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Chemoprevention of rat hepatocarcinogenesis with histone deacetylase inhibitors: Efficacy of tributyrin, a butyric acid prodrug

KUROIWA-TRZMIELINA, Joice; CONTI, Aline de; SCOLASTICI, Clarissa; PEREIRA, Douglas; HORST, Maria Aderuza; PURGATTO, Eduardo; Ong, Thomas Prates; Moreno, Fernando Salvador
Fonte: WILEY-LISS Publicador: WILEY-LISS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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37.26%
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks in prevalence and mortality among top 10 cancers worldwide. Butyric acid (BA), a member of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) has been proposed as an anticareinogenic agent. However, its short half-life is a therapeutical limitation. This problem could be circumvented with tributyrin (TB), a proposed BA prodrug. To investigate TB effectiveness for chemoprevention, rats were treated with the compound during initial phases of ""resistant hepatocyte"" model of hepatocarcinogenesis, and cellular and molecular parameters were evaluated. TB inhibited (p < 0.05) development of hepatic preneoplastic lesions (PNL) including persistent ones considered HCC progression sites. TB increased (p < 0.05) PNL remodeling, a process whereby they tend to disappear. TB did not inhibit cell proliferation in PNL, but induced (p < 0.05) apoptosis in remodeling ones. Compared to controls, rats treated with TB presented increased (P < 0.05) hepatic levels of BA indicating its effectiveness as a prodrug. Molecular mechanisms of TB-induced hepatocarcinogenesis chemoprevention were investigated. TB increased (p < 0.05) hepatic nuclear histone H3K9 hyperacetylation specifically in PNL and p21 protein expression, which could be associated with inhibitory HDAC effects. Moreover...

Efeitos de quimioprevenção dos ligantes do PPAR- e dos ácidos graxos poliinsaturados ômega-3 no processo de carcinogênese da via aerodigestiva superior induzida pelo uso de 4-nitroquinolina-1-óxido em camundongos Swiss; Chemopreventive effects of PPAR-? ligands and polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 on the carcinogenesis process of the upper aerodigestive tract induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide in Swiss mice

Gama, Ricardo Ribeiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/08/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
Introdução: O carcinoma de células escamosas da via aerodigestiva superior (VADS) geralmente é unifocal e advém da progressão das lesões pré-neoplásicas. O risco de segundos tumores primários é de 3 a 7% ao ano para pacientes tratados previamente de câncer da VADS, sendo importante avançar em estratégias de quimioprevenção. Nos estudos clínicos realizados, as drogas promissoras mostraramse ineficazes quando aplicadas em doses baixas para minimizar a toxicidade. Neste trabalho, ácidos graxos poliinsaturados ômega-3 (óleo de peixe) e pioglitazone, um agonista PPAR-?, foram utilizados com intenção quimiopreventiva, em modelo animal de carcinogênese da VADS, induzida com o uso de 4- nitroquinolina-1-óxido (4-NQO). Métodos: Camundongos Swiss foram submetidos à indução tumoral com 4-NQO nas doses: 25, 50 ou 100 g/ml diluído em água por 8 semanas. Quimioprevenção foi testada com óleo de peixe nas concentrações de 10% ou 5%. Também foi realizada, em outros grupos, quimioprevenção com pioglitazone nas concentrações de 300 ppm ou 100 ppm. A quimioprevenção foi realizada na iniciação e pós-iniciação tumorais (por 32 semanas) ou apenas na pós- iniciação (por 24 semanas). Resultados: As incidências de neoplasias oral e esofágica foram...

Chemoprevention by celecoxib in reflux-induced gastric adenocarcinoma in Wistar rats that underwent gastrojejunostomy

Rocha,Frederico Theobaldo Ramos; Lourenço,Laercio Gomes; Jucá,Mário Jorge; Costa,Valéria; Leal,Antenor Teixeira
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
PURPOSE: To evaluate chemoprevention by celecoxib in cases of reflux-induced gastric adenocarcinoma, in Wistar rats that underwent gastrojejunostomy. METHODS: Sixty male Wistar rats of average age three months underwent surgery and were distributed into three groups: group 1, exploratory laparotomy; group 2, gastrojejunostomy; and group 3, gastrojejunostomy and daily celecoxib administration. After 53 weeks, the animals were sacrificed. Changes in the mucosa of the gastric body of group 1 and in the gastrojejunal anastomosis of groups 2 and 3, observed in histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations, were compared. All statistical analyses were performed using Epi-Info®, version 3.4.3. RESULTS: Comparison between groups 2 and 3 relative to the presence of adenocarcinoma showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.0023). Analysis of the association between groups 2 and 3 relative to COX-2 expression also showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.0018). CONCLUSION: Celecoxib had an inhibiting effect on gastric carcinogenesis induced by enterogastric reflux in an animal model.

