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Sustainability certification of bioethanol: how is it perceived by Brazilian stakeholders?

HUERTAS, David A.; BERNDES, Goran; HOLMEN, Magnus; SPAROVEK, Gerd
Fonte: JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD Publicador: JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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This paper investigates whether initiatives for sustainability certification of Brazilian ethanol can be expected to stimulate a change among producers toward more sustainable production - and, if so, what those changes would likely be. Connected to this, several questions are raised including whether producers might prefer to target other markets with less stringent demands, and if certification might lead to structural changes in the sector because producers who lack the capacity to meet the new requirements cannot remain competitive. The analysis of interviews with a diverse group of stakeholders under the guidance of the Technological Innovation Systems framework allowed us identify different actions taken by the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol sector in response to requirements of sustainability. The interviewees agreed that sustainability certification is an important element for the expansion of biofuel production in Brazil. Brazilian stakeholders have created a platform for more competitive sustainable production and have initiated relevant processes in response to the development connected to sustainability certification. Yet, the certification activities have had a limited impact in terms of the number of involved stakeholders. But interview responses indicate that the sector may adapt to new certification requirements rather than leave markets where such requirements become established. Structural changes can be expected if certification requirements as they exist in many initiatives are introduced in unflexible ways. The social importance of the ethanol industry is large in Brazil and some adjustments for certification may be required. The paper concludes by suggesting some actions for the industry. (C) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons...

"O controle social no processo de certificação de grupo por auditoria externa: o caso APROVE pela AAOCERT." ; The social control in the third party smallholder organic certification process: the APROVE’s case by AAOcert

Brito, Paulo Roberto Borges de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2006 PT
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O presente trabalho aborda as perspectivas de certificação que se abrem para a agricultura orgânica familiar, através dos processos alternativos de certificação, a certificação participativa em rede – CPR, e a certificação de grupo por auditoria externa. Os objetivos gerais do trabalho foram contribuir para um melhor entendimento sobre o potencial dos processos participativos na certificação de produtos orgânicos. Avaliar em que medida a certificação pode ser associada a um processo pedagógico, para os produtores familiares paulistas, no qual a possibilidade de fortalecimento do controle social pode levar à redução dos processos burocráticos no Sistema de Controle Interno - SCI. O objetivo específico foi verificar se o processo de certificação de grupo da APROVE, proposto pela AAOcert, baseado nas diretrizes da IFOAM, abre maiores possibilidades de construção de processos mais participativos para os produtores, tomando-se a CPR como embasamento para busca de um referencial teórico, por ser uma proposta construída com este propósito. O trabalho é orientado pela seguinte pergunta: é possível um sistema de certificação reconhecido internacionalmente, como a certificação de grupo por auditoria de terceira parte...

Impactos socioambientais da certificação Rainforest Alliance em fazendas produtoras de café no Brasil; Socio-environmental impacts of Rainforest Alliance Certification on Brazilian coffee plantations

Palmieri, Roberto Hoffmann
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/08/2008 PT
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O impacto da certificação foi o tema central desse projeto de pesquisa que consistiu em identificar o seu efeito sobre variáveis de interesse, isolado de outras fontes de variação. Para isso, uma metodologia de avaliação de impacto foi adaptada e testada para analisar a Certificação Socioambiental Rainforest Alliance da Rede de Agricultura Sustentável RAS na cafeicultura em Minas Gerais. A Certificação Socioambiental cresceu significativamente em fazendas produtoras de café no Brasil e no mundo desde sua criação em 1998 até o ano 2007. Os produtos vendidos com essa certificação carregam consigo a mensagem que vêm de sistemas de produção que promovem mais desenvolvimento humano e mais conservação da biodiversidade quando comparados aos sistemas convencionais. Contudo, o processo de Certificação Socioambiental não mede diretamente essas diferenças. Na rotina da certificação, o auditor avalia a conformidade dos sistemas de produção a padrões pré-estabelecidos. A ausência de avaliações de impactos pode acarretar questionamentos referentes às reais transformações decorrentes da certificação. Outro questionamento refere-se à elaboração das normas, as quais foram formuladas em processos de consulta pública com as partes interessadas...

