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Criminalização da homofobia: a tensão entre direito penal simbólico e o reconhecimento de minoriais

Guimarães, Camila Alves Cardadeiro
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Outros
PT_BR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.89%
Este trabalho inicia-se com o estudo a homofobia enquanto conceito polissêmico, com o fito de entendê-la profundamente. Para tanto, recorremos ao livro do autor franco-argentino Daniel Borrillo, que contém tanto a história deste fenômeno quanto o tratamento sócio-cultural a ele dispensado. A seguir, explicaremos as bases e os Princípios do Direito Penal Clássico, cuja missão é a proteção de bens juridicamente relevantes, que asseguram a perpetuação da vida em sociedade. Faremos uma comparação entre ele e o Direito Penal Simbólico, presente em legislações de emergência; sendo uma estratégia do Estado para fornecer respostas rápidas (e simbólicas) para certa demanda social. Abordaremos os prós e os contras da criminalização, sua viabilidade e necessidade. Por fim, analisaremos as alternativas à disposição do Poder Público para lidar com o preconceito sexual, que podem ser de cunho preventivo ou repressivo. This paper begins with the examination of the homophobia as a polysemic concept, with the aim to understand it deeply. For that, we turn to the book written by the franco-argentine author Daniel Borrillo, which contains both the history of this phenomenon and the socio-cultural treatment accorded to it. Next...

Antimicrobial resistance and persistence of Staphylococcus epidermidis clones in a Brazilian university hospital

Martins, André; Riboli, Danilo Flávio Moraes; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Pereira, Valéria Cataneli; De Almeida Sampaio, Rogério; De Souza da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 164-168
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Oxacillin is an alternative for the treatment of Staphylococcus spp. infections; however, resistance to this drug has become a major problem over recent decades. The main objective of this study was to epidemiologically characterize coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) strains recovered from blood of patients hospitalized in a Brazilian teaching hospital. Oxacillin resistance was analyzed in 160 strains isolated from blood culture samples by phenotypic methods, detection of the mecA gene, and determination of intermediate sensitivity to vancomycin on brain heart infusion agar supplemented with 4 and 6 μg/mL vancomycin. In addition, characterization of the epidemiological profile by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC. mec) typing and clonal analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed. The mecA gene was detected in 72.5% of the isolates. Methicillin-resistant CoNS isolates exhibited the highest minimum inhibitory concentrations and multiresistance when compared to methicillin-susceptible CoNS strains. Typing classified 32.8% of the isolates as SCC. mec I and 50% as SCC. mec III. PFGE typing of the SCC. mec III Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates identified 6 clones disseminated in different wards that persisted from 2002 to 2009. The high oxacillin resistance rates found in this study and clonal dissemination in different wards highlight the importance of good practices in nosocomial infection control and of the rational use of antibiotic therapy in order to prevent the dissemination of these clones. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Cons??rcio intermunicipal de sa??de da regi??o de Pen??polis (SP): elementos da coopera????o pol??tica

Neves, Luiz Antonio da Silva
Fonte: Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Dissertação
PT_BR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
Cons??rcios intermunicipais de sa??de tem sido utilizado como um modelo alternativo e inovador na supera????o de lacunas na assist??ncia ?? sa??de, principalmente com rela????o a consultas m??dicas em especialidades, diagnose e terapia em n??vel secund??rio. Mant??m forte v??nculo com a estrat??gia de regionaliza????o de sa??de no Brasil, sendo adequado ao processo de reforma administrativa do setor, buscando maior efici??ncia, racionalidade e qualidade na oferta de servi??os ?? popula????o. O eselecimento de cons??rcios no Brasil teve impulso a partir de 1993, sendo alguns destinados exclusivamente ao aumento de servi??os especializados e outros que tamb??m buscam uma estrutura????o regional com uma oferta m??nima entre os participantes. Alguns cons??rcios surgiram da capacidade aglutinadora de seus l??deres, outros por indu????o estadual, e em alguns casos pela combina????o de organiza????o regional associada a incentivos estaduais. Recorre ao estudo do caso do Cons??rcio de Pen??polis, o mais antigo do Brasil, que se sustenta a mais de 14 anos, para examinar a din??mica da coopera????o e procurar desvendar as raz??es da sua sustenilidade. Sua forma????o ?? um misto de reestrutura????o da oferta regional associada ao aspecto empreendedor de seus l??deres e incentivos estaduais. Sua capacidade de resolu????o das demandas locais...

