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The Cognitive Complexity of a Provider Order Entry Interface

Horsky, Jan; Kaufman, David R.; Patel, Vimla L.
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
Computer-based provider order entry (POE) can reduce the frequency of preventable medical errors. However, overly complex interfaces frequently pose a challenge to users and impede clinical efficacy. We present a cognitive analysis of clinician interaction with a commercial POE system. Our investigation was informed by the distributed resources model, a novel approach designed to describe the dimensions of user interfaces that introduce unnecessary cognitive complexity. This approach characterizes the relative distribution of user’s internal representations and external representations embodied in the system or environmental artifacts. The research consisted of two component analyses: a modified cognitive walkthrough evaluation and a simulated clinical ordering task performed by seven physicians. The analysis revealed that the configuration of resources placed unnecessarily heavy cognitive demands on the user, especially those who lacked a robust conceptual model of the system. The resources model was also used to account for patterns of errors produced by clinicians.

Cognitive Complexity of the Medical Record Is a Risk Factor for Major Adverse Events

Roberson, David; Connell, Michael; Dillis, Shay; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Gore, Rebecca; Heagerty, Elaina; Jenkins, Kathy; Ma, Lin; Maurer, Amy; Stephenson, Jessica; Schwartz, Margot
Fonte: The Permanente Journal Publicador: The Permanente Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
Patients in tertiary care hospitals are more complex than in the past, but the implications of this are poorly understood as “patient complexity” has been difficult to quantify. A “Complexity Ruler” was validated and tested in a case-control model of all patients with major adverse events at a tertiary care pediatric hospital from 2005 to 2006. Above empirically derived cutoffs, 24-hour and lifetime cognitive complexity of the medical records were risk factors for major adverse events.

Retooling Spare Parts: Gene Duplication And Vertebrate Cognitive Complexity

Belgard, T Grant; Geschwind, Daniel H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.98%
Two new studies experimentally demonstrate how ancient genomic duplications of synaptic genes provided the substrate for diversification that ultimately expanded vertebrate cognitive complexity.

Does Formal Complexity Reflect Cognitive Complexity? Investigating Aspects of the Chomsky Hierarchy in an Artificial Language Learning Study

Öttl, Birgit; Jäger, Gerhard; Kaup, Barbara
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/04/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
This study investigated whether formal complexity, as described by the Chomsky Hierarchy, corresponds to cognitive complexity during language learning. According to the Chomsky Hierarchy, nested dependencies (context-free) are less complex than cross-serial dependencies (mildly context-sensitive). In two artificial grammar learning (AGL) experiments participants were presented with a language containing either nested or cross-serial dependencies. A learning effect for both types of dependencies could be observed, but no difference between dependency types emerged. These behavioral findings do not seem to reflect complexity differences as described in the Chomsky Hierarchy. This study extends previous findings in demonstrating learning effects for nested and cross-serial dependencies with more natural stimulus materials in a classical AGL paradigm after only one hour of exposure. The current findings can be taken as a starting point for further exploring the degree to which the Chomsky Hierarchy reflects cognitive processes.

Air Traffic Control Operating Modes and the Management of Complexity

Busing, Hans-Georg; Hansman, R. John
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 4076197 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
This report describes research exploring the relationship between structure and cognitive complexity in Air Traffic Control (ATC). Current work on structure and cognitive processes in ATC is reviewed leading to an ATC process model. Based on observations of the performance of the ATC system it appears that air traffic controllers have the ability to manipulate structure and structure-based abstractions in order to regulate the complexity of an ATC situation. The management of complexity has been integrated into the Controller Process Model through a Complexity Manager. It is hypothesized that the Complexity Manager operates by commanding switches between operating modes. In order to explore whether these operating modes can be observed in a simple ATC task, an experiment was designed. Participants were given scenarios with varying traffic levels. Their commands and their performance have been collected and analyzed. The experimental results show participants appeared to use each of the hypothesized operating modes. The use of the structure in each mode was also as expected.