Percepções locais de manejadores comunitários sobre a certificação do Conselho de Manejo Florestal (FSC) para produtos florestais não madeireiros no Estado do Acre; Local perceptions of community managers on the certification of the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) for non-timber forest products in the state of Acre

Imperador, Adriana Maria
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/08/2009 PT
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A Certificação do Conselho de Manejo Florestal (FSC) é um instrumento de gestão que tem como objetivo estimular manejo sustentável dos produtos florestais considerando aspectos sociais, econômicos e ambientais. Nos últimos anos, os esforços em promover a certificação comunitária como ferramenta para o desenvolvimento das populações rurais enfatizou os produtos florestais não-madeireiros (PFNM´s), gerando benefícios e inúmeros desafios, inclusive o de conciliar as normas de certificação às práticas tradicionais de manejo. Mesmo considerando que os PFNM´s representem a principal fonte de renda de milhares de famílias em todo mundo, poucos trabalhos científicos têm questionado a percepção das comunidades envolvidas. Diante da experiência das Associações dos Seringueiros Porto Dias (ASPD) e dos Moradores e Agroextrativistas do Remanso de Capixaba (Amarca), ambas certificadas pelo FSC com madeira e produtos não madeireiros, este estudo objetivou avaliar a percepção a respeito deste processo nas duas comunidades do estado do Acre, na Amazônia ocidental brasileira. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista estruturada, com perguntas do tipo semi-abertas e fechadas sobre as dificuldades encontradas para cumprir ações relacionadas à certificação...

Alternativas encontradas para superação das principais dificuldades no processo de certificação Fair trade: um estudo multicasos de organizações de pequenos produtores no Brasil; Alternatives to overcome the main difficulties in the fairtrade certification process: a multicases study of organizations of small producers in Brazil

Gomes, Carla Cristina Martoni Pereira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/09/2010 PT
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A valorização de produtos que sejam ecológica e socialmente responsáveis vem fazendo que as certificações no âmbito socioambiental venham crescendo no decorrer dos anos. Isso se reflete na agricultura onde a pressão se dá no sentido de que as produções sejam ambientalmente mais equilibradas e socialmente mais justas. A certificação Fair trade surge como uma das alternativas a essas pressões originárias dos consumidores. Esse modelo de Comércio surgiu como uma alternativa às associações de pequenos produtores rurais em condições econômicas desfavoráveis obterem melhores condições de comércio para seus produtos e assim melhorar o padrão de vida de suas comunidades. Tais desvantagens econômicas podem ser caracterizadas pela maior vulnerabilidade de pequenos produtores a flutuações dos mercados internacionais de commodities, sem acesso a crédito e reservas de capital. Essa falta de oportunidades econômicas por dificuldades de acesso a capital, mercados compradores e informação criam barreiras aos pequenos produtores, o que garante o acesso facilitado a produtores maiores no mercado de exportações. É nesse contexto que se torna uma excelente opção o novo modelo de comércio justo, o Fair trade. No entanto...

Biodiversidade e os esquemas de certificação de biocombustíveis; Biodiversity and the certification schemes for biofuels