Chemoprevention of Lung Cancer

Keith, Robert L.
Fonte: American Thoracic Society Publicador: American Thoracic Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/04/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States, and the majority of diagnoses are made in former smokers. While avoidance of tobacco abuse and smoking cessation clearly will have the greatest impact on lung cancer development, effective chemoprevention could prove to be more effective than treatment of established disease. Chemoprevention is the use of dietary or pharmaceutical agents to reverse or inhibit the carcinogenic process and has been successfully applied to common malignancies other than lung. Despite previous studies in lung cancer chemoprevention failing to identify effective agents, our ability to determine higher risk populations and the understanding of lung tumor and pre-malignant biology continues to advance. Additional biomarkers of risk continue to be investigated and validated. The World Health Organization/International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer classification for lung cancer now recognizes distinct histologic lesions that can be reproducibly graded as precursors of non–small cell lung cancer. For example, carcinogenesis in the bronchial epithelium starts with normal epithelium and progresses through hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ to invasive squamous cell cancer. Similar precursor lesions exist for adenocarcinoma...

Gene Expression Analysis of Biological Systems Driving an Organotypic Model of Endometrial Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention

Benbrook, Doris M.; Lightfoot, Stan; Ranger-Moore, James; Liu, Tongzu; Chengedza, Shylet; Berry, William L.; Dozmorov, Igor
Fonte: Libertas Academica Publicador: Libertas Academica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/02/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
An organotypic model of endometrial carcinogenesis and chemoprevention was developed in which normal endometrial organotypic cultures exposed to the carcinogen, DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene), developed a cancerous phenotype in the absence, but not presence of subsequent treatment with a flexible heteroarotinoid (Flex-Het), called SHetA2. A discriminant function based on karyometric features of cellular nuclei and an agar clonogenic assay confirmed these histologic changes. Interpretation of microarray data using an internal standard approach identified major pathways associated with carcinogenesis and chemoprevention governed by c-myc, p53, TNFα and Jun genes. Cluster analysis of functional associations of hypervariable genes demonstrated that carcinogenesis is accompanied by a stimulating association between a module of genes that includes tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), c-myc, and epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R) and a module that includes insulin-like growth factor I-receptor (IGF-IR), p53, and Jun genes. Two secreted proteins involved in these systems, tenascin C and inhibin A, were validated at the protein level. Tenascin C is an EGF-R ligand, and therefore may contribute to the increased EGF-R involvement in carcinogenesis. The known roles of the identified molecular systems in DMBA and endometrial carcinogenesis and chemoprevention supports the validity of this model and the potential clinical utility of SHetA2 in chemoprevention.

Protein Kinase Cβ Is an Effective Target for Chemoprevention of Colon Cancer

Fields, Alan P.; Calcagno, Shelly R.; Krishna, Murli; Rak, Sofija; Leitges, Michael; Murray, Nicole R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/02/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
Colon cancer develops over a period of 10 to 15 years, providing a window of opportunity for chemoprevention and early intervention. However, few molecular targets for effective colon cancer chemoprevention have been characterized and validated. Protein kinase CβII (PKCβII) plays a requisite role in the initiation of colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical mouse model by promoting proliferation and increased β-catenin accumulation. In this study, we test the hypothesis that PKCβII is an effective target for colon cancer chemoprevention using enzastaurin (LY317615), a PKCβ-selective inhibitor, in a mouse model of colon carcinogenesis. We find that enzastaurin potently reduces azoxymethane-induced colon tumor initiation and progression by inhibiting PKCβII-mediated tumor cell proliferation and β-catenin accumulation. Biochemically, enzastaurin reduces expression of the PKCβII- and β-catenin/T-cell factor–regulated genes PKCβII, cyclooxygenase II, and vascular endothelial growth factor, three genes implicated in colon carcinogenesis. Our results show that enzastaurin is an effective chemopreventive agent in a mouse model of sporadic colon cancer that significantly reduces both tumor initiation and progression by inhibiting expression of proproliferative genes. Thus...

