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Efeitos da administração perinatal do Citrato de Clomifeno na função reprodutiva de ratos Wistar: comportamento sexual, avaliação hormonal e plasmática; Effects of perinatal administration of Clomiphene Citrate on the reproductive function of Wistar rats: sexual behavior, plasma and hormonal evaluation

Oliani, Andrea Lucia Natali
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/11/2012 PT
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66.99%
A diferenciação sexual cerebral é um fenômeno importante que ocorre no período perinatal essencial para definir alguns padrões comportamentais na orientação sexual na fase adulta. Este evento ocorre após uma descarga abrupta da testosterona testicular no recém-nascido que é convertido em estrógeno E2 pela aromatase no hipotálamo do neonato e, juntamente com aquela de origem materna promove as alterações no cérebro que determinam a orientação sexual masculina do neonato. Em fêmeas, o E organiza o cérebro feminino e a orientação sexual. Assim, investigou-se o efeito do Citrato de Clomifeno, um inibidor da aromatase em ratos machos e fêmeas tratados perinatalmente. Os resultados mostraram alterações comportamentais e bioquímicas compatíveis com a desmasculinização, alteração do comportamento sexual de ambos os sexos, comportamento homossexual, ciclo estral, alteração dos níveis de testosterona, estrógeno, FSH e LH e do peso dos órgãos na fase adulta. Os resultados são explicados pelo bloqueio da aromatase, no período da diferenciação sexual cerebral.; Sexual differentiation of the brain is an important phenomenon that occurs perinatally essential to define some behavioral patterns of sexual orientation in adulthood. This event occurs after an abrupt discharge of testicular testosterone in newborns that E2 is converted into estrogen by aromatase in the hypothalamus of the newborn and...

Effects of neonatal clomiphene citrate on fertility and sexual behavior in male rats

Pereira, OCM; Coneglian-Marise, MSP; Gerardin, DCC
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 545-550
ENG
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In order to investigate the participation of estrogen during the period of brain sexual differentiation, male rats were treated with clomiphene citrate in the neonatal phase. Fertility and sexual behavior were assessed during adult life. Sexual maturation, body weight, and wet weight of the testes were unchanged. Although the adult male rats treated with clomiphene in the neonatal phase presented a significant reduction in the frequency of mounts, 90% of these rats were able to mate with normal females, which became pregnant. However, these females exhibited a significantly increased number of pre- and post-implantation losses. When these adult male rats were castrated and received estrogen, 60% presented female sexual behavior (receptive behavior and acceptance of mount). Thus, treatment of pups with clomiphene immediately after birth has a long-term effect on the reproductive physiology and sexual behavior of male rats. (C) 2002 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Twenty-five milligrams of clomiphene citrate presents positive effect on treatment of male testosterone deficiency - a prospective study

Da Ros,Carlos Teodósio; Averbeck,Márcio Augusto
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2012 EN
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INTRODUCTION: Male testosterone deficiency is associated with bad sexual function and quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to determine whether a daily dose of 25 mg clomiphene citrate (CC) is effective in stimulating the endogenous testosterone production pathway and to address the applicability of this medication as a therapeutic option for symptomatic hypogonadism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study. Men with low sexual desire and testosterone levels (T) below 400 ng/dL were selected to receive CC. Blood samples were obtained to determine baseline measurements of serum T, estradiol, LH, lipid profile and fasting plasma glucose. Each patient was treated with a daily dose of 25 mg CC for at least 3 months. Patients were asked if they experienced any side effects related to the use of CC and if they experienced any improvement in their sexual profile. Paired samples T-test was utilized to analyze responses to therapy. RESULTS: Our cohort consisted of 125 men with hypogonadism and low libido. Mean age was 62 years (± 11.1 years). Serum T levels ranged from 309 ng/dL (baseline, mean value) to 642 ng/dL (3 months after CC initiation, mean value) (p < 0.001). Serum cholesterol levels ranged from 197 to 186 mg/dL (p = 0.003). There were no statistically significant differences when comparing pre and post-treatment HDL-Cholesterol...

Letrozole or clomiphene citrate as first line for anovulatory infertility: a debate

Kamath, Mohan S; George, Korula
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/06/2011 EN
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Clomiphene citrate has been traditionally used as the drug of choice in treating women with anovulatory infertility. In the last decade letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor has emerged as alternative ovulation induction agent. Literature confirms that letrozole has a definitive role in anovulatory women who have not responded to the clomiphene therapy. However its role as an alternative to clomiphene as first line therapy continues to be debated. Although it is probable that the overall benefits of letrozole surpass clomiphene citrate, currently available data does not confirm this view. There is need for large well-designed trials.

