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Organização político-institucional frente aos riscos da modernidade: o caso brasileiro ; Organization politicize-institutional front to the risks of the modernity: the brazilian case

Caballero Campos, Pedro Fernando
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/09/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
Esta pesquisa tem como objeto principal caracterizar a sociedade de risco e analisar a organização político-institucional de resposta à vulnerabilidade. A sociedade que constrói perigos tecnológicos e convive com os perigos naturais, estrutura-se para minimizar, reduzir ou eliminar os impactos causados por estes processos com perdas de vidas e econômicas de grandes perdas através da forma institucional denominada defesa civil. A partir das bases conceituais da teoria sociológica contemporânea, discute-se a efetividade do Estado para reduzir tais riscos e mitigar desastres, focalizando-se o caso Brasil mas, em especial, o caso do município de São Carlos/SP. Os procedimentos de pesquisa social utilizada formam: a) síntese da literatura no tema de riscos na sociologia: Anthony Guiddens, Milton Santos, Ulrich Beck, Scott Lash, Norma Felicidade da Silva Valencio, e outros; b) síntese de pesquisa na análise dos riscos no território: Eduardo Mario Mendiondo, Ishoaqui Shimbo,Masato Kobiyama, Nivaldo Nale e Pedro Caballero; c) síntese de pesquisa documental e análise institucional, registros oficiais de orgãos constituintes do Sistema Nacional de Defesa Civil (SINDEC), além de documentos de instuições internacionais de proteção civil e fontes jornalísticas...

Uma análise endógena do sistema de defesa civil do estado do Rio de Janeiro no bilênio 2012-2014 sobre a ótica das relações político administrativo

Borges, Alex de Almeida
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Dissertação
PT_BR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The increase in the number of natural disasters, as well as their social and economic effects, in recent years, has raised a larger collection, by the media, population and control organs, in the members of the Civil Defense system on the reduction of their effects on society, given that the same has been increasingly overwhelming. To this end, the research analyzes the screen because of the Civil Defense system, historically, have focused their actions, programs and public policies on disaster management, i.e. in the response and recovery at the expense of disaster risk management, i.e. on prevention, preparedness and mitigation of the same, given that the same cannot be avoided, but its effects Yes decreased.This arrangement is studied from the literature review, interviews and field visits. Thus, it was found that the resposabilização ratio and Reduction of risk of disasters that the higher the enforcement and accountability greater and consistent are the number of actions, programmes and public policies aimed at prevention, preparedness and mitigation, i.e. for disaster risk reduction management.; O aumento do número de desastres naturais, bem como dos seus efeitos sociais e econômicos, nos últimos anos, tem ocasionado uma cobrança maior...

Center for Homeland Defense and Security Sixth Annual Essay Competition

Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.); Center for Homeland Defense and Security
Fonte: Monterey, California : Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California : Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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According to the National Security Strategy, homeland security is an integral part of national security. Homeland security traces its roots to traditional and historic functions of government and society, such as civil defense, emergency response, law enforcement, customs, border patrol, and immigration. In the aftermath of 9/11 and the foundation of the Department of Homeland Security, these functions took on new organization and urgency. Homeland security strives to adapt these traditional functions to confront terrorism and disasters along with new threats and evolving hazards -- such as proliferation, cyber, transnational crime, violent extremism, stability and security of the space environment, economics, education, climate changes, energy, water and food security, and health threats. Homeland security is not simply about government action alone. It is about the collective strength of the entire country working to create and sustain a homeland that is safe and secure, and in which American interests, aspirations, and way of life can thrive.

Restart of defense reform efforts in Georgia

Fonte: Monterey, California, Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California, Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The Defense Institution Building Warsaw Initiative Fund Management Team (DMT) lead a 5 person U.S. contingent to Tbilisi, Georgia from 10-13 December 2012 to engage with officials of the Georgia ministry of defense in three areas of defense reform. These three areas included civilian personnel management, acquisition and procurement, and defense resource management. The purpose of the meetings was to restart efforts to suppport and enhance defense reform in Georgia.

Are the U.S. Navy's current procedures for responding to homeland defense and security tasking adequately designed?

