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Commentaries on the History and Cure of Diseases

Copeman, W. S. C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1963 EN
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25.84%

Perspectives on genetics: anecdotal, historical, and critical commentaries, 1987–1998

Cain, Joe
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2002 EN
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25.84%

Anatomical and physiological commentaries

Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1977 EN
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25.84%

Vinyl Chloride: A Case Study of Data Suppression and Misrepresentation

Sass, Jennifer Beth; Castleman, Barry; Wallinga, David
Fonte: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.84%
When the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized its 2000 update of the toxicological effects of vinyl chloride (VC), it was concerned with two issues: the classification of VC as a carcinogen and the numerical estimate of its potency. In this commentary we describe how the U.S. EPA review of VC toxicology, which was drafted with substantial input from the chemical industry, weakened safeguards on both points. First, the assessment downplays risks from all cancer sites other than the liver. Second, the estimate of cancer potency was reduced 10-fold from values previously used for environmental decision making, a finding that reduces the cost and extent of pollution reduction and cleanup measures. We suggest that this assessment reflects discredited scientific practices and recommend that the U.S. EPA reverse its trend toward ever-increasing collaborations with the regulated industries when generating scientific reviews and risk assessments.

Cell Division, a new open access online forum for and from the cell cycle community

Kaldis, Philipp; Pagano, Michele
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/04/2006 EN
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25.84%
Cell Division is a new, open access, peer-reviewed online journal that publishes cutting-edge articles, commentaries and reviews on all exciting aspects of cell cycle control in eukaryotes. A major goal of this new journal is to publish timely and significant studies on the aberrations of the cell cycle network that occur in cancer and other diseases.

Book Review: History of medicine: with commentaries

Barnett, Richard
Fonte: Medical History Publicador: Medical History
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/07/2006 EN
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25.84%

Cannabis reward: biased towards the fairer sex?

McGregor, I S; Arnold, J C
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.84%
In contrast to drugs such as alcohol, amphetamine and cocaine, cannabis use in humans has proven difficult to model in laboratory animals. Recent breakthrough discoveries of intravenous THC self-administration in rhesus monkeys and self-administration of the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 in rats have allowed new studies of the genetic, neural and environmental determinants of cannabis use. In the present issue of BJP, Fattore and colleagues further demonstrate genetic (strain) differences in WIN 55,212-2 self-administration in rats, with Long Evans (LE) and Lister Hooded (LH), but not Sprague–Dawley, rats self-administering this drug. They then show that female LE and LH rats self-administer more WIN 55,212-2 than male rats. Ovariectomy abolished this sex difference, suggesting a permissive role for oestrogen in cannabis reward. This accompanying Commentary reviews recent progress in animal models of cannabis use and highlights the role of genetic, developmental and endocrine factors in driving cannabis use and dependence.

The regulation of autophagy – unanswered questions

Chen, Yongqiang; Klionsky, Daniel J.
Fonte: Company of Biologists Publicador: Company of Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.84%
Autophagy is an intracellular lysosomal (vacuolar) degradation process that is characterized by the formation of double-membrane vesicles, known as autophagosomes, which sequester cytoplasm. As autophagy is involved in cell growth, survival, development and death, the levels of autophagy must be properly regulated, as indicated by the fact that dysregulated autophagy has been linked to many human pathophysiologies, such as cancer, myopathies, neurodegeneration, heart and liver diseases, and gastrointestinal disorders. Substantial progress has recently been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the autophagy machinery, and in the regulation of autophagy. However, many unanswered questions remain, such as how the Atg1 complex is activated and the function of PtdIns3K is regulated, how the ubiquitin-like conjugation systems participate in autophagy and the mechanisms of phagophore expansion and autophagosome formation, how the network of TOR signaling pathways regulating autophagy are controlled, and what the underlying mechanisms are for the pro-cell survival and the pro-cell death effects of autophagy. As several recent reviews have comprehensively summarized the recent progress in the regulation of autophagy, we focus in this Commentary on the main unresolved questions in this field.

Direct-to-consumer personalized genomic testing

Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Darst, Burcu F.; Topol, Eric J.; Schork, Nicholas J.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.84%
Over the past 18 months, there have been notable developments in the direct-to-consumer (DTC) genomic testing arena, in particular with regard to issues surrounding governmental regulation in the USA. While commentaries continue to proliferate on this topic, actual empirical research remains relatively scant. In terms of DTC genomic testing for disease susceptibility, most of the research has centered on uptake, perceptions and attitudes toward testing among health care professionals and consumers. Only a few available studies have examined actual behavioral response among consumers, and we are not aware of any studies that have examined response to DTC genetic testing for ancestry or for drug response. We propose that further research in this area is desperately needed, despite challenges in designing appropriate studies given the rapid pace at which the field is evolving. Ultimately, DTC genomic testing for common markers and conditions is only a precursor to the eventual cost-effectiveness and wide availability of whole genome sequencing of individuals, although it remains unclear whether DTC genomic information will still be attainable. Either way, however, current knowledge needs to be extended and enhanced with respect to the delivery...

