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Childbearing in adolescence: intergenerational dejà-vu? Evidence from a Brazilian birth cohort

Ferraro, Alexandre ; Cardoso, Viviane ; Barbosa, Aline ; Silva, Antônio Augusto da; Faria, Carlos ; De Ribeiro, Valdinar ; Bettiol, Heloisa ; Barbieri, Marco 
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.36%
Abstract Background Pregnancy in adolescence tends to repeat over generations. This event has been little studied in middle and low-income societies undergoing a rapid epidemiological transition. To assess this association it is important to adjust for socioeconomic conditions at different points in lifetime. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the independent effect of adolescent childbearing in a generation on its recurrence in the subsequent generation, after adjusting for socioeconomic status at different points in life. Methods The study was conducted on a prospective cohort of singleton liveborn females from the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, evaluated in 1978/79, and their daughters assessed in 2002/04. A total of 1059 mother-daughter pairs were evaluated. The women who had their first childbirth before 20 years of age were considered to be adolescent mothers. The risk of childbearing in adolescence for the daughter was modeled as a function of the occurrence of teenage childbearing in her mother, after adjustment for socio-demographic variables in a Poisson regression model. Results The rate of childbearing during adolescence was 31.4% in 1978/79 and 17.1% in 2002/04. Among the daughters of the 1st generation adolescent mothers...

Childbearing in adolescence: intergenerational dejà-vu? Evidence from a Brazilian birth cohort

Ferraro, Alexandre A; Cardoso, Viviane C; Barbosa, Aline P; Da Silva, Antônio A M; Faria, Carlos A; De Ribeiro, Valdinar S; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco A
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.36%
Abstract Background Pregnancy in adolescence tends to repeat over generations. This event has been little studied in middle and low-income societies undergoing a rapid epidemiological transition. To assess this association it is important to adjust for socioeconomic conditions at different points in lifetime. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the independent effect of adolescent childbearing in a generation on its recurrence in the subsequent generation, after adjusting for socioeconomic status at different points in life. Methods The study was conducted on a prospective cohort of singleton liveborn females from the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, evaluated in 1978/79, and their daughters assessed in 2002/04. A total of 1059 mother-daughter pairs were evaluated. The women who had their first childbirth before 20 years of age were considered to be adolescent mothers. The risk of childbearing in adolescence for the daughter was modeled as a function of the occurrence of teenage childbearing in her mother, after adjustment for socio-demographic variables in a Poisson regression model. Results The rate of childbearing during adolescence was 31.4% in 1978/79 and 17.1% in 2002/04. Among the daughters of the 1st generation adolescent mothers...

Childbearing in adolescence: intergenerational dejà-vu? Evidence from a Brazilian birth cohort

Ferraro, Alexandre A; Cardoso, Viviane C; Barbosa, Aline P; Da Silva, Antônio A M; Faria, Carlos A; De Ribeiro, Valdinar S; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco A
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.36%
Abstract Background Pregnancy in adolescence tends to repeat over generations. This event has been little studied in middle and low-income societies undergoing a rapid epidemiological transition. To assess this association it is important to adjust for socioeconomic conditions at different points in lifetime. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the independent effect of adolescent childbearing in a generation on its recurrence in the subsequent generation, after adjusting for socioeconomic status at different points in life. Methods The study was conducted on a prospective cohort of singleton liveborn females from the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, evaluated in 1978/79, and their daughters assessed in 2002/04. A total of 1059 mother-daughter pairs were evaluated. The women who had their first childbirth before 20 years of age were considered to be adolescent mothers. The risk of childbearing in adolescence for the daughter was modeled as a function of the occurrence of teenage childbearing in her mother, after adjustment for socio-demographic variables in a Poisson regression model. Results The rate of childbearing during adolescence was 31.4% in 1978/79 and 17.1% in 2002/04. Among the daughters of the 1st generation adolescent mothers...

A cohort analysis of breast cancer, uterine corpus cancer, and childbearing pattern in Norwegian women.