The Impact of Structure on Cognitive Complexity in Air Traffic Control

Histon, Jonathan
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
Focused interviews with air traffic controllers and traffic management unit personnel, as well as analysis of traffic flow patterns based on Enhanced Traffic Management System (ETMS) data, suggest that controllers rely on underlying airspace structure to reduce the cognitive complexity of managing an air traffic control situation. To understand how structural elements reduce cognitive complexity, a framework has been developed relating structure, situation awareness, and a controller’s working mental model. It is hypothesized that structure forms the basis for abstractions which simplify a controller’s working mental model. The working mental model is used to support the key tasks of a controller identified by Pawlak (1996): planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating. Three examples of structure-based abstractions have been identified: standard flows, groupings, and critical points.; National Center of Excellence for Aviation Operations Research

Mitigating Complexity in Air Traffic Control: The Role of Structure-Based Abstractions

Hansman, R. John; Histon, Jonathan M.
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.3%
Cognitive complexity is a limiting factor on the capacity and efficiency of the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system. A multi-faceted cognitive ethnography approach shows that structure, defined as the physical and informational elements that organize and arrange the ATC environment, plays an important role in helping controllers mitigate cognitive complexity. Key influences of structure in the operational environment and on controller cognitive processes are incorporated into a cognitive process model. Controllers are hypothesized to internalize the structural influences in the form of abstractions simplifying their working mental model of the situation. By simplifying their working mental model, these structure-based abstractions reduce cognitive complexity.; FAA grants 96-C-001 and # 06-G-006.

An examination of the acute and chronic effects of exercise on cognitive function in older adults

Joyce, Jennifer
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
peer-reviewed; Research suggests that older adults can experience enhanced cognitive health as a consequence of participation in chronic exercise. However, a dose-response relationship between exercise and cognitive performance has not yet been established which makes the accurate prescription of exercise for cognitive gains difficult. In the search for appropriate exercise guidelines to promote cognitive health in old age research should focus on gaining greater insight into the role of various factors which influence the relationship between exercise and cognitive function. To this end, this thesis examined the role of several previously identified moderator variables on cognitive performance. Initially, cardiovascular fitness was examined as a potential moderator of cognitive performance in various cognitive domains. Subsequently, the effect of acute bouts of exercise on cognitive function was investigated. Factors such as the intensity of the acute exercise bout, the task complexity, the time of task administration and the cardiovascular fitness levels of the participants were all examined. Additionally, a secondary objective of this thesis was to evaluate the merit of reaction time distribution as an accurate and effective analysis technique to explain the temporal dynamics of the conflict resolution task employed during this research. Results highlighted a consistent age-associated decline which encompassed numerous cognitive domains...

Improving novice analyst performance in modeling the sequence diagram in systems analysis: A cognitive complexity approach

Sin, Thant
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
The Unified Modeling Language (UML) has quickly become the industry standard for object-oriented software development. It is being widely used in organizations and institutions around the world. However, UML is often found to be too complex for novice systems analysts. Although prior research has identified difficulties novice analysts encounter in learning UML, no viable solution has been proposed to address these difficulties. ^ Sequence-diagram modeling, in particular, has largely been overlooked. The sequence diagram models the behavioral aspects of an object-oriented software system in terms of interactions among its building blocks, i.e. objects and classes. It is one of the most commonly-used UML diagrams in practice. However, there has been little research on sequence-diagram modeling. The current literature scarcely provides effective guidelines for developing a sequence diagram. Such guidelines will be greatly beneficial to novice analysts who, unlike experienced systems analysts, do not possess relevant prior experience to easily learn how to develop a sequence diagram. There is the need for an effective sequence-diagram modeling technique for novices. ^ This dissertation reports a research study that identified novice difficulties in modeling a sequence diagram and proposed a technique called CHOP (CHunking...