Camila Ortolan Fernandes de Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/08/2013 PT
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A sustentabilidade dos biocombustíveis é uma questão polêmica, que ganhou grande dimensão desde a segunda metade da década passada. Nesse contexto, biodiversidade é um dos aspectos mais mencionados no debate internacional. Em função das pressões de diferentes segmentos sociais, critérios de sustentabilidade foram definidos e têm condicionado a aplicação de políticas de fomento aos biocombustíveis. Na prática, esquemas de certificação têm sido usados de forma crescente e nada indica que essa tendência seja alterada. Assim, a futura produção de etanol de cana de açúcar no Brasil, e a competitividade da produção nacional em mercados internacionais, estarão condicionadas a que sustentabilidade seja uma realidade, e possa ser comprovada. No Brasil, muito pouco se sabe sobre os impactos da produção de cana, e de etanol, sobre a biodiversidade, e foi isso que motivou esta dissertação. Seu objetivo geral é o entendimento da questão biocombustíveis-biodiversidade, incluindo a identificação do conhecimento existente, das diferentes visões, das aspirações, etc. A análise foi feita com foco na produção de etanol de cana, nas condições brasileiras, e de suas perspectivas. Um dos objetivos específicos foi definido na avaliação dos esquemas de certificação...

A worldwide analysis of management systems certification

Sampaio, Paulo; Saraiva, Pedro
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2011 ENG
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According to the last available ISO survey, in December 2009 there were 1.065.785 issued ISO 9001 certificates, thus reflecting the importance of ISO 9001 certification worldwide, and approximately 223.149 ISO 14001 issued certificates. In the line of our previous publications, this paper presents a further set of statistical analyses conducted over ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 available data. We provide some key results, which try to answer important questions regarding quality and environmental management systems certification in several countries. We believe that such results provide an additional important contribution to the study of management systems diffusion/evolution, aimed at providing fact-based insights into, among other, the following issues: Which are the countries leading quality and environmental management system certification?; Which are the countries that present highest growth rates between 2008 and 2009?; What has been the evolution of ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 certification in the different countries in the past few years?; What are market future perspectives regarding certification?

Estudo comparativo entre sistemas de certifica????o de produtos org??nicos nos contextos da agricultura familiar brasileira e espanhola.; Comparative study between systems of certification of organic production in the contexts of the family farming in Brazil and Spain.

CALDAS, N??dia Velleda
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agricultura familiar; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Sistemas de Produ????o Agr??cola Familiar; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agricultura familiar; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Sistemas de Produ????o Agr??cola Familiar; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
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It has become almost a truism the allusions about of the growth in importance assumed by organic or ecological production in contemporary societies, as well as the reasons that presumably explain this increase, both in developed countries and in the context of developing countries. This process was accompanied by an expansion of certification systems, which ultimately aim to offer consumers assurance that products are consumed to meet the requirements that identify a way to produce defined as organic or ecological. There are certainly many mechanisms that are triggered to ensure this condition, since the word of the farmer, through a personal relationship and direct, to complex insurance instruments, whose overwhelming majority are operated by companies pursuing certification certified classic (by auditing) or by third party. No wonder that the certification has become a huge business that drives significant figures, but that has also been responsible for generating new mechanisms of exclusion in access to markets for peasants and family farmers. This is one of the causes to understanding the reasons and circumstances that have conspired to the emergence of what is now called "participatory guarantee systems (PGS) in various countries of the world. This form of certification does not appear as an alternative to the conventional system of certification...

Financial viability of forest certification in industrial plantations: a case study from the Solomon Islands

Pesce, Fabio; Lal, Padma
Fonte: Environmental Management and Development Programme, Asia Pacific School of Economics and Government, Australian National University; http://www.crawford.anu.edu.au Publicador: Environmental Management and Development Programme, Asia Pacific School of Economics and Government, Australian National University; http://www.crawford.anu.edu.au
Tipo: Other; Working/Technical Paper Formato: 19 pages
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Forest certification has been promoted to encourage sustainable use of natural forests. While its use in industrial plantation forests has not always been welcomed (World Rainforest Movement 2002), forest certification offers great opportunities in the tropics. This paper assesses the profitability of forest certification of an industrial hardwood plantation in the Solomon Islands by the Forest Stewardship Council. The results of this study suggest that industrial plantations can achieve significant financial benefits from sustainable forest management confirmed by a recognised certification scheme. This positive outcome will, however, depend on the marginal costs incurred by the plantation company to adapt its practices to meet sustainability requirements stipulated by the certification scheme, and the price premiums obtained by the firm. In the case of the Solomon Islands forestry, the additional costs of sustainable forest management and forest certification, including the transaction cost of forest certification, were far less than the market premium that was obtained from certified logs. The company’s costs would have had to increase by almost two thousand folds before certification could be regarded as financially not profitable. This case study thus demonstrates that it is possible for tropical plantations to have a ‘win win’ outcome from forest certification...