McClellan, Kevin K.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xvi, 75 p. : ill. map ; 28 cm.
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; With the spectrum of the range of military operations broadening, the operational tempo of Department of Defense assets has substantially increased. Military leaders must look to innovative solutions to meet the increased demands placed on the armed forces. Doctrine and policy such as the National Security Strategy, National Military Strategy and the Strategy for Homeland Defense and Civil Support dictate the increased use of innovation and "jointness" by the military in order to meet the increasing demands of protecting the homeland. The question, "Are the U.S. Navy's current procedures for responding to homeland defense and security tasking adequately designed?" needs to be addressed to ensure our nation is fulfilling its most essential duty: providing safety and security for its citizens. This thesis will discuss the establishment of NORTHCOM, analyze and detail the potential mission set the U.S. Navy can execute in homeland defense and security and examine the current command and control (C2) relationships that NORTHCOM has with the U.S. Navy compared to the other military services. The thesis will then provide alternate C2 options between NORTHCOM and the U.S. Navy as well as identify the advantages and disadvantages of those options and conclude with an analysis and recommendations.

The strategy of Ukrainian - U.S. defense and military relations on the modern stage

Verbytskyi, Serhii
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 83 p. ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; This thesis analyses the strategy of modern Ukrainian - U.S. defense and military relations in three areas: Defense Relations; Military Relations; and Civil-Military Relations. These relations are assessed in terms of their adequacy to obtain Ukraine's overall strategic goals. The quantity and complexity of the U.S. defense and military engagement programs towards Ukraine have made the entire coordination process fragmented. The thesis concludes that the recent goals and objectives of existing relations should be concentrated on the Ukrainian Armed Forces transition to democratic civil-military relations. The transformation of the Ukrainian Armed Forces is essential to maintaining progress toward the development of stable and democratic civil-military relations in Ukraine and its armed forces that are prepared to assume their place within European and Transatlantic Security.; Major, Ukrainian Army

Opening the Mexican door : continental defense cooperation

Burkett, Jeffrey W.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 63 p. : ill. ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
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CHDS State/Local; Today's security environment has changed dramatically and the institutions, which defend our continent against common threats, must adapt to remain viable. Otherwise, the safety, security, and economic prosperity of North America will be in jeopardy. The World Trade Center attack demonstrated that asymmetric threats can approach the U.S. from any direction. This attack also reinforced that natural and technological disasters can have binational consequences and continental impact. Given this, a noticeable missing element in the defense relationship with Canada and Mexico is the absence of a formal policy for bilateral military cooperation in support of civil authorities. Also missing is a Mexican defense coordinating presence at NORAD and USNORTHCOM. This thesis examines U.S.-Mexican security challenges and argues that a bilateral transnational emergency management framework that incorporates a civil-military partnership can serve as the cornerstone upon which North American defense can be built.; Maj - Plans Division Chief, Bi-National Planning Group (NORAD-NORTHCOM)

A atuação do sistema nacional de defesa civil nas enchentes do munícipio de Capivari - SP; The activities of National Civil Defence in case of flooding in the Capivari (SP) city

Orlando Leonardo Berenguel
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/10/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.46%
Os chamados desastres naturais, se por um lado são acontecimentos que se associam aos efeitos das mudanças ambientais, por outro, e de forma mais frequente, dizem respeito à administração pública. Resultantes de decisões falhas, insuficientes ou inadequadas, quando da ocorrência desses eventos. Assim sendo, esta pesquisa tem origem na constatação do aumento dos desastres causados pelas enchentes no Brasil e na necessidade de analisar as políticas públicas instituídas para o enfrentamento dessas questões no país. O estudo parte do avanço da urbanização desordenada, característica comum das cidades brasileiras e do aumento das chuvas, que deflagram desastres que acabam por expor o modelo socioespacial segregacionista e excludente do território brasileiro. O Sistema Nacional de Defesa Civil - SINDEC configura-se como uma macrodiretriz de abrangência territorial federal que organiza e orienta as ações de defesa civil, as quais devem ser providas pelos estados e municípios brasileiros. Esse Sistema é apresentado pela Secretaria Nacional de Defesa Civil como um eixo condutor para ações de prevenção, preparo e socorro em situações de emergência. Dentre suas atribuições, destaca-se o trabalho empreendido para o enfrentamento e redução dos impactos das enchentes nos municípios. Esta tese dedicou-se a analisar as relações...