Tretli, S; Haldorsen, T
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1990 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to study the influence of childbearing pattern on the incidence of breast cancer and uterine corpus cancer. DESIGN--This was an ecological study of birth cohorts of women. SETTING--The study was population based, involving the whole of Norway. PARTICIPANTS--The participants were Norwegian women born between 1890 and 1944. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Age specific fertility rates and age specific incidence rates for different birth cohorts were analysed by an age-cohort-period model where quantitative indices of the childbearing pattern substituted the cohort component. The 1890-94 birth cohort had the most favourable childbearing pattern with regard to the risk of breast cancer as well as uterine corpus cancer. The least favourable pattern was in the 1910-14 cohort for breast cancer and the 1940-44 cohort for uterine corpus cancer. In the analysis it is estimated that about 15% of the increase in incidence of breast cancer from 1955 to 1984 may be attributed to changes in the childbearing pattern of the cohorts under study. For cancer of the uterine corpus the corresponding fraction is about 27%. CONCLUSIONS--The study reveals that changes in childbearing pattern may explain a certain fraction of the observed increase in breast and uterine corpus cancer in Norway in the last 30 years...

Do the sisters of childbearing teenagers have increased rates of childbearing?

Friede, A; Hogue, C J; Doyle, L L; Hammerslough, C R; Sniezek, J E; Arrighi, H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1986 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
In 1983, 89,000 children were born to United States women aged less than or equal to 16. To reduce teenage fertility rates, public health workers will need to identify teenagers at elevated risk for childbearing. We tested the hypothesis that the sisters of childbearing teenagers may form such a group. We performed an historical cohort study of 3,767 teenagers aged 12-16 years who were enrolled in Arkansas Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 1978-81; they had 247 pregnancies. Multivariable log-linear hazard models were used to control and study age, race, number of AFDC-eligibles per household, and county urbanization and family planning services. Teenagers whose sisters bore children had elevated rate ratios (RR) for childbearing (RR = 1.8; 95% Confidence Limits [CL] = 1.2-2.6), as did Blacks (RR = 3.1; 95% CL = 2.0-4.8), and members of households with more than nine AFDC-eligibles (RR = 1.7; 95% CL = 1.1-2.6). Because they may have elevated childbearing rates, and would be easy to contact, the sisters of pregnant teenagers could form an important target population for family planning efforts.

Teenage childbearing in Great Britain and the spatial concentration of poverty households

McCulloch, A
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.39%
STUDY OBJECTIVE—To investigate the association between the spatial concentration of deprived households and teenage non-marital childbearing. Associations with area deprivation are tested before and after allowing for levels of personal deprivation.
DESIGN AND SETTING—The individual data are derived from the 2% sample of anonymised records (SAR) from the census of 1991 in Great Britain, and are combined with area data from the 278 districts of residence identifiable in the SAR.
PARTICIPANTS—Sample is restricted to unmarried women living at home (with at least one parent) and aged 16 to 19.
MAIN RESULTS—The results suggest generally higher risk of teenage childbearing for women who are economically inactive, women from households with no access to a car or households resident in local authority accomodation. Without adjusting for personal circumstances, the risk of teenage pregnancy shows a clear, significant and approximately linear association with social deprivation of area of residence in 1991. Residual analysis shows that many urban areas have much higher levels of teenage childbearing than expected. When adjustment is made for personal disadvantage the simple association with local area deprivation is attenuated. A higher risk of teenage childbearing is still seen in urban areas while the areas having the highest negative differentials are heterogeneous.
CONCLUSIONS—Both individual and spatial characteristics are important in influencing levels of teenage childbearing. Teenage childbearing shows an association with residence in more deprived areas. The association seems to be largely because residence in more deprived areas is associated with personal disadvantage...

The Long-Term Consequences of Childbearing: Physical and Psychological Well-Being of Mothers in Later Life

Spence, Naomi J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.31%
Growing evidence points to relationships between patterns of childbearing and health outcomes for mothers; yet a need remains to clarify these relationships over the long-term and to understand the underlying mechanisms. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (N=1,608), I find that the long-term consequences of childbearing vary by health outcome. Early childbearing is associated with higher risk of ADL limitations at ages 65–83, though effects appear stronger among white than black mothers until SES is controlled. Early childbearing is also associated with greater levels of depressive symptomatology, though this association is mediated by SES and health. Late childbearing is associated with more depressive symptoms net of early life and current SES, child proximity and support, and physical health. Finally, I find no significant effects of high parity. These findings emphasize the need to better understand the mechanisms linking childbearing histories to later physical and psychological well-being.