Synergistic effects of combinations of antibiotics on coagulase negative staphylococcal (CoNS) biofilms

Cerca, Nuno; Cerca, Filipe; Martins, Silvia; Pier, Gerald B.; Oliveira, Rosário; Azeredo, Joana
Fonte: International Union of Microbiology Sciences Publicador: International Union of Microbiology Sciences
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 23/07/2005 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Background. Previous studies examining synergistic effects of antibiotics against CoNS biofilms often relied on drug concentrations higher than the peak serum (PS) concentration, as determined by MIC assays, therefore having little clinical applicability. Other studies investigated synergistic effects of a wide range of antibiotics, however many are not routinely used in a clinical setting. Dicloxacillin is the major antibiotic used in Portugal to treat staphylococci infections, and we evaluated the synergistic effect of antibiotics with different mechanisms of action combined with dicloxacillin and other cell wall synthesis inhibitors. Methods. We used combinations of 5 antibiotic agents (cefazolin, vancomycin, dicloxacillin, tetracycline and rifampicin) at the PS concentration of each agent, and evaluated the killing rate over a 24 h period using biofilms made by 10 CoNS clinical isolates. Results from all of the assays were compared using ANOVA. Results. Among all of the combinations tested there was an increase in the killing rate of the antibiotics when compared to the killing rates when only one antibiotic was used. However, only the combination of dicloxacillin with rifampicin resulted in a true synergistic effect for most CoNS strains. When tetracycline was used in combination with any other antibiotic...

Inhibition of adherence of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) to acrylic by subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics

Cerca, Nuno; Pier, Gerald B.; Oliveira, Rosário; Azeredo, Joana
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em /03/2004 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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CoNS are major nosocomial pathogens associated with infections of indwelling medical devices. The major virulence factor for these organisms is their ability to adhere to devices and form biofilms. Antibiotics interacting with the cell wall may influence bacterial adhesion by causing changes in the cell surface. These cell surface modifications may increase or decrease bacterial adherence to biomaterials. In this study the effect of sub-mic concentrations of cefazolin, vancomycin and dicloxacilin on adhesion to acrylic of several CoNS clinical isolates was determined. The results showed a minimal effect for vancomycin on reducing adhesion, although this antibiotic had a very low MIC value, and thus a high efficiency in killing bacteria in suspension. Cefazolin and dicloxacilin induced a higher inhibition of adhesion, reaching more than 60% for some strains, although being antibiotics that have a lower efficiency of killing bacteria in suspension. Combinations of the drugs were evaluated and a synergistic effect was observed. Use of antibiotics that inhibit adherence of CoNS to biomaterials may augment other treatment strategies for device-related infections.

Gender Specific Differences in the Pros and Cons of Smoking among Current Smokers in Eastern Kentucky: Implications for Future Smoking Cessation Interventions

Hazen, Dana A.; Mannino, David M.; Clayton, Richard
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This study investigated gender differences in the perceived “pros” and “cons” of smoking using the constructs of decisional balance (DB) and stage of change from the Transtheoretical Model. The population distribution for stage of change among a population-based, cross-sectional survey of 155 current smokers over 40 years was: precontemplation (22.6%), contemplation (41.9%), preparation (35.5%). Results of stepwise regression models indicated significant gender differences in DB were in the preparation stage of change; scores on the DB measure increased 3.94 points (95% CI: 1.94, 5.93) for male smokers. Interventions targeting the “pros” and “cons” of smoking may need to be gender specific.

Quick fix or long-term cure? Pros and cons of bariatric surgery

Madura, James A.; DiBaise, John K.
Fonte: Faculty of 1000 Ltd Publicador: Faculty of 1000 Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/10/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.89%
The past decade has seen an enormous increase in the number of bariatric, or weight loss, operations performed. This trend is likely to continue, mirroring the epidemic of obesity around the world and its rising prevalence among children. Bariatric surgery is considered by many to be the most effective treatment for obesity in terms of maintenance of long-term weight loss and improvement in obesity-related comorbid conditions. Although overly simplified, the primary mechanisms of the surgical interventions currently utilized to treat obesity are the creation of a restrictive or malabsorptive bowel anatomy. Operations based on these mechanisms include the laparoscopic adjustable gastric band and laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy (considered primarily restrictive operations), the laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with or without a duodenal switch (primarily malabsorptive operation), and the laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (considered a combination restrictive and selective malabsorptive procedure). Each operation has pros and cons. Important considerations, for the patient and surgeon alike, in the decision to proceed with bariatric surgery include the technical aspects of the operation, postoperative complications including long-term nutritional problems...