Approaches to Measuring the Conservation Impact of Forest Management Certification

Romero, Claudia; Castrén, Tuukka
Fonte: Program on Forests (PROFOR), Washington, DC Publicador: Program on Forests (PROFOR), Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Sustainable forest management (SFM) certification emerged in the 1980s and 1990s as a mechanism to promote responsible forest use and as an alternative to boycotts of forest products amid growing concerns about forest degradation and destruction. Since then, forest certification has evolved into a multifaceted market-based mechanism to promote compliance with sets of ecological, social, and economic criteria to enhance sustainability. Commodity certification has evolved from its origins as a means of verifying organic and environmentally sustainable production; issues like social equity, transparency, participation, and legal compliance have become increasingly relevant. One commonality in all certification schemes is that they are voluntary, market-driven ('willing buyer, willing seller') schemes aimed at transformational change toward more sustainable production and consumption patterns within existing market structures. This document presents the state of the current knowledge on how to assess impacts of forest management certification. It also discusses the design...

Optimisation de la préparation des infirmières œuvrant aux soins intensifs en vue de leur certification canadienne

Beaudoin, Geneviève
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Travail aux cycles supérieurs / Graduate student work
FR
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Les infirmières œuvrant aux soins intensifs doivent constamment s’adapter à des sources de stress multiples, telles l’utilisation des technologies avancées et l’entrée en relation avec des patients et des familles éprouvés. Les problématiques de pénurie et de rétention de la main d’œuvre ainsi que des taux d’absentéisme élevés y sont plus présentes qu’ailleurs (O’Brien-Pallas, Tomblin Murphy, Shamian, Li & Hayes, 2010). Ce contexte particulier peut affecter la santé psychologique des infirmières qui y travaillent. Alors que les instances gouvernementales avancent des solutions axées sur des incitatifs financiers, la littérature soutient que c’est plutôt par la promotion de la formation et le développement des professionnels au sein des organisations que la satisfaction au travail et la santé des professionnelles peut s’améliorer (Kuokkanen et al., 2003; Leblanc & Sylvain, 2011). La certification nationale, en particulier, constituerait une avenue à envisager pour y arriver (Fitzpatrick et al., 2010; Ridge, 2008; Tigert, 2004). Le soutien de l’organisation pour la réalisation de ce mode de validation des connaissances s’avère toutefois primordial pour que la démarche génère des bénéfices au niveau du milieu clinique...

Just Certification

Diaz Piedregal, Virginie
Fonte: Centre de recherche en éthique de l'UdeM (CRÉUM) Publicador: Centre de recherche en éthique de l'UdeM (CRÉUM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Through the justice principles –equality, time, status, need, efficiency and worth– developed by Jon Elster, we show in this article how fair trade certification for producers is legitimatised by stakeholders. Based on a field investigation with coffee growers in Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia and with fair trade organisations in the North (Max Havelaar/FLO, Andines and Artisans du Monde), the analysis firstly reviews just certification according to the impersonal criteria of “mechanical” justice, such as equality, time and efficiency. The second section looks at more individualised criteria such as the status, need and worth of the beneficiaries. Finally, it determines in what way fair trade is really a mixed bag, one which calls upon different principles of justice to justify what it is out to accomplish. The main result of the analysis is that fair certification granted to producer organisations is not being distributed according to a unique system of justice based on just one criterion. On the contrary, fair trade is a complex and hybrid bag that uses different components from each distribution procedure.; À travers les principes de justice – égalité, temps, statut, besoin, efficience et mérite – développés par Jon Elster...