Childbearing impeded education more than education impeded childbearing among Norwegian women

Cohen, Joel E.; Kravdal, Øystein; Keilman, Nico
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.39%
In most societies, women at age 39 with higher levels of education have fewer children. To understand this association, we investigated the effects of childbearing on educational attainment and the effects of education on fertility in the 1964 birth cohort of Norwegian women. Using detailed annual data from ages 17 to 39, we estimated the probabilities of an additional birth, a change in educational level, and enrollment in the coming year, conditional on fertility history, educational level, and enrollment history at the beginning of each year. A simple model reproduced a declining gradient of children ever born with increasing educational level at age 39. When a counterfactual simulation assumed no effects of childbearing on educational progression or enrollment (without changing the estimated effects of education on childbearing), the simulated number of children ever born decreased very little with increasing completed educational level, contrary to data. However, when another counterfactual simulation assumed no effects of current educational level and enrollment on childbearing (without changing the estimated effects of childbearing on education), the simulated number of children ever born decreased with increasing completed educational level nearly as much as the decrease in the data. In summary...

Investigating the Relationship between Teenage Childbearing and Psychological Distress Using Longitudinal Evidence*

MOLLBORN, STEFANIE; MORNINGSTAR, ELIZABETH
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
The high levels of depression among teenage mothers have received considerable research attention in smaller targeted samples, but a large-scale examination of the complex relationship between adolescent childbearing and psychological distress that explores bidirectional causality is needed. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort, we found that teenage mothers had higher levels of distress than their childless adolescent peers and adult mothers, but the experience of teenage childbearing did not appear to be the cause. Rather, teenage mothers’ distress levels were already higher than their peers before they became pregnant, and they remained higher after childbearing and into early and middle adulthood. We also found that distress did not increase the likelihood of adolescent childbearing except among poor teenagers. In this group, experiencing high levels of distress markedly increased the probability of becoming a teenage mother. Among nonpoor teenage girls, the relationship between distress and subsequent teenage childbearing was spurious.

Some (But Not Much) Progress Toward Understanding Teenage Childbearing: A Review of Research From the Past Decade

Coyne, Claire A.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.44%
In the decade and a half since Coley & Chase-Lansdale’s (1998) review of teenage childbearing there have been a number of studies investigating teenage childbearing from a developmental psychological perspective. Many of these studies have focused primarily on identifying individual, familial, and socioeconomic risk factors in childhood and adolescence that are highly correlated with teenage sexual behavior and teenage childbearing. We have an emerging understanding of teenage childbearing as the culmination of a complex cascade of experiences and decisions that overlap greatly with the risks for antisocial behavior. Much of this research, however, is limited by its reliance on correlational and cross-sectional research designs, which are not able to rigorously test causal inferences or to identify mechanisms associated with teenage childbearing. Innovative studies using large, nationally representative samples with quasi-experimental and longitudinal designs can expand on such descriptive studies. In particular, quasi-experimental studies can help answer questions about which risk factors are causally associated with teenage childbearing and suggest potential mechanisms that can explain how teenage childbearing is associated with poor outcomes. Future studies also will need to incorporate more precise measures of developmental processes and explore heterogeneity among adolescent mothers. Although advances have been made in the psychological study of teenage childbearing...

The Younger Siblings of Childbearing Adolescents: Parenting Influences on Their Academic and Social-Emotional Adjustment

Chien, Nina C.; East, Patricia L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.31%
The younger siblings of childbearing adolescents have poorer school outcomes and exhibit more internalizing and externalizing problems compared to their peers without a childbearing sister. We test a model where living with an adolescent childbearing sister constitutes a major family stressor that disrupts mothers’ parenting and well-being, and through which, adversely affect youths’ adjustment. Data came from 243 Latino younger siblings (62% female, M age 13.7 years) and their mothers, 121 of whom lived with a childbearing adolescent sister and 122 of whom did not. Individual fixed-effects models controlled for earlier measures of each respective model construct, thereby reducing omitted variable bias from pre-existing group differences. Results show that, for boys, the relationship between living with a childbearing adolescent sister and youth outcomes was sequentially mediated through mothers’ stress and parenting (i.e., monitoring and nurturance). For girls, however, the relationship was mediated through mothers’ monitoring only. Findings elucidate the within-family processes that contribute to the problematic outcomes of youth living with childbearing adolescent older sisters.