Oxacilin-resistant Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) bacteremia in a general hospital at São Paulo city, Brasil

d’Azevedo, P.A.; Secchi, C.; Antunes, A.L.S.; Sales, T.; Silva, F.M.; Tranchesi, R.; Pignatari, A.C.C.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.14%
In the last decades, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), especially Staphylococcus epidermidis have become an important cause of bloodstream infections. In addition, rates of methicillin-resistance among CoNS have increased substantially, leading to the use of glicopeptides for therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate eleven consecutives clinically relevant cases of oxacillin-resistant CoNS bacteremia in a general hospital localized in São Paulo city, Brazil. Five different species were identified by different phenotypic methods, including S. epidermidis (5), S. haemolyticus (3), S. hominis (1), S. warneri (1) and S. cohnii subsp urealyticus (1). A variety of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis profiles was observed by macrorestriction DNA analysis in S. epidermidis isolates, but two of three S. haemolyticus isolates presented the same profile. These data indicated the heterogeneity of the CoNS isolates, suggesting that horizontal dissemination of these microorganisms in the investigated hospital was not frequent. One S. epidermidis and one S. haemolyticus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and susceptible to vancomycin. The selective pressure due to the use of teicoplanin in this hospital is relevant.

The beliefs about pros and cons of drinking and intention to change among hazardous and moderate alcohol users: a population-based cross-sectional study

Ansker, Fredrik G.; Helgason, Asgeir R.; Ahacic, Kozma
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.04%
Background: Fundamental to supporting hazardous alcohol users are the rationales for reducing alcohol intake highlighted by the users themselves. This study analyses the relative importance of beliefs about pros and cons of drinking in relation to having an intention to reduce intake among both hazardous and moderate alcohol users. Methods: Intention to change was assessed in a representative sample of Stockholm’s population (n = 4278, response rate 56.5%). Alcohol use was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test measure. A decisional balance inventory was used to examine various beliefs about the pros and cons of drinking, which covered affect changes, social gains and losses, and possible adverse effects. Independent correlations were determined by logistic regression using a backward exclusion procedure (P > 0.05). Results: Higher ratings of importance were generally related to intent, whether or not the contrast was with having no intent or already having made a reduction. This was especially true for hazardous users. Only two beliefs were independently correlated with change among hazardous users: ‘Drinking could get me addicted’ and ‘Drinking makes me more relaxed/less tense’ (pseudo-R2 < 0.1). Among moderate users...

Carta enviada por João Alfredo Correia de Oliveira ao Cons. José Fernandes da Costa Pereira Júnior

João Alfredo Correia de Oliveira
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pernambuco Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
Tipo: Correspondência Formato: 1 p.
PORTUGUêS
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Cons. José Fernandes da Costa Pereira Júnior - Presidente da Província de São Paulo; Recomenda o Sr. Manoel Cavalcanti Vieira de Melo, que deseja um emprego no Consulado ou Recebedoria provincial. Papel com timbre da presidência de São Paulo, sem assinatura.

Carta enviada por João Alfredo Correia de Oliveira ao Cons. Jerônimo José Teixeira Jr.

João Alfredo Correia de Oliveira
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pernambuco Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
Tipo: Correspondência Formato: 1 p.
PORTUGUêS
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Cons. Jerônimo José Teixeira Jr. - Futuro Visconde de Cruzeiro a 13/06/1888 - Nasceu no Rio de Janeiro a 25/11/1830, morrendo em Roma a 26/12/1892. Político-diplomata.; Não deu logo resposta a uma carta recebida porque deseja fazê-lo pessoalmente. Pede desculpas por isso ainda não ter ocorrido.

Avaliação do potencial de formigas (Hymenoptera: formicidae) como vetores mecânicos de bactérias do gêneroSstaphylococcus no ambiente hospitalar.