THE PREGNANCY IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME II (PPCOS II) TRIAL: RATIONALE AND DESIGN OF A DOUBLE-BLIND RANDOMIZED TRIAL OF CLOMIPHENE CITRATE AND LETROZOLE FOR THE TREATMENT OF INFERTILITY IN WOMEN WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

Legro, Richard S.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Brzyski, Robert G.; Casson, Peter R.; Diamond, Michael P.; Schlaff, William D.; Christman, Gregory M.; Coutifaris, Christos; Taylor, Hugh S.; Eisenberg, Esther; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping;
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of female infertility and first line treatment is currently oral clomiphene citrate, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, which results in both a high nonresponse rate and multiple pregnancy rate. Aromatase inhibitors such as letrozole may have more favorable ovarian and endometrial effects. The goal of the Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome II (PPCOSII) study is to determine the safety and efficacy of clomiphene citrate (CC) compared to letrozole, in achieving live birth in infertile women with PCOS. The population will consist of 750 infertile women with PCOS. Additionally, the couple will have no other major infertility factor. This will be a multi-center, prospective, double-blind clinical trial of CC vs. letrozole for 5 treatment cycles (or approximately up to 25 weeks). The randomization scheme will be coordinated through the central data coordinating center (DCC) and the randomization is stratified by each participating site. After progestin withdrawal as needed, 750 women will be equally randomized to two different treatment arms: A) CC 50 mg every day for 5 days (day 3–7 of cycle), or B) letrozole 2.5 mg every day for 5 days (day 3–7 of cycle), for a total of 5 cycles or 25 weeks. The dose will be increased in subsequent cycles in both treatment groups for non-response or poor ovulatory response up to a maximum of 150 mg of CC a day (× 5 days) or 7.5 mg of letrozole a day (× 5 days). The primary analysis will use an intent-to-treat approach to examine differences in the live birth rate in the two treatment arms.

Preparation of 99mTc-Clomiphene Citrate as a Novel Agent for Breast Cancer Imaging

Ibrahim, Ismail Taha; Elkolally, Mohamed Taha; Abd Elgany, Ibrahim Yousof; Abd Albary, Ahmed; Hodhod Elsayed, Mohamed
Fonte: International Scholarly Research Network Publicador: International Scholarly Research Network
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/11/2012 EN
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The aim of this work was to develop a novel 99mTc-labelled derivative based on triphenylethylene for breast cancer imaging. 99mTc-Clomiphene was obtained with a radiochemical yield of 94.4% by adding 99mTc to 1.5 mg Clomiphene citrate in the presence of 10 μg SnCl2 at pH 7. The optimization of the labeling yield of Clomiphene citrate, with 99mTc, is described. The reaction parameters that affect the labeling yield were studied to optimize the labeling conditions. Radiochemical purity of the final product has been verified by means of paper chromatography and paper electrophoresis. Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) as a model of breast cancer cells was injected intraperitoneally (IP) to produce ascites and intramuscularly (IM) to produce solid tumor. Biodistribution study was carried out by the injecting solution of 99mTc-Clomiphene in normal and tumor bearing mice. The uptake in ascites was over 12.5 % injected dose per gram tissue body weight, at 1hr after injection and above 12% in solid tumor. The T/NT value for 99mTc-Clomiphene complex was found to be 5.5 ± 0.4 which was higher than that of the commercially available 99mTc-MIBI. This data revealed the localization of tracer in tumor tissue with high percent sufficient to use 99mTc-Clomiphene as a promising tool for the diagnosis of breast cancer.

Induction of Ovulation with Clomiphene Citrate Versus Clomiphene with Bromocriptine in PCOS Patients with Normal Prolactin: A Comparative Study

Tripathy, Saswati; Mohapatra, Satyajit; M, Muthulakshmi; Chandrasekhar, Anjalakshi
Fonte: JCDR Research and Publications (P) Limited Publicador: JCDR Research and Publications (P) Limited
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Introduction: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the main cause of anovulatory infertility. Various combination of drugs have been tried to induce ovulation in PCOS patients with varied result. So, this study was planned to compare the effect of bromocriptine combined with Clomiphene Citrate and Clomiphene Citrate alone, in patients of polycystic ovarian syndrome with normal prolactin level.