Is the Baby to Blame? An Inquiry into the Consequences of Early Childbearing

Azevedo, Joao Pedro; Lopez-Calva, Luis F.; Perova, Elizaveta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.26%
Teenage pregnancy has been a cause of concern for policy makers because it is associated with a complex and often adverse social context for women. It is seen as the cause of lower social and economic achievement for mothers and their children, and as the potential determinant of inter-generational poverty traps. However, the question of whether pregnancy -- and the subsequent rearing of a child -- is actually the trigger of poverty, higher dependence on social welfare and/ or other undesirable social and economic consequences has not been studied in developing countries with enough rigor to establish a causal relation. This paper follows a methodology previously applied in the United States, using Mexican data from the National Survey of Demographic Dynamics, to exploit information about miscarriages as an instrument to identify the long-term consequences of early child bearing. Thus, the paper takes the advantage of a natural experiment: it compares the outcomes of women who became pregnant in adolescence, and gave birth, to outcomes of women who became pregnant in adolescence and miscarried. This approach only allows for estimating the costs of adolescent childbearing for teenagers in a risk group, that is, teenagers who are likely to experience a pregnancy. The results are consistent with findings in the United States...

Teenage Pregnancy and Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean : On Teenage Fertility Decisions, Poverty and Economic Achievement

Azevedo, Joao Pedro; Favara, Marta; Haddock, Sarah E.; Lopez-Calva, Luis F.; Muller, Miriam; Perova, Elizaveta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.31%
The pregnancy project sought to expose the existence, and challenge the validity, of stereotypes about Hispanic women. The charade explored the underlying motivations of the many who responded with a wide range of reactions. The specific objectives of this regional study are: to establish a thorough description of the magnitude of the issue and its potential implications for social advancement; to advance the understanding of the risk factors, motivations and impacts at the household level-as a determinant of poverty and a cause of intra-and intergenerational poverty traps; to illuminate the coping mechanisms and their individual and social implications; to highlight the gender-related issues that have historically provoked asymmetric costs to boys and girls; and to provide elements that support specific policies on this matter. In the last decade, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have been moving in the right direction and the region has experienced important gains in gender equality of endowments (assets) and economic opportunities. In most LAC countries...

Socioeconomic Differences in Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health

Yarger, Jennifer; Lara, Diana; Decker, Mara; Brindis, Claire
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.36%
Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health (ASRH) is one of five areas of focus of the World Banks Reproductive Health Action Plan 2010 - 2015 (RHAP), which recognizes the importance of addressing ASRH as a development issue with important implications for poverty reduction. Delaying childbearing and preventing unplanned pregnancies during adolescence has been shown to improve health outcomes and increase opportunities for schooling, future employment, and earnings (Greene and Merrick, 2005). Delaying childbearing and preventing unplanned pregnancies improves health outcomes and increases opportunities for schooling, future employment, and earnings. A couple of key messages were relayed in this brief. An analysis of data from six countries showed that adolescent childbearing is closely tied to marital status. Around half (ranging from 42 percent in Nepal to 55 percent in Nigeria) of ever-married adolescent women have given birth. In comparison, non-marital adolescent childbearing is rare in all countries studied. In Bangladesh and Burkina Faso...

Reconceiving the Spoiled Female Identity: Childbearing and Motherhood among Women with Hepatitis C

Thetford, H. Clare
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.18%
This thesis explores the impact of hepatitis C on women’s childbearing decisions and experiences of motherhood. A partial grounded theory approach was used, in which 34 women living with hepatitis C participated in semi-structured interviews to determine the direct and indirect effects of hepatitis C on their own personal decisions regarding childbearing and to describe their lived experiences of motherhood. The qualitative interview data were analysed thematically, in which common themes were identified and explored. ¶ Three key areas are explored: women’s social experience of hepatitis C; hepatitis C and childbearing decisions; and the meaning of motherhood for women with hepatitis C. ¶ ...; yes

Gender equality in the family and childbearing

Dommermuth, Lars; Hohmann-Marriott, Bryndl; Lappegard, Trude
Fonte: Sage Publications Inc Publicador: Sage Publications Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
Gender equality and equity in the division of household labor may be associated with couples’ transitions to first, second, and third births. Our comprehensive analysis includes the division of housework and child care as well as the perception of whether this division is fair and satisfactory. We use a unique data set combining the Norwegian Generations and Gender Survey (2007) with information on childbirths within 3 years after the interview from the population register. We found that an unequal division of housework is associated with a decreased chance of first and subsequent births. Child care is most relevant when the respondent is satisfied with the division, as one-child couples where the respondent is less satisfied with the division of child care are less likely to have a second child. Our findings suggest that, even in a high-equity context such as Norway, equality and equity in the household are also important for childbearing.