Silva, Eutália Elizabeth Novaes Ferreira da
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas; Biodiversidade; Biologia Estrutural e Funcional. Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas; Biodiversidade; Biologia Estrutural e Funcional.
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.14%
In a hospital environment, these bacteria can be spread by insects such as ants, which are characterized by high adaptability to the urban environment. Staphylococcus is a leading cause of hospital infection. In Europe, Latin America, USA and Canada, the group of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) is the second leading cause of these infections, according to SENTRY (antimicrobial surveillance program- EUA). In this study, we investigated the potential of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as vehicle mechanics of Staphylococcus bacteria in a public hospital, in Natal-RN. The ants were collected, day and night, from June 2007 to may 2008, in the following sectors: hospitals, laundry, kitchen, blood bank. The ants were identified according to the identification key of Bolton, 1997. For the analysis of staphylococci, the ants were incubated in broth Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB) for 24 hours at 35 º C and then incubated on Mannitol Salt Agar. The typical colonies of staphylococci incubated for 24 hours at 35 ° C in Tryptic Soy Agar for the characterization tests (Gram stain, catalase, susceptibility to bacitracin and free coagulase). The identification of CoNS was performed through biochemical tests: susceptibility to novobiocin, growth under anaerobic conditions...

Identifica??o dos fatores para o processo de forma??o e gest?o de alian?as estrat?gicas do tipo cons?rcio em pequenas e m?dias empresas construtoras: um estudo de caso

S?, Jos? Alberto Silva de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Pará Publicador: Universidade Federal do Pará
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.04%
Estudo realizado em um cons?rcio de sociedades formado por pequenas e m?dias empresas construtoras para executar obras de saneamento na ilha do Maraj? PA. O trabalho objetivou identificar fatores para o processo de forma??o e gest?o de alian?as estrat?gicas do tipo cons?rcio. A pesquisa teve car?ter descritivo, com perspectiva sincr?nica e n?vel de an?lise organizacional. Buscou descrever e interpretar as considera??es anal?ticas e pol?ticas relacionadas ao fen?meno em quest?o. Foram aplicadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas na coleta dos dados e utilizou-se o m?todo de an?lise do conte?do no tratamento das informa??es. A pesquisa permitiu identificar um conjunto de fatores, dentre eles: a perspectiva de complementaridade, o desejo da qualifica??o empresarial, a capacidade de gerar abertura de mercado, a aprendizagem organizacional, o estudo da combina??o estrat?gica, a delibera??o conjunta, a igualdade da propriedade e a concilia??o das vis?es empresariais.; ABSTRACT: A study done in societys consortium composed by small and medium building companies to execute sanitation works in the Maraj? Island PA. The objective of the work is identifying factors for the formation and administration process of strategic alliances, consortium type. The research had descriptive characteristic...

Cons?rcio intermunicipal para gest?o ambiental nos munic?pios de pequeno porte 1 e 2 do nordeste paraense: uma possibilidade para gest?o ambiental?

MACEDO JUNIOR, Roberto Cavalleiro
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Pará Publicador: Universidade Federal do Pará
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
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37.14%
Ap?s a publica??o da Lei Complementar Federal no. 140 (LC 140/2011), de 08/12/2011, que definiu as compet?ncias dos munic?pios na gest?o de pol?ticas p?blicas ambientais, surgiu a necessidade de propor a??es pelo poder p?blico municipal para sua implementa??o. Para assegurar a efic?cia da referida lei, os munic?pios deveriam estruturar-se para licenciar e fiscalizar as atividades degradadoras, ou potencialmente degradadoras, em seus territ?rios. Os ?rg?os criados no ?mbito das pol?ticas municipais ambientais demandariam estrutura??o f?sica e de pessoal que, por serem onerosas, se tornaram verdadeiros ?bices ? prioriza??o do gestor para garantir as condi??es necess?rias para a gest?o ambiental municipal. Dessa forma, a coopera??o entre os entes federados, por interm?dio do instrumento de Cons?rcio P?blico se apresenta como uma alternativa estrat?gica para implementa??o da lei nos munic?pios de pequeno porte para encaminhamento das quest?es ambientais. Entende-se que um planejamento territorial regional facilitaria o encaminhamento para solicita??o de recursos, bem como para a celebra??o de contratos e conv?nios que beneficiassem os munic?pios consorciados. O presente estudo analisa a Capacidade Institucional de gest?o ambiental entre os munic?pios de Vigia de Nazar?...