Avaliação do processo de transferência de recursos de defesa civil para obras de reconstrução do sistema nacional de proteção e defesa civil

Deus, Beatriz Ferreira Angelo de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 197 p.| il., grafs.
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Civil, Florianópolis, 2014.; O número de registros de ocorrência de desastres no Brasil vem aumentando. E quando o município ou o Estado não possui meios próprios para contornar as consequências do evento adverso, ele solicita auxílio ao governo federal. Sendo assim, esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar o processo de transferência de recursos de defesa civil para obras de reconstrução do Sistema Nacional de Proteção e Defesa Civil (SINPDEC). Para isso, foi realizado um mapeamento do processo com o uso do Diagrama de Atividades, presente na técnica UML, o qual permitiu a avaliação do processo em relação à possibilidade de uniões e exclusões de atividades, alteração do sequenciamento destas e reformulação dos documentos requeridos. Complementarmente, para se compreender melhor o processo, realizaram-se entrevistas com alguns dos agentes envolvidos no processo de transferência de recurso. Através das entrevistas, pôde-se verificar que a celeridade é, ao mesmo tempo, o ponto forte e fraco do processo. Destacou-se a rapidez com que os entes obtêm os recursos, mas criticaram-se as dificuldades encontradas nas fases de acompanhamento e prestação de contas originadas...

Comments on the Integration of Civil Defense into Local Government

Quarantelli, E. L.
Fonte: Disaster Research Center Publicador: Disaster Research Center
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
Statement prepared on March 21, 1967 as member of the National Academy of Sciences Advisory Committee on Civil Defense.

Studies in Disaster Response and Planning

Quarantelli, E. L.
Fonte: Defense Civil Preparedness Agency Publicador: Defense Civil Preparedness Agency
Tipo: Outros Formato: 4240666 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.39%
Under the general rubric of disaster studies and planning, the Disaster Research Center (DRC) of the Ohio State University conducted a series of studies for the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (formerly the office of Civil Defense) from 1972 through 1978 with most of the actual work being done during 1972-1975. Three major pieces of work were undertaken: (1) a study of the role of local civil defense in disaster planning; (2) a study of the use of local Emergency Operating Centers (EOCs) in disasters; (3) a study of the implementation of disaster planning. Different sets of data and field operations were used to obtain information for the studies. For the first study most of the data was derived from research in 12 communities around the country. Data for the other two pieces of research was collected from 14 new field studies as well as by reexamining previously collected data in the DRC files. In general, it was found that under appropriate circumstances local civil defense offices can play important roles in local community disaster planning. The value and importance of local EOCs in disasters was also confirmed although there are a number of problems associated with the use of such facilities. Finally, many of the conditions which facilitate the implementation of community disaster planning were ascertained. The first chapter of the report outlines the objectives of the work undertaken. objective. In the third chapter the research accomplishments are detailed with particular emphasis on research which had not been previously reported in earlier documents produced by the work. Some conclusions and recommendations are contained in chapter four. An appendix provides copies of some of the field instruments used.

The Functioning of Local Civil Defense in Disasters

Dynes, Russell R.
Fonte: Disaster Research Center Publicador: Disaster Research Center
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 770704 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
This paper focuses on the functioning of local civil defense units in natural disaster. With this focus, however, certain implications can be derived which can be projected into the more inclusive context of probable operational problems which might occur in a nuclear situation. The basic assumption made here is that the range of problems experienced by the local civil defense unit in a disaster setting would be similar to those which would be encountered subsequent to a nuclear catastrophe. Where there are differences, they can be visualized primarily as one of degree. With the exception of the specific form of secondary threat, i.e. radiation and the probability that a wider geographical area will be involved, a nuclear explosion would not create essentially different problems for community response.

Preliminary Observation On A State Civil Defense Hazardous Material Program

Lawrence, Clark
Fonte: Disaster Research Center Publicador: Disaster Research Center
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 499748 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
This is an interim report on the apparent themes central to the development of the X State Civil Defense. Initially, the study was to focus on the development of the hazardous material program. However, this perspective was modified when it became obvious that the program could not be understood apart from the organization itself. Briefly, the civil defense (CD) agency became involved in the business of hazardous materials due to an effort to transform a bureaucratic organization composed of retired military personnel into an operationally oriented emergency response organization. However, the hazardous material program became a goal in itself--a fact that is responsible for much of the internal dissension in the organization at this time.