Breast Cancer Chemoprevention: Old and New Approaches

Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Bonanni, Bernardo
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
In 1976, Sporn has defined chemoprevention as “the use of pharmacologic or natural agents that inhibit the development of invasive breast cancer either by blocking the DNA damage that initiates carcinogenesis, or by arresting or reversing the progression of premalignant cells in which such damage has already occurred.” Although the precise mechanism or mechanisms that promote a breast cancer are not completely established, the success of several recent clinical trials in preventive settings in selected high-risk populations suggests that chemoprevention is a rational and an appealing strategy. Breast cancer chemoprevention has focused heavily on endocrine intervention using selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs). Achieving much success in this particular setting and new approaches as low-dose administration are actually under investigations in several topics. Unfortunately, these drugs are active in prevention of endocrine responsive lesions only and have no effect in reducing the risk of estrogen-negative breast cancer. Thus, recently new pathways, biomarkers, and agents likely are to be effective in this subgroup of cancers and were put under investigation. Moreover, the identification of new potential molecular targets and the development of agents aimed at these targets within cancer have already had a significant impact on advanced cancer therapy and provide a wealth of opportunities for chemoprevention. This paper will highlight current clinical research in both ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancer chemoprevention...

Polyamines as mediators of APC-dependent intestinal carcinogenesis and cancer chemoprevention

Rial, Nathaniel S.; Meyskens, Frank L.; Gerner, Eugene W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/11/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
Combination chemoprevention for cancer was proposed a quarter of a century ago, but has not been implemented in standard medical practice owing to limited efficacy and toxicity. Recent trials have targeted inflammation and polyamine biosynthesis, both of which are increased in carcinogenesis. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that DFMO (difluoromethylornithine), an irreversible inhibitor of ODC (ornithine decarboxylase) which is the first enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, combined with NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) suppresses colorectal carcinogenesis in murine models. The preclinical rationale for combination chemoprevention with DFMO and the NSAID sulindac, was strengthened by the observation that a SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) in the ODC promoter was prognostic for adenoma recurrence in patients with prior sporadic colon polyps and predicted reduced risk of adenoma in those patients taking aspirin. Recent results from a phase III clinical trial showed a dramatic reduction in metachronous adenoma number, size and grade. Combination chemoprevention with DFMO and sulindac was not associated with any serious toxicity. A non-significant trend in subclinical ototoxicity was detected by quantitative audiology in a subset of patients identified by a genetic marker. These preclinical...

Intraductal administration of a polymeric nanoparticle formulation of curcumin (NanoCurc) significantly attenuates incidence of mammary tumors in a rodent chemical carcinogenesis model: Implications for breast cancer chemoprevention in at-risk populations

Chun, Yong Soon; Bisht, Savita; Chenna, Venugopal; Pramanik, Dipankar; Yoshida, Takahiro; Hong, Seung-Mo; de Wilde, Roeland F.; Zhang, Zhe; Huso, David L.; Zhao, Ming; Rudek, Michelle A.; Stearns, Vered; Maitra, Anirban; Sukumar, Saraswati
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
Multiple lines of evidence support a role for curcumin in cancer chemoprevention. Nonetheless, despite its reported efficacy and safety profile, clinical translation of curcumin has been hampered by low oral bioavailability, requiring infeasible ‘mega’ doses for achieving detectable tissue levels. We have engineered a polymeric nanoparticle encapsulated formulation of curcumin (NanoCurc) to harness its full therapeutic potential. In the current study, we assessed the chemoprevention efficacy of NanoCurc administered via direct intraductal (i.duc) injection in a chemical carcinogen-induced rodent mammary cancer model. Specifically, Sprague–Dawley rats exposed to systemic N-methyl-N-nitrosourea were randomized to receive either oral free curcumin at a previously reported ‘mega’ dose (200mg/kg) or by direct i.duc injection of free curcumin or NanoCurc, respectively, each delivering 168 µg equivalent of curcumin per rodent teat (a ~20-fold lower dose per animal compared to oral administration). All three chemoprevention modalities resulted in significantly lower mammary tumor incidence compared with control rats; however, there was no significant difference in cancer incidence between the oral dosing and either i.duc arms. On the other hand...