Orienta????es b??sicas para a gest??o consorciada de res??duos s??lidos

Schneider, Dan Moche; Ribeiro, Wladimir Antonio; Salomoni, Daniel; Oliveira, Nelcil??ndia Pereira de (Organizadora); Helou, Luciana Dinah Ribeiro (Organizadora); Antero, Samuel A. (Organizador)
Fonte: Editora IABS Publicador: Editora IABS
Tipo: Livro
IDIOMA::PORTUGU??S:PORTUGU??S:PT
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O s??timo volume da s??rie Inova????o na Gest??o P??blica apresenta orienta????es b??sicas para a gest??o consorciada de res??duos s??lidos. Este ???guia??? surgiu de uma a????o conjunta entre a coopera????o espanhola e o Projeto Brasil Munic??pios, realizada entre setembro de 2010 maio de 2011, com o intuito de apoiar a implementa????o de uma experi??ncia de cons??rcio p??blico na Regi??o Metropolitana da Grande Aracaju para a gest??o integrada dos res??duos s??lidos nos moldes da Lei de Cons??rcios (Lei 11.107/2005) e seu decreto regulamentador, bem como na Lei de Saneamento B??sico (Lei 11.445/2007) e em sintonia com a Pol??tica Nacional de Res??duos S??lidos. O cap??tulo 1 traz informa????es sobre a Pol??tica Nacional de Res??duos S??lidos (PNRS), a ado????o de solu????es intermunicipais para a destina????o final de rejeitos e sobre as novas responsabilidades dos munic??pios para gest??o e manejo de res??duo s??lidos previstas na PNRS. O segundo cap??tulo, por sua vez, discorre sobre o instituto do cons??rcio p??blico dando ??nfase ?? gest??o consorciada intermunicipal dos res??duos s??lidos. Por fim, o terceiro cap??tulo apresenta informa????es t??cnicas para apoiar esse arranjo institucional, como ??ndices de gera????o per capita de res??duos s??lidos domiciliares e p??blicos...

Cons??rcio alimentar

Brasil. Minist??rio da Educa????o e do Desporto (MEC). Escola T??cnica Federal do Amazonas
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Administra????o P??blica (ENAP) Publicador: Escola Nacional de Administra????o P??blica (ENAP)
Tipo: Relato de Experi??ncia
IDIOMA::PORTUGU??S:PORTUGU??S:PT
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Este projeto refere-se ?? implementa????o e manuten????o do refeit??rio para os alunos da Unidade de Ensino Descentralizada vinculada ?? Escola T??cnica Federal do Amazonas. Diante da inexist??ncia de recursos financeiros no or??amento da Escola, criou-se o programa Cons??rcio Alimentar constitu??do de parcerias com empresas locais que contribu??ram com o equipamento necess??rio para a viabiliza????o do refeit??rio. O Cons??rcio conta tamb??m com a doa????o mensal de g??neros aliment??cios n??o perec??veis pela fam??lia dos alunos e com o pagamento de uma taxa simb??lica de R$ 1,00. Os alunos carentes est??o isentos de pagamento; N??mero de p??ginas: 4 p.; Classifica????o::Administra????o P??blica. Teoria Geral da Administra????o::Desenvolvimento Gerencial::Inova????o; Iniciativa premiada no 2?? Concurso Inova????o na Gest??o P??blica Federal sob responsabilidade de Idarcl??y Etelvina Lima da Rocha e Silva. A????es premiadas no 2?? Concurso Inova????o na Gest??o P??blica Federal ??? 1997. ??reas tem??ticas: gest??o de servi??os sociais

Federalismo e rela????es intergovernamentais: os cons??rcios p??blicos como instrumento de coopera????o federativa; Federalismo y relaciones intergubernamentales: los consorcios p??blicos como instrumento de cooperaci??n federativa; Federalism and intergovernmental relations: public consortia as instruments of federative cooperation