Metformin-letrozole in comparison with Metformin-clomiphene citrate in clomiphene-resistance PCOS patients undergoing IUI

Davar, Robab; Javedani, Mojgan; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein
Fonte: Research and Clinical Center for Infertility Publicador: Research and Clinical Center for Infertility
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with approximately 75% of women who suffer from infertility due to anovulation. Additionally, around 20– 25% of anovulatory women with PCOS do not respond at all to clomiphene citrate and are considered to be “clomiphene– resistant”. Aromatase inhibitors have been suggested as an alternative treatment to clomiphene as the discrepancy between ovulation and pregnancy rates with clomiphene citrate has been attributed to its anti-estrogenic action and estrogen receptor depletion.

A comparison of the use of clomiphene citrate and letrozole in patients undergoing IVF with the objective of producing only one or two embryos

Rose, B.I.; Laky, D.C.; Rose, S.D.
Fonte: Universa Press Publicador: Universa Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
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Aim: The objective of this study was to compare the use of clomiphene citrate and letrozole in an IVF setting in which the objective was to produce only one or two embryos. Either clomiphene citrate or letrozole was used in conjunction with gonadotropins without the use of GnRH antagonists.

Comparison of clomiphene citrate, metformin, or the combination of both for first-line ovulation induction, achievement of pregnancy, and live birth in Asian women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial

Mohd Zain, M.; Jamaluddin, R.; Ibrahim, A.; Norman, R.
Fonte: Elsevier Science Inc Publicador: Elsevier Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
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Objective To determine the first-line medication to be used in anovulatory patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) for ovulation induction and pregnancy achievement. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting Infertility unit of a public hospital. Patient(s) One hundred fifteen newly diagnosed patients with PCOS based on ESHRE/ASRM criteria. Intervention(s) These patients were assigned to three groups: group 1 (38 patients) received 500 mg of metformin three times a day; group 2 (39 patients) received clomiphene citrate (CC) at an incremental dose; group 3 (38 patients) received both medications. Main Outcome Measure(s) Rates of ovulation, pregnancy (PR), and live birth. Result(s) The ovulation rate was 23.7% in the metformin group, 59% in the CC group, and 68.4% in the combination treatment group. This was translated into a similar PR and live birth rate, which were higher in the CC and combination groups compared to the metformin group (PR: 7.9%, 15.4%, and 21.1%; live birth rate: 7.9%, 15.4%, and 18.4% in metformin, CC, and combination treatment groups, respectively), although statistically the differences were not significant. There were no multiple pregnancies and the rate of spontaneous first trimester loss was similar to the general population. Conclusion(s) Clomiphene citrate should be the first-line treatment for ovulation induction in anovulatory patients with PCOS.; http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/600420/description#description; Murizah Mohd Zain...

Status of clomiphene citrate and metformin for infertility in PCOS

Misso, M.; Teede, H.; Hart, R.; Wong, J.; Rombauts, L.; Melder, A.; Norman, R.; Costello, M.
Fonte: Elsevier Science London Publicador: Elsevier Science London
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
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Though widely used, there is uncertainty about the effectiveness and adverse effects of metformin and clomiphene citrate (CC) for infertility in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A systematic review (SR) of the best available evidence suggests that both CC and metformin are better than placebo for increasing ovulation and pregnancy rates, but CC is more effective than metformin for ovulation, pregnancy and live-birth rates, in PCOS patients with body mass index (BMI) >30. A combination of CC and metformin is superior to either metformin alone or CC alone, depending on the BMI and CC sensitivity of the patient. This SR provides key messages to guide clinicians and consumers on the use of these interventions in different subgroups of women with PCOS.; Marie L. Misso, Helena J. Teede, Roger Hart, Jennifer Wong, Luk Rombauts, Angela M. Melder, Robert J. Norman and Michael F. Costello