Estimating the potential public health impact of seasonal malaria chemoprevention in African children

Cairns, Matthew; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Garske, Tini; Wilson, Anne L.; Diallo, Diadier; Milligan, Paul J.; Ghani, Azra C; Greenwood, Brian M.
Fonte: Nature Pub. Group Publicador: Nature Pub. Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/06/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
Seasonal malaria chemoprevention, previously known as intermittent preventive treatment in children, is highly effective in areas with a short malaria transmission season. Here we assess seasonality in malaria incidence data and define a predictor of seasonality based on rainfall. We then use spatial rainfall, malaria endemicity and population data to identify areas likely to have highly seasonal malaria incidence, and estimate the population at risk and malaria burden in areas where seasonal malaria chemoprevention would be appropriate. We estimate that in areas suitable for seasonal malaria chemoprevention, there are 39 million children under 5 years of age, who experience 33.7 million malaria episodes and 152,000 childhood deaths from malaria each year. The majority of this burden occurs in the Sahelian or sub-Sahelian regions of Africa. Our data suggest that seasonal malaria chemoprevention has the potential to avert several million malaria cases and tens of thousands of childhood deaths each year if successfully delivered to the populations at risk.

New Insights Into the Mechanisms of Green Tea Catechins in the Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer

Connors, Shahnjayla K.; Chornokur, Ganna; Kumar, Nagi B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second most common cause of cancer deaths in American men. Its long latency, slow progression, and high incidence rate make prostate cancer ideal for targeted chemopreventative therapies. Therefore, chemoprevention studies and clinical trials are essential for reducing the burden of prostate cancer on society. Epidemiological studies suggest that tea consumption has protective effects against a variety of human cancers, including that of the prostate. Laboratory and clinical studies have demonstrated that green tea components, specifically the green tea catechin (GTC) epigallocatechin gallate, can induce apoptosis, suppress progression, and inhibit invasion and metastasis of prostate cancer. Multiple mechanisms are involved in the chemoprevention of prostate cancer with GTCs; understanding and refining models of fundamental molecular pathways by which GTCs modulate prostate carcinogenesis is essential to apply the utilization of green tea for the chemoprevention of prostate cancer in clinical settings. The objective of this article is to review and summarize the most current literature focusing on the major mechanisms of GTC chemopreventative action on prostate cancer from laboratory...

Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer: The Paradox of Evidence versus Advocacy Inaction

Rahman, Rakhshanda Layeequr; Pruthi, Sandhya
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/10/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.31%
Women who are at high risk of breast cancer can be offered chemoprevention. Chemoprevention strategies have expanded over the past decade and include selective receptor modulator inhibitors and aromatase inhibitors. Physicians are expected to provide individualized risk assessments to identify high risk women who may be eligible for chemoprevention. It is prudent that physicians utilize a shared decision approach when counseling high risk women about their preventive options. Barriers and misperceptions however exist with patient and physician acceptance of chemoprevention and continue to impede uptake of chemoprevention as a strategy to reduce breast cancer risk. Programs to increase awareness and elucidate the barriers are critical for women to engage in cancer prevention and promote chemoprevention adherence.

Tamoxifen vs Raloxifene vs Exemestane for Chemoprevention

Reimers, Laura; Crew, Katherine D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
Clinical trial data on selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have demonstrated reduced breast cancer incidence in the prevention setting among high-risk women. We conducted an extensive review of clinical trials and recent published reports of barriers to uptake of breast cancer chemoprevention, to provide health care professionals with information to improve decision-making regarding chemoprevention. Despite the positive results of these trials, uptake of chemoprevention has been low due to barriers in identifying high-risk women, lack of understanding of risks and benefits, as well as concerns about side effects. Interventions designed to increase uptake have met with limited success. Clinicians can support women in informed decision-making about SERMs and AIs by effectively communicating breast cancer risk and enhancing knowledge about the risks and benefits of chemoprevention. Promoting uptake and adherence to chemoprevention holds promise for reducing the public health burden of this disease.