Cunha, Rosani Evangelista da
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Administra????o P??blica (ENAP); Revista do Servi??o P??blico (RSP) Publicador: Escola Nacional de Administra????o P??blica (ENAP); Revista do Servi??o P??blico (RSP)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
IDIOMA::PORTUGU??S:PORTUGU??S:PT
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Se nos estados federais os mecanismos de coopera????o e coordena????o intergovernamental j?? s??o relevantes, no caso brasileiro eles ganham centralidade ainda maior. A Constitui????o Federal de 1988 agregou complexidade ao desenho federativo brasileiro, reconhecendo o munic??pio como ente federado. Esse processo foi acompanhado por intensa descentraliza????o de pol??ticas p??blicas, pelo fortalecimento do poder local e por mecanismos pouco coordenados de rela????o vertical e horizontal entre os entes federativos. Ao mesmo tempo, a aus??ncia de pol??ticas de desenvolvimento regional acentuou as desigualdades locais e regionais observadas historicamente no pa??s. Diferentes experi??ncias de consorciamento foram levadas a cabo por munic??pios no pa??s e ainda hoje esse ?? um instrumento de larga utiliza????o. De forma diversa, as iniciativas de coopera????o entre estados s??o ainda incipientes. As limita????es institucionais e jur??dicas dos desenhos utilizados pelos munic??pios, no entanto, levaram ?? aprova????o da Emenda Constitucional n?? 19/98, que instituiu os cons??rcios p??blicos e a gest??o associada de servi??os p??blicos.; Si en los Estados federales los mecanismos de cooperaci??n y coordinaci??n intergubernamental ya son relevantes...

EVALUATION OF FOUR DIFFERENT DNA EXTRACTION METHODS IN COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI CLINICAL ISOLATES

Oliveira,Caio Fernando de; Paim,Thiago Galvão da Silva; Reiter,Keli Cristine; Rieger,Alexandre; D'azevedo,Pedro Alves
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 EN
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Currently there are several methods to extract bacterial DNA based on different principles. However, the amount and the quality of the DNA obtained by each one of those methods is highly variable and microorganism dependent, as illustrated by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) which have a thick cell wall that is difficult to lyse. This study was designed to compare the quality and the amount of CoNS DNA, extracted by four different techniques: two in-house protocols and two commercial kits. DNA amount and quality determination was performed through spectrophotometry. The extracted DNA was also analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis and by PCR. 267 isolates of CoNS were used in this study. The column method and thermal lyses showed better results with regard to DNA quality (mean ratio of A260/280 = 1.95) and average concentration of DNA (), respectively. All four methods tested provided appropriate DNA for PCR amplification, but with different yields. DNA quality is important since it allows the application of a large number of molecular biology techniques, and also it's storage for a longer period of time. In this sense the extraction method based on an extraction column presented the best results for CoNS.

Oxacilin-resistant Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) bacteremia in a general hospital at São Paulo city, Brasil

D'Azevedo,P.A.; Secchi,C.; Antunes,A.L.S.; Sales,T.; Silva,F.M.; Tranchesi,R.; Pignatari,A.C.C.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.14%
In the last decades, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), especially Staphylococcus epidermidis have become an important cause of bloodstream infections. In addition, rates of methicillin-resistance among CoNS have increased substantially, leading to the use of glicopeptides for therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate eleven consecutives clinically relevant cases of oxacillin-resistant CoNS bacteremia in a general hospital localized in São Paulo city, Brazil. Five different species were identified by different phenotypic methods, including S. epidermidis (5), S. haemolyticus (3), S. hominis (1), S. warneri (1) and S. cohnii subsp urealyticus (1). A variety of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis profiles was observed by macrorestriction DNA analysis in S. epidermidis isolates, but two of three S. haemolyticus isolates presented the same profile. These data indicated the heterogeneity of the CoNS isolates, suggesting that horizontal dissemination of these microorganisms in the investigated hospital was not frequent. One S. epidermidis and one S. haemolyticus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and susceptible to vancomycin. The selective pressure due to the use of teicoplanin in this hospital is relevant.

Evaluation of the accuracy of various phenotypic tests to detect oxacillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci

Perez,Leandro Reus Rodrigues; d'Azevedo,Pedro Alves
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2008 EN
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In this study, we determined the accuracy of phenotypic tests (cefoxitin agar dilution, 30µg-cefoxitin and 1µg-oxacillin disks) to detect the oxacillin resistance/mecA gene among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolates. The presence of the mecA gene was detected by PCR technique (gold standard). A total of 176 CoNS isolates from blood of hospitalized patients were evaluated. Of these, 138 (78.4%) harbored the mecA gene. Using 30µg-cefoxitin and 1µg-oxacillin disks we obtained 100 and 98.3% accuracy, respectively. In addition, when cefoxitin was used as marker in an agar dilution method, the higher accuracy (99.4%) was established with 8mg cefoxitin per mL breakpoint. Thus, despite of the agar dilution method using cefoxitin as a marker not being standard for this detection, our results suggested that it is an excellent alternative to detect the oxacillin resistance/mecA gene among CoNS isolates.