or the manifestation of socially and historically contingent discourses. Third, it shows that commentary can both close down and draw out specific affective, material environments. Fourth, it shows how commentary modulates the powers of existence in the zone of the commute...
Giovanni Boccaccio stellt die sehr eindrucksvolle Griselda-Novelle an das Ende seines Decameron (um 1350). Die Vorstufe dieser Erzählung sind sehr wahrscheinlich die "Griseldismärchen", die man sich seit alters u.a. in Dänemark, Island, Russland erzählte. In diesen Märchen haben sich, wie man nachgewiesen hat, Grundzüge des altgermanischen Eherechts erhalten, denen wir deshalb auch noch in Boccaccios Griselda-Novelle fast rein wiederbegegnen. Da wohl weder Boccaccio noch seinen Lesern bewusst war, dass diese Rechtsnormen, die für die Menschen dieser Erzählung Gültigkeit hatten, einer längst vergangenen Zeit angehörten, verstanden sie im späten Mittelalter das "unmenschliche“ Verhalten des Markgrafen und die Reaktion der "Dulderin“ Griselda nicht mehr. Deshalb suchten sie nach für sie nachvollziehbaren Motiven und Erklärungen, und zwar bis in die Gegenwart.
Der erste, der eine Deutung lieferte - Boccaccio gibt nur einen nüchternen Tatsachenbericht und enthält sich weitgehend eines Urteils - war Francesco Petrarca, der mehr als zwanzig Jahre später (1373) Boccaccios Novelle in die Weltsprache Latein frei übertrug. Dadurch wurde sie sehr bald in ganz Europa bekannt, immer wieder bearbeitet (auch von Petrus de Hailles) und in die Volkssprachen übersetzt.
The present article is dedicated to the Commentary on the Apocalypse by Venerable Bede. The close reading of the commentary shows that the leading topic of Bede’s commentary is missionary work. By the beginning of the eighth century, the idea of preaching Christianity to the heathens on the continent was widespread in England, especially in Northumbria. While commenting on the verses of the Apocalypse, Bede also expresses his views concerning various aspects of preaching. In the case of Bede's commentary, the genre in question turns out to be lively and full of allusions to current events.; O presente artigo dedica-se ao Comentário do Apocalipse, escrito por Beda, o Venerável. Uma leitura atenta do comentário mostra que o principal tópico do trabalho é o trabalho missionário. No início do século VIII, a ideiade pregar o cristianismo aos pagãos do continente estava disseminada na Inglaterra, especialmente na Nortúmbria. Enquanto comentava acerca dos versos do apocalipse, Beda também expressava suas percepções no que dizia respeito aos vários aspectos da pregação. No caso dos comentários de Beda, o gênero em questão revela-se vívido e repleto de alusões aos eventos coevos.
In this translation with commentary of the short story “O Cônego ou Metafísica do Estilo” by Machado de Assis, we reveal the project that guided our translation, give information about the context of our project, provide a brief analysis of some aspects of the story that caught our attention, and discuss some translation problems and strategies.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-4237.2013n14p290Nesta tradução comentada do conto “O Cônego ou Metafísica do Estilo”, de Machado de Assis, apresentamos o projeto que guiou nossa tradução, informações quanto ao contexto de realização do projeto, uma breve análise de alguns aspectos do conto que chamaram a atenção das tradutoras, e algumas dificuldades e estratégias de tradução.ABSTRACTIn this translation with commentary of the short story “O Cônego ou Metafísica do Estilo” by Machado de Assis, we reveal the project that guided our translation, give information about the context of our project, provide a brief analysis of some aspects of the story that caught our attention, and discuss some translation problems and strategies.Keywords: “O cônego ou metafísica do estilo”; Machado de Assis; Translation with commentary; Translation project; Übersetzung
What follows is a translation (into Spanish) with commentary of the short story “O cônego ou Metafísica do Estilo” by Machado de Assis. My path starts at the intersection between the process of translation in itself and topics in literary theory that move the reading of the text to be translated.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-4237.2013n14p323Apresenta-se aqui uma tradução comentada ao espanhol do conto “O cônego ou Metafísica do Estilo” de Machado de Assis. Meu percurso se abre na intersecção entre o exercício da tradução e questões de teoria literária que dinamizam a leitura do texto a ser traduzido.ABSTRACTWhat follows is a translation (into Spanish) with commentary of the short story “O cônego ou Metafísica do Estilo” by Machado de Assis. My path starts at the intersection between the process of translation in itself and topics in literary theory that move the reading of the text to be translated.Keywords: “O cônego ou metafísica do estilo”; Machado de Assis; Translation with commentary