Chemoprevention of Colon and Small Intestinal Tumorigenesis in APCmin/+ Mice by SHetA2 (NSC721689) without Toxicity

Benbrook, Doris Mangiaracina; Guruswamy, Suresh; Wang, Yuhong; Sun, Zhongjie; Mohammed, Altaf; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Qian; Rao, Chinthalapally V.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
The occurrence of intestinal polyps in people at high risk for developing colorectal cancer provides an opportunity to test the efficacy of chemoprevention agents. In this situation of treating otherwise healthy people, the potential for toxicity must be minimal. The small molecule flexible heteroarotinoid (Flex-Het), called SHetA2, has chemoprevention activity in organotypic cultures in vitro and lack of toxicity at doses capable of inhibiting xenograft tumor growth in vivo. The objective of this study was to evaluate SHetA2 chemoprevention activity and toxicity in the APCMin/+ murine model. Oral administration of SHetA2 at 30 and 60 mg/kg five days per week for 12 weeks significantly reduced development of intestinal polyps by 40 to 60% depending on the dose and sex of the treatment group. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis of polyps demonstrated reduced levels of cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in both SHetA2 treatment groups. Western blot analysis also demonstrated SHetA2 induction of E-cadherin, Bax and caspase 3 cleavage along with reduction in Bcl-2, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), consistent with SHetA2 regulation of apoptosis, inflammation and angiogenesis. Neither dose caused weight loss nor gross toxicity in APCMin/+ or wild type littermates. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cardiac function showed no evidence of SHetA2 toxicity. SHetA2 did not alter left ventricular wall thickness. In summary...

Chemoprevention of oral cancer: Green tea experience

Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi; Krishnamurthy, Arvind
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
Oral cancer has a well characterized progression from premalignant oral epithelial changes to invasive cancer, making oral squamous cell carcinoma an optimal disease for chemoprevention interventions prior to malignant transformation. The primary goal of chemoprevention here is to reverse, suppress, or inhibit the progression of premalignant lesions to cancer. Due to the extended duration of oral pathogenesis, its chemoprevention using natural products has been found promising due to their decreased dose and limited toxicity profiles. This review discusses with an emphasis on the clinical trials using green tea extract (GTE) in chemoprevention of oral premalignant lesions along with use of GTE as a chemopreventive agent in various other cancers as well. It is worthwhile to include green tea extract in an oral screening program for evaluating the premalignant lesions comparing the results between the treated and untreated group. Given the wide acceptance of green tea, its benefits may help in effective chemoprevention oral cancer.

Targeting Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) for Cancer Chemoprevention

Peters, Jeffrey M.; Yao, Pei-Li; Gonzalez, Frank J.
Fonte: Springer International Publishing Publicador: Springer International Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) in cancer remains contentious due in large part to divergent publications indicating opposing effects in different rodent and human cell culture models. During the past 10 years, some facts regarding PPARβ/δ in cancer have become clearer, while others remain uncertain. For example, it is now well accepted that (1) expression of PPARβ/δ is relatively lower in most human tumors as compared to the corresponding non-transformed tissue, (2) PPARβ/δ promotes terminal differentiation, and (3) PPARβ/δ inhibits pro-inflammatory signaling in multiple in vivo models. However, whether PPARβ/δ is suitable to target with natural and/or synthetic agonists or antagonists for cancer chemoprevention is hindered because of the uncertainty in the mechanism of action and role in carcinogenesis. Recent findings that shed new insight into the possibility of targeting this nuclear receptor to improve human health will be discussed.

FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH WORSENING MENOPAUSE-SPECIFIC HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AND TREATMENT DISCONTINUATION IN A BREAST CANCER CHEMOPREVENTION TRIAL

Meggetto, OLIVIA
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.18%
Background: The Mammary Prevention.3 (MAP.3) randomized placebo-controlled trial evaluating exemestane for breast cancer prevention demonstrated a 65% relative reduction in invasive breast cancer incidence. Up to 50% of participants in both trial arms reported a clinically meaningful worsening in their menopause-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL). The incidence of both worsening HRQL and treatment discontinuation was highest within the first year post-randomization. Objectives: The objectives of the two manuscripts comprising this thesis were to 1) identify factors associated with worsening menopause-specific HRQL, and, 2) evaluate the association between clinically meaningful worsening in menopause-specific HRQL and early discontinuation of study treatment. Methods: The study sample was derived from the MAP.3 chemoprevention trial conducted by the NCIC Clinical Trials Group and consisted of 4,560 postmenopausal women at elevated risk for breast cancer. Menopause-specific HRQL was assessed prior to randomization, 6 months and annually thereafter using the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL). In Manuscript 1, Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to identify factors associated with a clinically meaningful worsening in domain-specific and overall menopause-specific HRQL. In Manuscript 2...