Metformin versus clomiphene citrate for infertility in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Misso, M.; Costello, M.; Garrubba, M.; Wong, J.; Hart, R.; Rombauts, L.; Melder, A.; Norman, R.; Teede, H.
Fonte: Oxford Univ Press Publicador: Oxford Univ Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.41%
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that metformin may be more effective in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who are non-obese. The objective here is to determine and compare the effectiveness of metformin and clomiphene citrate for improving fertility outcomes in women with PCOS and a BMI, 32 kg/m2 (BMI 32 kg/m2 was used to allow for international differences in BMI values which determine access to infertility therapy through the public health system). METHODS: Databases were searched for English language articles until July 2011. Inclusion criteria: women of any age, ethnicity and weight with PCOS diagnosed by all current criteria, who are infertile; at least 1000 mg of any type of metformin at any frequency, including slow release and standard release, compared with any type, dose and frequency of clomiphene citrate. Outcomes: rates of ovulation, live birth, pregnancy, multiple pregnancies, miscarriage, adverse events, quality of life and cost effectiveness. Data were extracted and risk of bias assessed. A random effects model was used for meta-analyses of data, using risk ratios (relative risk). RESULTS: The search returned 4981 articles, 580 articles addressed metformin or clomiphene citrate and four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing metformin with clomiphene citrate were included. Upon meta-analysis of the four RCTs...

Long-term outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome initially randomized to receive laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovaries or ovulation induction with gonadotrophins

Nahuis, M.; Kose, N.; Bayram, N.; van Dessel, H.; Braat, D.; Hamilton, C.; Hompes, P.; Bossuyt, P.; Mol, B.; van der Veen, F.; van Wely, M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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BACKGROUND Long-term effects of laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovaries are unknown. To study the long-term effects of laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovaries and gonadotrophins, we followed women with clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) randomly allocated to one of these treatments until 8–12 years after their initial treatment. METHODS Between February 1998 and October 2001 168 women with clomiphene citrate-resistant PCOS were included in a randomized controlled trial comparing an electrocautery strategy to a strategy starting with rFSH. In 2009 these women were contacted about their reproductive outcome and menstrual cycle regularity. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. We compared time to conception resulting in live birth, subsequent pregnancies, ectopic and multiple pregnancies, menopause, as well as minimal and maximal menstrual cycle length. RESULTS After 8–12 years, the cumulative proportion of women with a first child was 86% in women who had been allocated to electrocautery versus 81% in women who had been allocated to immediate rFSH [relative ratio (RR): 1.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92–1.2]. Treatment with electrocautery resulted in a significantly lower need for stimulated cycles to reach a live birth; 53% after electrocautery versus 76% after rFSH (RR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.55–0.88).The cumulative proportion of women with a second child was 61% after electrocautery versus 46% after immediate rFSH (RR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.00–1.9). Overall...

Long-term follow-up of laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovaries versus ovulation induction with recombinant FSH in clomiphene citrate-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome: an economic evaluation

Nahuis, M.; Oude Lohuis, E.; Kose, N.; Bayram, N.; Hompes, P.; Oosterhuis, G.; Kaaijk, E.; Cohlen, B.; Bossuyt, P.; van der Veen, F.; Mol, B.; van Wely, M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press (OUP) Publicador: Oxford University Press (OUP)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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BACKGROUND Laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovaries and ovulation induction with gonadotrophins are both second line treatments for women with clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Long-term follow-up after electrocautery versus ovulation induction with gonadotrophins has demonstrated at least comparable chances for a first live born child with a reduced need for ovulation induction or assisted reproduction treatment and increased chances for a second live born child. In this study, we report on the long-term economic consequences of both treatment modalities. METHODS Between February 1998 and October 2001, we performed a multi-centre randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing a strategy of laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovaries, followed by clomiphene citrate and gonadotrophins when anovulation persisted, and a strategy of ovulation induction with gonadotrophins in women with clomiphene citrate-resistant PCOS. Eight to twelve years after randomization we performed a follow-up study on reproductive outcome in these women and the fertility treatments they had needed including data on direct medical costs of pregnancy and delivery. Clinical data included number of treatment cycles, live births, miscarriages...

Timing of hCG administration does not affect pregnancy rates in couples undergoing intrauterine insemination using clomiphene citrate.