Improving Novice Analyst Performance in Modeling the Sequence Diagram in Systems Analysis: A Cognitive Complexity Approach

Sin, Thant
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
The Unified Modeling Language (UML) has quickly become the industry standard for object-oriented software development. It is being widely used in organizations and institutions around the world. However, UML is often found to be too complex for novice systems analysts. Although prior research has identified difficulties novice analysts encounter in learning UML, no viable solution has been proposed to address these difficulties. Sequence-diagram modeling, in particular, has largely been overlooked. The sequence diagram models the behavioral aspects of an object-oriented software system in terms of interactions among its building blocks, i.e. objects and classes. It is one of the most commonly-used UML diagrams in practice. However, there has been little research on sequence-diagram modeling. The current literature scarcely provides effective guidelines for developing a sequence diagram. Such guidelines will be greatly beneficial to novice analysts who, unlike experienced systems analysts, do not possess relevant prior experience to easily learn how to develop a sequence diagram. There is the need for an effective sequence-diagram modeling technique for novices. This dissertation reports a research study that identified novice difficulties in modeling a sequence diagram and proposed a technique called CHOP (CHunking...

Cognitive complexity and agressive responding in a simulated social interaction

Aidman, Eugene V.
Fonte: The Australian Psychological Society Publicador: The Australian Psychological Society
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
Simulated social interaction tasks have shown utility in eliciting and assessing aggression-related responses. One of the tools, Mimics (Aidman & Shmelyov, 2002), employs a conflict / cooperation choice scenario, which requires the player to manipulate schematic facial expressions of an Avatar in order to negotiate a matrix of hosts whose actions range from friendly and supportive to obstructing and expressly aggressive. Players choose between negotiating, attacking and evading individual hosts, given resource constraints of limited time and power. Several indices are computed, including the rates of unprovoked, retaliatory, and frustration-driven attacks, threatening or evasive action. Construct validity of these measures has been supported by predictable patterns of their associations with several criterion measures of aggression (Aidman, 2004, 2006; Schober & Bjorkvist, 2007) and its dispositional constituents, such as self-esteem (Aidman & Vozzo, 2002) and anger (Newton, 2008). The current study examined associations between attacking behaviour in Mimics‘ simulated conflict with individual differences in social cognition – in particular, with cognitive complexity and self-evaluation. The degree of cognitive differentiation in the domain of significant others as measured by the Implicit Repertory Grid (an MDS-version of Kelly‘s Rep Grid test - Aidman...

Creating and leading adaptive organisations: the nature and practice of emergent logic.

Kerr, Fiona
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
This study examines how leaders enable their organisations to adapt and succeed in complex environments. Through the joint lenses of complexity theory and the cognition and social neuroscience of leadership it focuses on how leadership directly influences the creation and ongoing function of an adaptive organisation. The study includes the comparison of four leaders through embedded case studies as an abductive approach to initial theory building, and the follow up of two of them as a comparative method of analysis, and it generates a substantive theory of leadership cognition called emergent logic. This leadership approach is especially relevant to leading complex human systems in emergent environments, the scenario for the majority of organisations in the present day. This thesis addresses two questions: How do leaders of adaptive organisations think? And what do leaders of adaptive organisations do? Among the major findings the study reveals that a critical success factor is the leader’s capacity to create and guide a complex human system by establishing and maintaining a shared mental model of its collective purpose, guided by deeply held and articulated values. The cognitive constructs of complexity and emergent logic have a direct and indirect effect on individuals and the organisation...