Women victims of sexual violence: adherence to chemoprevention of HIV

Diniz,Normélia Maria Freire; Almeida,Lílian Conceição Guimarães de; Ribeiro,Bárbara Cristina dos S.; Macêdo,Valéria Góes de
Fonte: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
This study aimed to investigate the adherence of women victims of sexual violence, to AIDS chemoprevention treatment. A quantitative study was carried out at a care service to victims of sexual violence in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil). Study participants were 172 women. Data were collected through interviews with forms and consultation of patient files. The results showed that 45.4% of the abused women were teenagers and 40.7% of the attended women were raped. Only 54% of the women were advised to use antiretrovirals to prevent HIV. Adherence to treatment occurred in 57.4% of cases and discontinuity corresponded to 42.6%. Non-adherence to treatment was attributed to psychological or emotional disorders and non-understanding of the established treatment. Therefore, it is important that professionals pay careful attention in order to perceive the conditions that might increase women's vulnerability to the infection.

Lung cancer chemoprevention: current status and future prospects

Keith, Robert L.; Miller, York E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Text
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, making it an attractive disease for chemoprevention. Although avoidance of tobacco use and smoking cessation will have the greatest impact on lung cancer development, chemoprevention could prove to be very effective, particularly in former smokers. Chemoprevention is the use of agents to reverse or inhibit carcinogenesis and has been successfully applied to other common malignancies. Despite prior studies in lung cancer chemoprevention failing to identify effective agents, we now have the ability to identify high-risk populations, and our understanding of lung tumour and premalignant biology continues to advance. There are distinct histological lesions that can be reproducibly graded as precursors of non-small-cell lung cancer and similar precursor lesions exist for adenocarcinoma. These premalignant lesions are being targeted by chemopreventive agents in current trials and will continue to be studied in the future. In addition, biomarkers that predict risk and response to targeted agents are being investigated and validated. In this Review, we discuss the principles of chemoprevention, data from preclinical models, completed clinical trials and observational studies, and describe new treatments for novel targeted pathways and future chemopreventive efforts.

Women victims of sexual violence: adherence to chemoprevention of HIV; Mujeres víctimas de la violência sexual: adhesión a la quimioprofilaxia del HIV; Mulheres vítimas de violência sexual: adesão à quimioprofilaxia do HIV

Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Almeida, Lílian Conceição Guimarães de; Ribeiro, Bárbara Cristina dos S.; Macêdo, Valéria Góes de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/02/2007 ENG; POR; SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
This study aimed to investigate the adherence of women victims of sexual violence, to AIDS chemoprevention treatment. A quantitative study was carried out at a care service to victims of sexual violence in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil). Study participants were 172 women. Data were collected through interviews with forms and consultation of patient files. The results showed that 45.4% of the abused women were teenagers and 40.7% of the attended women were raped. Only 54% of the women were advised to use antiretrovirals to prevent HIV. Adherence to treatment occurred in 57.4% of cases and discontinuity corresponded to 42.6%. Non-adherence to treatment was attributed to psychological or emotional disorders and non-understanding of the established treatment. Therefore, it is important that professionals pay careful attention in order to perceive the conditions that might increase women's vulnerability to the infection.; La finalidad de este estudio fue investigar si las mujeres víctimas de violencia sexual adhieren o no al uso de medicamentos para prevención del HIV. Fue realizado un estudio cuantitativo en un servicio de atención a personas sexualmente violentadas, ubicado en Salvador (Bahía, Brasil). Participaron del estudio 172 mujeres. Los datos fueron recopilados a través de entrevistas dirigidas y consulta a los archivos. Los resultados demostraron que el 45.4% de las mujeres víctimas de violencia eran adolescentes y que el 40.7% de las mujeres asistidas fueron violadas. Sólo el 54% de las mujeres fue aconsejado a usar medicamentos antiretrovirales para prevención del VIH...