Opioids and the immune system: what is their mechanism of action?

Eisenstein, Toby K
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2011 EN
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25.84%
There is a significant amount of literature showing that morphine and other opioids modulate immune responses. The findings support many mechanisms by which this may occur. In vitro experiments provide evidence for direct actions of opioids on immune cells using a variety of functional end points. When these drugs are given in vivo, a plethora of immune parameters are also altered. The paper in this issue of the journal by Zhang et al. provides new information on morphine alteration of immune cell subsets in the spleen and thymus of mice and the potential role of glucocorticoids in these observed phenomena. This Commentary reviews the in vitro activities of morphine on leucocytes, as well as other documented mechanisms by which morphine can alter immune function in vivo.

The Heart of the Matter of Opinion and Evidence: The Value of Evidence-Based Medicine

Masvidal, Daniel; Lavie, Carl J.
Fonte: the Academic Division of Ochsner Clinic Foundation Publicador: the Academic Division of Ochsner Clinic Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
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25.96%
Evidence-based medicine is an important aspect of continuing medical education. This article reviews previous and current examples of conflicting topics that evidence-based medicine has clarified to allow us to provide the best possible patient care.

Use of inotropes and vasopressor agents in critically ill patients

Bangash, Mansoor N; Kong, Ming-Li; Pearse, Rupert M
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2012 EN
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25.84%
Inotropes and vasopressors are biologically and clinically important compounds that originate from different pharmacological groups and act at some of the most fundamental receptor and signal transduction systems in the body. More than 20 such agents are in common clinical use, yet few reviews of their pharmacology exist outside of physiology and pharmacology textbooks. Despite widespread use in critically ill patients, understanding of the clinical effects of these drugs in pathological states is poor. The purpose of this article is to describe the pharmacology and clinical applications of inotropic and vasopressor agents in critically ill patients.

Monitoring quality in Medicaid managed care: Accomplishments and challenges at the year 2000

Felt-Lisk, Suzanne
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2000 EN
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25.96%
This paper reviews the major developments during the late 1990s in quality monitoring for Medicaid managed care and offers an assessment of major challenges faced at the year 2000. We highlight the dramatic increase in activities to ensure and improve quality in Medicaid managed care. Prior to these developments, little was known about the actual level of quality of care. Thus, a major accomplishment of the late 1990s is that we now know more about quality, through some key indicators, and that states and plans have implemented activities and structures designed to improve quality. Despite this achievement, there is still a critical gap in our understanding about which activities and structures effectively improve the health of beneficiaries. There are also three operational challenges. First, as state quality assurance and improvement systems become increasingly comprehensive, states are challenged to keep them well coordinated and well targeted to key issues. Second, the dynamics of both plan turnover and enrollment—including steep drops in Medicaid enrollment—present a challenge for measuring and improving quality. A third challenge is to ensure that quality assurance and improvement programs work for enrollees with special health care needs. Finally...

Purification of Oogonial Stem Cells From Adult Mouse and Human Ovaries: An Assessment of the Literature and a View Toward the Future

Woods, Dori C.; White, Yvonne A. R.; Tilly, Jonathan L.
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2013 EN
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25.84%
Contemporary claims that mitotically active female germ line or oogonial stem cells (OSCs) exist and support oogenesis during postnatal life in mammals have been debated in the field of reproductive biology since March 2004, when a mouse study posed the first serious challenge to the dogma of a fixed pool of oocytes being endowed at birth in more than 50 years. Other studies have since been put forth that further question the validity of this dogma, including the isolation of OSCs from neonatal and adult mouse ovaries by 4 independent groups using multiple strategies. Two of these groups also reported that isolated mouse OSCs, once transplanted back into ovaries of adult female mice, differentiate into fully functional eggs that ovulate, fertilize, and produce healthy embryos and offspring. Arguably, one of the most significant advances in this emerging field was provided by a new research study published this year, which reported the successful isolation and functional characterization of OSCs from ovaries of reproductive age women. Two commentaries on this latest work, one cautiously supportive and one highly skeptical, were published soon afterward. This article evaluates the current literature regarding postnatal oogenesis in mammals and discusses important next steps for future work on OSC biology and function.