Authority, Jurisdiction And Technical Competence Interorganizational Relationships At Great Falls, Montana, During The Flood of June 8-10, 1964

Yutzy, Daniel
Fonte: Disaster Research Center Publicador: Disaster Research Center
Tipo: Outros Formato: 1357628 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
During the weekend of June 6-8 unusually warm weather, combined with heavy rainfall, set the stage for severe floods over a wide area of northweastern Montana. By Monday, June 8th, the Sun. Teton, and Marias River which drain the eastern watershed in Montana from the Great Divide to the Missouri were rising rapidly as swollen mountain tributaries went beyond their banks. On Tuesday, June 9, the Disaster Research Center sent a staff member to the Great Falls area to assess the situation. Consultation with the DRC resulted in a decision to study the activities of and relationships between the local Civil Defense and the office of the City Engineer in the Great Falls area. Interviews were obtained from the following: Civil Defense Director of Great Falls and Cascade County CD Director's Secretary CD Public Information Director CD Public Information Assistant State CD Field Coordinator City Engineer City Planning Director City Building Inspector Citizens Band Club Coordinator Air Force Disaster Control NCO We will first describe certain aspects of the setting at Great Falls and the initial response of Civil Defense and the City Engineer’s office. This will be followed by a discussion of some of the major problems encountered during the emergency by city officials. The last section of this report contains a few general propositions regarding organizational relationships in Great Falls during the crisis period.; Office of Civil Defense...

Local Civil Defense in Natural Disaster: From Office to Organization

Anderson, William A.
Fonte: Disaster Research Center Publicador: Disaster Research Center
Tipo: Outros Formato: 4426237 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
This monograph will consider the functioning of civil defense offices in natural disasters. The focus will be on the actual operations of these units within the local community rather than attempting to explicate national or even state policy concerning their operations. While these social units have been expressly created to cope with nuclear disaster, over time they have come to be expected to assume important roles during disasters caused by tornadoes, floods, earthquakes, etc., as well as other kinds of community emergencies. While at national levels of policy the primary concern is still focused on nuclear consequences, state and local units of civil defense have become involved in disaster-related emergencies. The focus of the following chapters is on these types of involvement at the local community level.; Office of Civil Defense

The Role Of Local Civil Defense In Disaster Planning

Dynes, Russell R.; Quarantelli, E. L.
Fonte: Disaster Research Center Publicador: Disaster Research Center
Tipo: Outros Formato: 6934700 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.53%
Intensive field studies involving over 300 in-depth interviews in 12 American cities were conducted in an effort to ascertain the conditions or factors associated with variations in the tasks, saliency and legitimacy of local civil defense organizations around the United States. All of the cities were objectively subject to at least two major natural disaster threats and half had undergone a major disaster in the last decade. Data were obtained from key community and emergency organization officials by way of a disaster probability rating scale, two intensive interview guides, and a general documentary checklist. Among the findings were the following. While overall disaster planning by civil defense has tended to be differentiated, segmented, isolated, cyclical and spasmodic , in recent years planning has broadened to include a wide range of disaster ,agents, a lesser focus on nuclear attack, more concern with local community viability and increasing involvement of a greater number of organizations in community disaster plans. Currently in almost all communities there are multiple layers of planning with little consensus on disaster tasks, on organizational responsibility and on the scope of disaster plannlng,is well as confusion concerning the role of civil defence in such planning. Local civil defence directors not only differ in following a professional or a political career path...

O Exército Brasileiro; o emprego dual de uma estrutura de defesa do Estado

Siqueira, Rogério
Fonte: IESM Publicador: IESM
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
Os cenários prospetivos apresentam importantes desafios a serem enfrentados pelo Brasil no contexto da Defesa Nacional. O Exército Brasileiro (EB), como integrante deste esforço, alinha-se com a Estratégia Nacional de Defesa (END) no sentido de evoluir para melhor atender às necessidades da sociedade e do Estado brasileiros. Neste contexto, este estudo procura verificar as oportunidades de ampliação das ações da Engenharia Militar (Eng Mil) do EB, nomeadamente na Região Amazónica, com a intenção de reforçar a END na consecução de seus objetivos. Para atingir este propósito, propõe-se a criação de uma Grande Unidade de Engenharia com uma Unidade no Comando Militar do Norte (CMN) e outra no Comando Militar da Amazónia (CMA). Esta nova estrutura reforçará a estratégia de presença, centralizará o apoio prestado à Defesa Civil, contribuirá para a redução dos ilícitos transfronteiriços e ampliará a monitorização dos recursos naturais internacionalmente cobiçados. Abstract: Futures scenarios present important challenges to be faced by Brazil in the context of national defense. The Brazilian Army, as part of this effort, aligns with the National Defense Strategy in order to evolve to better meet the needs of society and the Brazilian State. In this context...