Determinants of Teenage Childbearing in the United States

Tan, Poh Lin
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.18%

This dissertation consists of two original empirical studies on the determinants of teenage childbearing in the United States. The first study examines the impact of educational attainment on teenage childbearing, using school entry laws as an instrument for education and a highly detailed North Carolina administrative dataset that links birth certificate data to school administrative records. I show that being born after the school entry cutoff date affects educational success in offsetting ways, with a negative impact on years of education but positive impact on test scores. Using an IV regression strategy to distinguish the impacts of years of education and test scores, I show that both educational measures have negative impacts on teenage childbearing.

The second study examines potential causes of the decline in the U.S. teenage birth rate between 1991 and 2010. Using age-period-cohort models with Vital Statistics birth data and Census population counts, I show that the decline was driven by period changes in the early 1990s but by cohort changes between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s. I also use a difference-in-differences model to investigate the extent to which social policies in the 1970s-1980s can explain these cohort changes. The evidence suggests that while legalization of abortion for adult women and unilateral divorce laws had a significant impact on teenage birth rates in the 1990s-2000s...

Mood Changes in Mothers and Fathers through Childbearing: Are the Blues so Blue?

Wilkinson, Ross
Fonte: Harwood Academic Publishers Publicador: Harwood Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
Mood state and mood lability were assessed over a nine month period in a sample of primiparous (n = 42) and multiparous (n = 44) childbearing couples. Positive mood, negative mood and mood lability were measured in the second and third trimester, ten days after parturition, and three months postpartum. Results indicated that the immediate postpartum was the peak period of positive affect for both primiparous and multiparous mothers and their male partners and was also the peak period of negative affect and mood lability for primiparous women. It is argued that the results do not support the 'maternity blues' hypothesis that the immediate postpartum is characterised by labile dysphoric mood. Rather, mood in this period may better be described as a mixed affective state with elevated levels of both positive and negative mood.

Childbearing postponement and child wellbeing in the U.K: reconciling and integrating different perspectives

Goisis, Alice
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.31%
The demographic literature has tended to interpret the postponement of childbearing, experienced in developed countries over the past three decades, as beneficial for families. As women who postpone their first birth accumulate resources before they become mothers, an increasing maternal age at first birth is expected to be positively associated with children’s wellbeing. Existing evidence is only partially able to support these arguments, primarily for two reasons. Firstly, the demographic literature has been mainly preoccupied with the social aspects of postponement, ignoring that, as showed by the medical literature, older childbearing may involve health complications and result in worse outcomes for children. Indeed, the link between postponement and child wellbeing may depend on how late the birth occurs. Secondly, the “weathering” hypothesis literature argues that the link between maternal age and child wellbeing is heterogeneous for population subgroups. Ethnic minority women may have fewer opportunities to acquire resources even if they postpone childbearing. Because of the disadvantage and racism they endure, they may experience a more rapid deterioration of their health, which implies that their children’s wellbeing might worsen...

Iodine nutrition and thyroid function assessment in childbearing age women from Queretaro, Mexico

Méndez-Villa,Lorena; Elton-Puente,Juana Elizabeth; Solís-S,Juan Carlos; Sampson-Zaldívar,Eduardo; García-G,Carlota; Villalobos,Patricia; Colarossi,Ana; Patricia García,Olga; Robles-Osorio,Ludivina; García-Solís,Pablo
Fonte: Nutrición Hospitalaria Publicador: Nutrición Hospitalaria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
Objective: To assess iodine nutrition and thyroid function in Mexican childbearing age women. Methods: 101 childbearing age women (21.7 ± 3.5 years) randomly selected from the university student population participated in this cross-sectional study. TSH, thyroid hormones, anti-thyroid antibodies, thyroid volume, iodine intake, and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were assessed. The knowledge about the importance of iodine in nutrition was also evaluated by using questionnaires. Results: TSH median (interquartile range) value was 1.9 (1.4-2.5) mlU/L, while FT4 median value was 9.0 (8.39.6) μμg/dL. The median FT3 and total rT3 values were 3.3 pg/mL and 40.1 μg/dL, respectively. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (serum TSH >4.5 mlU/L) and of positive anti-thyroid antibodies were 2.9% and <5.9%, respectively. Median thyroid volume was 5.6 mL and none of the subjects were diagnosed with goiter. Median urinary iodine concentration was 146 (104-180) μg/L. As for the knowledge of iodine nutrition, only 37.6% considered that a pregnant woman needs more dietary iodine than a non pregnant woman, while 43.6% recognized that the lack of iodine can cause mental retardation in children. Conclusions: Prevalence of thyroid test function abnormalities was low in this population and the median UIC indicates adequate iodine intake. We also found a poor knowledge about the importance iodine nutrition in the studied population.