Effects of prior impressions, time pressure, cognitive complexity, and cognitive ability on information gathering and decision making strategies

Day, James A.
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Using a computerized information display board, subjects gathered information regarding applicants and subsequently evaluated the applicants. Results showed that subjects with prior impressions operated under a confirmatory bias during the information search and during the subsequent decision making process. This effect was greater for subjects under time pressure and with lesser cognitive complexity. Subjects having no prior impressions preferred to gather diagnostic information. Subjects under time pressure demonstrated a noncompensatory processing strategy by increasing the rate of processing, gathering less information, and showing greater variance in dimensional accesses. Subjects under severe time pressure demonstrated greater variance in applicant accesses, focused on the information dimensions most important to them, and had significantly more Type 4 (nonsystematic) transitions. Subjects with lesser cognitive complexity eliminated applicants from consideration sooner than did subjects with greater cognitive complexity. Subjects with lesser cognitive ability were more likely to immediately reaccess information and gathered less information.

Mini-Mental State Examination sentence writing among community-dwelling elderly adults in Brazil: text fluency and grammar complexity

Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Ongaratto, Lia Lopes; Yassuda, Monica Sanches
Fonte: Cambridge University Press; New York Publicador: Cambridge University Press; New York
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
Background: In normal aging, the decrease in the syntactic complexity of written production is usually associated with cognitive deficits. This study was aimed to analyze the quality of older adults' textual production indicated by verbal fluency (number of words) and grammatical complexity (number of ideas) in relation to gender, age, schooling, and cognitive status. Methods: From a probabilistic sample of community-dwelling people aged 65 years and above (n = 900), 577 were selected on basis of their responses to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) sentence writing, which were submitted to content analysis; 323 were excluded as they left the item blank or performed illegible or not meaningful responses. Education adjusted cut-off scores for the MMSE were used to classify the participants as cognitively impaired or unimpaired. Total and subdomain MMSE scores were computed. Results: 40.56% of participants whose answers to the MMSE sentence were excluded from the analyses had cognitive impairment compared to 13.86% among those whose answers were included. The excluded participants were older and less educated. Women and those older than 80 years had the lowest scores in the MMSE. There was no statistically significant relationship between gender...

Mini-Mental State Examination sentence writing among community-dwelling elderly adults in Brazil: text fluency and grammar complexity

Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Ongaratto, Lia Lopes; Yassuda, Monica Sanches
Fonte: Cambridge Univ Press; New York Publicador: Cambridge Univ Press; New York
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
Background: In normal aging, the decrease in the syntactic complexity of written production is usually associated with cognitive deficits. This study was aimed to analyze the quality of older adults' textual production indicated by verbal fluency (number of words) and grammatical complexity (number of ideas) in relation to gender, age, schooling, and cognitive status. Methods: From a probabilistic sample of community-dwelling people aged 65 years and above (n = 900), 577 were selected on basis of their responses to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) sentence writing, which were submitted to content analysis; 323 were excluded as they left the item blank or performed illegible or not meaningful responses. Education adjusted cut-off scores for the MMSE were used to classify the participants as cognitively impaired or unimpaired. Total and subdomain MMSE scores were computed. Results: 40.56% of participants whose answers to the MMSE sentence were excluded from the analyses had cognitive impairment compared to 13.86% among those whose answers were included. The excluded participants were older and less educated. Women and those older than 80 years had the lowest scores in the MMSE. There was no statistically significant relationship between gender...

Understanding the role of referential processing in sentence complexity

Warren, Tessa Cartwright, 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 128 p.; 12137435 bytes; 12137195 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Language comprehension requires syntactic, semantic and pragmatic processing. The work presented in this thesis clarifies the role that the resource demands of syntactic and referential processing play in sentence complexity. Results are interpreted within the framework of the Dependency Locality Theory (Gibson, 1998), which provides a hypothesis about how computational resources constrain the process of sentence comprehension. These new results support and further develop the DLT's discourse-based distance metric for computing locality. The experiments presented here were designed to investigate the referential processing load imposed by relating noun phrase (NP) anaphors to their antecedents and to discover the ramifications of increased referential processing load on behavioral measures of language comprehension. Four questionnaire experiments tested the intuitive complexity of doubly nested sentences containing NPs that were differently referentially accessible. These experiments demonstrated that sentences with structural dependencies crossing less accessible referents are judged more difficult than sentences with structural dependencies crossing more accessible referents. They also showed that referential accessibility manipulations had a negligible effect on intuitive complexity in positions that did not interrupt long distance structural dependencies.; (cont.) Five self-paced word-by-word reading experiments elucidated the time course of the complexity ramifications of increased referential processing. Each of these experiments showed that when less accessible referents interrupted long distance structural dependencies...