The Unjustified Classification of Kidney Donors as Patients with CKD: Critique and Recommendations

Matas, Arthur J.; Ibrahim, Hassan N.
Fonte: American Society of Nephrology Publicador: American Society of Nephrology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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25.84%
Unilateral nephrectomy for kidney donation results in loss of about 30% of baseline GFR, leaving some donors with GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, the threshold for the diagnosis CKD. This has resulted in insurability problems for some donors. This article reviews the definition of CKD, risks associated with CKD, and large follow-up studies on the vital status and risk of ESRD in kidney donors. It also provides evidence that kidney donors, despite having reduced GFR, are not at increased risk for CKD-associated morbidity and mortality. Epidemiologic studies, most with follow-up <10 years, have shown an association between GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and higher mortality and progression to ESRD. Low GFR in the absence of any other markers for kidney disease, however, conveys attenuated or minimal risk. Of note, studies of long-term kidney donor outcomes (6–45 years) have not shown excess mortality or ESRD. The limitation of the collective evidence is that the increased risks associated with GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 were demonstrated in much larger cohorts than those reported for kidney donor outcomes, but donor outcome studies have substantially longer follow-up. On the basis of current findings, kidney donors with low GFR and no other signs of kidney disease should not be classified as having CKD. This is definitely not the reward they deserve...

Preparing for Success With Comparative Effectiveness Research

Roberts, Thomas G.
Fonte: AlphaMed Press Publicador: AlphaMed Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2013 EN
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25.84%
This commentary reviews the work on Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) published in this issue by Gary Lyman and Scott Ramsey et al., concluding that CER will play a key role in optimizing outcomes for cancer patients in the future.

Federalism as a Democratic Process. By Roscoe Pound, Charles H. McIlwain, and Roy F. Nichols. With commentaries by Francis W. Coker and Edward S. Corwin. Rutgers University Publications. (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1942. 90 pp. $1.25.)

Hockett, Homer C.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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25.84%

Rapid reviews versus full systematic reviews: An inventory of current methods and practice in health technology assessment

Watt, A.; Cameron, A.; Sturm, L.; Lathlean, T.; Babidge, W.; Blamey, S.; Facey, K.; Hailey, D.; Norderhaug, I.; Maddern, G.
Fonte: Cambridge Univ Press Publicador: Cambridge Univ Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
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26.12%
Objectives: This review assessed current practice in the preparation of rapid reviews by health technology assessment (HTA) organizations, both internationally and in the Australian context, and evaluated the available peer-reviewed literature pertaining to the methodology used in the preparation of these reviews. Methods: A survey tool was developed and distributed to a total of fifty International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) members and other selected HTA organizations. Data on a broad range of themes related to the conduct of rapid reviews were collated, discussed narratively, and subjected to simple statistical analysis where appropriate. Systematic searches of the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and the Australian Medical Index were undertaken in March 2007 to identify literature pertaining to rapid review methodology. Comparative studies, guidelines, program evaluations, methods studies, commentaries, and surveys were considered for inclusion. Results: Twenty-three surveys were returned (46 percent), with eighteen agencies reporting on thirty-six rapid review products. Axiomatic trends were identified, but there was little cohesion between organizations regarding the contents, methods, and definition of a rapid review. The twelve studies identified by the systematic literature search did not specifically address the methodology underpinning rapid review; rather...

Distanced suffering: Photographed suffering and the construction of white in/vulnerability

Szorenyi, A.
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
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25.84%
There has been much debate about the ethics and effectiveness of the circulation of photographs of suffering. An analysis of commentaries and reviews of such photographs shows that the genre interpellates a particular spectator, for whom the “distance” of suffering is viewed from a comfortable centre. This mode of spectatorship is identifiable as “white” in its claim to unmarked privilege. The photographs threaten to destabilise this unmarked privilege in potentially productive ways, but the reproduction of colonial viewing relations means that whiteness remains centred. The paper concludes by attempting to destabilise the centre by bringing the discussion of the relation between suffering and sovereignty closer to “home”.; Anna Szorenyi

Journal Information

Editorial Board, LACLIL
Fonte: Universidade La Sabana Publicador: Universidade La Sabana
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; Front Matter; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
ENG
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25.84%
The Latin American Journal of Content & Language Integrated Learning (LACLIL) is a peer-reviewed journal focused on CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning), multilingualism, interculturality, and CALL (computer-assisted language learning), throughout Latin America and around the world aimed at teachers, researchers, and educational administrators who are interested in researching, implementing, or improving language-learning approaches, techniques, materials, and policies. LACLIL welcomes article submissions from researchers whose work is inspired in or stems from instructional practices implemented in language-learning subjects or subjects taught through an additional language. Articles, commentaries, and reviews on (but not necessarily limited to) the following areas are welcomed: educational approaches in which additional languages are used for the learning and teaching of both content and language (CLIL).language learning, teaching, and/or evaluation practices aimed at fostering cognition and metacognition though language or content.the use of information and communication technologies to foster communicative competences enhancing cognition, metacognition, and the learning of language, content, or both.the learning of culture and/or intercultural competences in or through additional languages.teacher professional development initiatives in the aforementioned areas.