No calor da discussão : discursos midialógicos e políticas de defesa civil sobre extremos de altas temperaturas em Campinas (SP), Brasil, de 2001 a 2012; In the heat of discussion : the medialogic discourses and the policies of civil defense regarding high temperature extremes in Campinas (SP), Brazil, from 2001 to 2012

Flávio Renato Nascimento dos Santos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/08/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.39%
Neste trabalho definiram-se ondas de calor para a cidade de Campinas, verificando-se sua frequência. A partir desses dados, empreendeu-se uma investigação sobre como o fenômeno é abordado pela mídia local e pelo poder público, averiguando reportagens e políticas da Defesa Civil, respectivamente. Tendo por pressuposto o fato de que a experiência de morar e circular nas grandes cidades brasileiras conduz à percepção de que os dias de calor intenso têm sido cada vez mais frequentes, justifica-se esta pesquisa no entendimento de que estes eventos, além de extremamente prejudiciais à saúde, podem levar à morte. O quadro ganha novos contornos diante do fato de que estudos realizados em diferentes partes do mundo, advindos de matrizes teórico-metodológicas variadas, corroboram a hipótese de aquecimento global. Além disto, os efeitos de ilha de calor nas áreas urbanas reforçam as altas temperaturas, aumentando o risco de que se configurem desastres, tais como a onda de calor na Europa em 2003, episódio que culminou com a morte de aproximadamente 35.000 pessoas. Assim, após a definição do fenômeno em conformidade com os dados climáticos locais, verificou-se que, entre 2001 a 2012, foram 561 dias quentes (5ºC acima da média máxima esperada)...

INTERPRETAÇÃO DO RISCO DE DESASTRES POR ALUNOS DE ENSINO FUNDAMENTAL E MÉDIO; UNDERSTANDING OF DISASTERS RISKS BY BRAZILIAN STUDENTS

Londe, Luciana de Resende; Soriano, Erico; Coutinho, Marcos Pellegrini; Marchezini, Víctor
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/07/2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
We aimed to evaluate children and teenagers´ understanding about disasters, from a group of people that has not experienced a disaster. This evaluation is expected to serve as a reference for disaster prevention, because  it provides beliefs and expectations about disasters, from a public who live in or near risk areas. Students with ages from 10 to 21 years were invited to answer a survey to characterize their beliefs about disaster and disaster prevention. Even though there are many risk areas in their municipality (Campos do Jordão, SP), most of the students do not recognize the risk of natural disasters as part of their reality. Considering that the interviewees were receptive to meetings and discussions with the municipality´s institution of civil defense, we recommend that they make together an evacuation planning for the imminence of a disaster, based on the community´s needs and limitations. It is also advisable that the civil defense plan special measures for post-disaster care. We also recommend a partnership among community, civil defense and local schools to create awareness and preparedness activities.; Este trabalho traz como motivação a compreensão do imaginário infantil e adolescente entre um público que, em sua maioria...

Desastres, ordem social e planejamento em defesa civil: o contexto brasileiro; Disasters, social order and civil defense planning: the Brazilian context

Valencio, Norma
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.45%
A pesquisa sociológica em desastres tem muitas abordagens voltadas para as instituições e relações de poder. Desastres têm implicações sobre a ordem social, bem como a ordem social pode colaborar para a produção do desastre. As rupturas sociais provenientes de situações de desigualdade têm influência na resposta dos eventos de desastre, incluindo fatores políticos e econômicos que aumentam a vulnerabilidade. Este artigo analisa o discurso institucional e as práticas de defesa civil no contexto brasileiro. Antes de tudo, descreve as principais abordagens da sociologia dos desastres: o consenso mínimo, a polaridade e dicotomia, e mostra uma abordagem sobre a relação entre desenvolvimento desigual, vulnerabilidade e planejamento de defesa civil. A situação atual nas cidades brasileiras é de restrição de acesso a terra e isso resulta em aumento dos desastres. Se não ocorrer mudança no planejamento do Estado, com a adoção de novas estratégias explicitamente formuladas para quebrar o ponto de vista ideológico que submete grupos pobres, os desastres continuarão acontecendo. Na atual dimensão estrutural do planejamento, o sistema brasileiro de defesa civil classifica os grupos vulneráveis sem considerar a complexidade social. Desastres não destroem por completo os sistemas sociais existentes...