Robb, Paul A.; Robins, Jared C.; Thomas, Michael A.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2004 EN
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BACKGROUND: Therapeutic intrauterine insemination (IUI) combined with clomiphene citrate ovarian stimulation is widely used to improve pregnancy rates for a variety of disorders. The goal of this study was to elucidate whether hCG administration at 24 or 36 hours after clomiphene citrate stimulation impacts pregnancy rates. METHODS: The study was conducted as a retrospective chart review of 182 clomiphene citrate/IUI cycles in 90 women at the Center for Reproductive Health at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center. Comparisons were made between IUls performed at 24 hours versus 36 hours after hCG. Clinical variables included age of the female partner, semen concentration and motility, and infertility diagnosis. Outcomes were pregnancy rates and live birth rates. Data analysis was performed using Chi square for proportions and Student's t-test for continuous variables. RESULTS: The pregnancy rate was 7% in the 24-hour group and 15.9% in the 36-hour group (P=0.057). However, the live birth rate was 4.0% in the 24-hour group and 8.5% in the 36-hour group (P=0.2). CONCLUSIONS: There is no significant difference in pregnancy rates in couples utilizing clomiphene citrate and undergoing IUI, whether hCG is administered at 24 hours or 36 hours prior to the procedure.

Differential expression of endometrial integrins and progesterone receptor during the window of implantation in normo-ovulatory women treated with clorniphene citrate

Boric Scarpa, María Angélica; González, Rubén René; Devoto, Luigi; Gabler, Fernando; Vega Blanco, María Margarita; Fuentes, Ariel; Palomino, W. Alberto
Fonte: ELSEVIER Publicador: ELSEVIER
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
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\Objective: To assess the effect of clomiphene citrate (CC) on endometrial epithelial integrins and P receptors (PR) during the window of implantation. Design: Controlled, prospective, clinical study. Setting: Teaching hospital and university research laboratory. Patient(s): Thirty-one fertile, normo-ovulatory women participated in this trial. Thirteen women exhibited a CC-stimulated cycle with 50 mg on days 5-9, and 18 women with spontaneous menstrual cycles served as controls. Intervention(s): Endometrial biopsies in the midluteal phase. Main Outcome Measure(s): Immunohistochemical determination and endometrial cellular localization of alpha(1), alpha v, beta(3), and alpha(4) epithelial integrins and PR during the window of implantation. The staining intensity was assessed by a semiquantitative index (HSCORE) and compared by nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Result(s): Higher plasma levels of P and E-2 and delayed histologic dating of the endometrium (38%) were features of CC-treated women. In addition, a low epithelial beta(3) integrin expression and persistent PR were observed in glandular epithelial cells of "out-of-phase" endometrial biopsies from CC-treated women. In contrast, in "in-phase" biopsies, neither epithelial PR nor beta(3) integrin were different from spontaneous control cycles. There was no difference in the expression of alpha(1)...

How long should we continue clomiphene citrate in anovulatory women?

Weiss, N.S.; Braam, S.; König, T.E.; Hendriks, M.L.; Hamilton, C.J.; Smeenk, J.M.J.; Koks, C.A.M.; Kaaijk, E.M.; Hompes, P.G.A.; Lambalk, C.B.; Van Der Veen, F.; Mol, B.W.J.; Van Wely, M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.89%
STUDY QUESTION: What is the effectiveness of continued treatment with clomiphene citrate (CC) in women with World Health Organization (WHO) type II anovulation who have had at least six ovulatory cycles with CC but did not conceive? SUMMARY ANSWER: When women continued CC after six treatment cycles, the cumulative incidence rate of the ongoing pregnancy rate was 54% (95% CI 37-78%) for cycles 7-12. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: If women with WHO type II anovulation fail to conceive with CC within six ovulatory cycles, guidelines advise switching to gonadotrophins, which have a high risk of multiple gestation and are expensive. It is however not clear what success rate could be achieved by continued treatment with CC. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We performed a retrospective cohort study of women with WHO II anovulation who visited the fertility clinics of five hospitals in the Netherlands between 1994 and 2010. We included women treated with CC who had had at least six ovulatory cycles without successful conception (n = 114) after which CC was continued using dosages varying from 50 to 150 mg per day for 5 days. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Follow-up was a total of 12 treatment cycles. Primary outcome was the cumulative incidence rate of an ongoing pregnancy at the end of treatment. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: We recruited 114 women that had ovulated on CC for at least six cycles but had not conceived. Of these 114 women...