Software Cognitive Information Measure based on Relation Between Structures

Choe, Yong-Hwa; Jong, Chol-Yong; Han, Song
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/04/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
Cognitive complexity measures quantify human difficulty in understanding the source code based on cognitive informatics foundation. The discipline derives cognitive complexity on a basis of fundamental software factors i.e, inputs, outputs, and internal processing architecture. An approach to integrating Granular Computing into the new measure called Structured Cognitive Information Measure or SCIM. The proposed measure unifies and re-organizes complexity factors analogous to human cognitive process. However, according to the methodology of software and the scope of the variables, Information Complexity Number(ICN) of variables is depended on change of variable value and cognitive complexity is measured in several ways. In this paper, we define the Scope Information Complexity Number (SICN) and present the cognitive complexity based on functional decomposition of software, including theoretical validation through nine Weyuker's properties.; Comment: 12 pages

System-of-Systems Complexity

Kopetz, Hermann
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/11/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
The global availability of communication services makes it possible to interconnect independently developed systems, called constituent systems, to provide new synergistic services and more efficient economic processes. The characteristics of these new Systems-of-Systems are qualitatively different from the classic monolithic systems. In the first part of this presentation we elaborate on these differences, particularly with respect to the autonomy of the constituent systems, to dependability, continuous evolution, and emergence. In the second part we look at a SoS from the point of view of cognitive complexity. Cognitive complexity is seen as a relation between a model of an SoS and the observer. In order to understand the behavior of a large SoS we have to generate models of adequate simplicity, i.e, of a cognitive complexity that can be handled by the limited capabilities of the human mind. We will discuss the importance of properly specifying and placing the relied-upon message interfaces between the constituent systems that form an open SoS and discuss simplification strategies that help to reduce the cognitive complexity.; Comment: In Proceedings AiSoS 2013, arXiv:1311.3195

Software Cognitive Complexity Measure Based on Scope of Variables

Rim, Kwangmyong; Choe, Yonghua
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/09/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
In this paper, we define a Mathematical model of program structure. Mathematical model of program structure defined here provides unified mathematical treatment of program structure, which reveals that a program is a large and finite set of embedded binary relations between current statement and previous ones. Then, a program is considered as a composed listing and a logical combination of multiple statements according to the certain composing rules. We also define the Scope Information Complexity Number (SICN) and present the cognitive complexity based on functional decomposition of software, including theoretical validation through nine Weyuker's properties.

A Comparative Study of Habitat Complexity, Neuroanatomy, and Cognitive Behavior in Anolis Lizards

Powell, Brian James
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.18%

Changing environmental conditions may present substantial challenges to organisms experiencing them. In animals, the fastest way to respond to these changes is often by altering behavior. This ability, called behavioral flexibility, varies among species and can be studied on several levels. First, the extent of behavioral flexibility exhibited by a species can be determined by observation of that species' behavior, either in nature or in experimental settings. Second, because the central nervous system is the substrate determining behavior, neuroanatomy can be studied as the proximate cause of behavioral flexibility. Finally, the ultimate causation can be examined by studying ecological factors that favor the evolution of behavioral flexibility. In this dissertation, I investigate behavioral flexibility across all three levels by examining the relationship between habitat structure, the size of different structures within the brain and total brain size, and behavioral flexibility in six closely-related species of Puerto Rican Anolis lizards. Anolis lizards provide an excellent taxon for this study as certain species, including those used here, are classified as belonging to different ecomorphs and are morphologically and behaviorally specialized to distinct structural habitat types.

In order to determine the presence of behavioral flexibility in Anolis...