The M-OVIN study: does switching treatment to FSH and / or IUI lead to higher pregnancy rates in a subset of women with world health organization type II anovulation not conceiving after six ovulatory cycles with clomiphene citrate - a randomised controlled trial

Nahuis, M.; Weiss, N.; van der Veen, F.; Mol, B.; Hompes, P.; Oosterhuis, G.; Lambalk, C.; Smeenk, J.; Koks, C.; van Golde, R.; Laven, J.; Cohlen, B.; Fleischer, K.; Goverde, A.; Gerards, M.; Klijn, N.; Nekrui, L.; van Rooij, I.; Hoozemans, D.; van Wely,
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.89%
Background: Clomiphene citrate (CC) is first line treatment in women with World Health Organization (WHO) type II anovulation and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Whereas 60% to 85% of these women will ovulate on CC, only about one half will have conceived after six cycles. If women do not conceive, treatment can be continued with gonadotropins or intra-uterine insemination (IUI). At present, it is unclear for how many cycles ovulation induction with CC should be repeated, and when to switch to ovulation induction with gonadotropins and/or IUI. Methods/Design: We started a multicenter randomised controlled trial in the Netherlands comparing six cycles of CC plus intercourse or six cycles of gonadotrophins plus intercourse or six cycles of CC plus IUI or six cycles of gonadotrophins plus IUI. Women with WHO type II anovulation who ovulate but did not conceive after six ovulatory cycles of CC with a maximum of 150 mg daily for five days will be included. Our primary outcome is birth of a healthy child resulting from a pregnancy that was established in the first eight months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes are clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, multiple pregnancy and treatment costs. The analysis will be performed according to the intention to treat principle. Two comparisons will be made...

Low-dose human menopausal gonadotrophin versus clomiphene citrate in subfertile couples treated with intrauterine insemination: a randomized controlled trial

Peeraer, K.; Debrock, S.; De Loecker, P.; Tomassetti, C.; Laenen, A.; Welkenhuysen, M.; Meeuwis, L.; Pelckmans, S.; Mol, B.W.; Spiessens, C.; De Neubourg, D.; D'Hooghe, T.M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.99%
STUDY QUESTION: Can controlled ovarian stimulation with low-dose human menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG) improve the clinical pregnancy rate when compared with ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate (CC) in an intrauterine insemination (IUI) programme for subfertile couples? SUMMARY ANSWER: Ovarian stimulation with low-dose hMG is superior to CC in IUI cycles with respect to clinical pregnancy rate. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: IUI after ovarian stimulation is an effective treatment for mild male subfertility, unexplained subfertility and minimal-mild endometriosis, but it is unclear which medication for ovarian stimulation is more effective. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A total of 330 women scheduled for IUI during 657 cycles (September 2004-December 2011) were enrolled in an open-label randomized clinical trial to ovarian stimulation with low-dose hMG subcutaneous (n = 334, 37.5-75 IU per day) or CC per oral (n = 323, 50 mg/day from Day 3-7). Assuming a difference of 10% in 'clinical pregnancy with positive fetal heart beat', we needed 219 cycles per group (alpha-error 0.05, power 0.80). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: We studied subfertile couples with mild male subfertility, unexplained subfertility or minimal-mild endometriosis. Further inclusion criteria were failure to conceive for ≥12 months...

Efeito da administração do citrato de clomifeno durante o período perinatal no comportamento sexual, peso dos órgãos e concentração hormonal de ratos Wistar machos e fêmeas; Effects of perinatal period administration of clomiphene citrate in sexual behavior, organ weights and hormone concentration of Wistar male and female rats

Oliani, Andrea Lucia Natali; Dias, Lilian Mara Kirsch; Naves, Jeanete Lopes; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Oliveira, Claudio Alvarenga
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/06/2015 POR
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The effects of prenatal exposure to clomiphene citrate in sexual behavior, organ weight and hormone concentrations of male and female rats was evaluated. The animals received four doses of clomiphene citrate 2 mg/mL each during the prenatal period (21 days of gestation – DG21) on days 1 (DN1), 2 (DN2) and 3 (DN3) after the birth of the puppies. The treatment led to the development of polycystic ovaries in 70% of the females, masculinization of female sexual behavior and changes in sexual behavior of males evidenced by the reduction in the number of ejaculations. In regards to hormone levels, a decrease in the FSH levels in male offspring was observed. It was concluded that clomiphene citrate interferes with the reproductive capacity of male and female rats and female sexual orientation when prenatally administered.; Foram investigados os efeitos da exposição perinatal ao citrato de clomifeno no comportamento sexual, peso dos órgãos e concentração hormonal de ratos machos e fêmeas. Os animais receberam quatro doses de 2 mg/mL de citrato de clomifeno, no período perinatal (21 dias de gestação – DG21), nos dias 1 (DN1), 2 (DN2) e 3 (DN3) após o nascimento dos filhotes. O tratamento causou desenvolvimento de ovário policístico em 70% das fêmeas...