Certification of community-based forest enterprises (CFEs): limits of the Brazilian experiences

Garcia Drigo, Isabel; Piketty, Marie Gabrielle; Abramovay, Ricardo
Fonte: Centre de recherche en éthique de l'UdeM (CRÉUM) Publicador: Centre de recherche en éthique de l'UdeM (CRÉUM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The Brazilian Amazon is one of the world’s largest tropical forests. It supplies more than 80 % of Brazil’s timber production and makes this nation the second largest producer of tropical wood. The forestry sector is of major importance in terms of economic production and employment creation. However, the Brazilian Amazon is also known for its high deforestation rate and for its rather unsustainably managed timber resources, a fact which puts in the balance the long-term future of the forestry sector in the region. Since the mid- 1990s, with strong support from World Wildlife Fund (WWF), the number of tropical forests certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) has significantly increased. This is especially true for projects sponsored by large scale companies. The number of community- based forest management projects has also increased. Certification of community-based forest enterprises (CFEs) was initially a goal for the sponsors and community members. Certification is viewed as a way to reach alternative timber markets. In Brazil, the state of Acre has the highest concentration of CFEs certified by FSC. Most of them have been implemented with the support of environmental NGOs and public funds. Environmental NGOs strongly defend the advantages of certification for communities; however...

Methodology for in-game certification in serious games

Baptista, Ricardo; Coelho, António; Carvalho, Carlos Vaz de
Fonte: IATED - International Academy of Technology, Education and Development Publicador: IATED - International Academy of Technology, Education and Development
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2013 ENG
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Serious games are starting to attain a higher role as tools for learning in various contexts, but in particular in areas such as education and training. Due to its characteristics, such as rules, behavior simulation and feedback to the player's actions, serious games provide a favorable learning environment where errors can occur without real life penalty and students get instant feedback from challenges. These challenges are in accordance with the intended objectives and will self-adapt and repeat according to the student’s difficulty level. Through motivating and engaging environments, which serve as base for problem solving and simulation of different situations and contexts, serious games have a great potential to aid players developing professional skills. But, how do we certify the acquired knowledge and skills? With this work we intend to propose a methodology to establish a relationship between the game mechanics of serious games and an array of competences for certification, evaluating the applicability of various aspects in the design and development of games such as the user interfaces and the gameplay, obtaining learning outcomes within the game itself. Through the definition of game mechanics combined with the necessary pedagogical elements...

An analysis of the performance of certification schemes in the hotel sector in terms of CO2 emissions reduction.

Houlihan-Wiberg, Aoife Anne-marie
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Architecture Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Architecture
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
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No page 475 due to incorrect pagination - dissertation complete.; In assessing the impact of global tourism on climate change, emissions from transport receive the most attention although emissions associated with accommodation account for more than 20% of the total. A plethora of hotel certification schemes have been established worldwide that assess various environmental performance indicators, among them energy use. However, none explicitly quantify CO2 emissions, and in many, energy is poorly accounted for, or other non-energy related factors are weighted so that the overall impact of energy use (and hence CO2 emission) is weak. The main thrust of the research is to ascertain the effect of certification on CO2 emissions. The research questions whether the certification schemes are robust and rigorous and whether the results are credible. First, four widely used certification schemes are compared Nordic Swan (Scandinavia), Green Globe (Worldwide), EU Flower (European) and Green Hospitality Award (Ireland). The key issues are identified such as performance and process related criteria, use of benchmarks, and the weighting of different categories. A comparison is made with LEED-EB...

Should Maine Lobsters be certified as sustainable? Costs, benefits and opinions of Marine Stewardship Council certification

Goyert, Wendy
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 1261093 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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As worldwide population growth continues to rise, so does demand for seafood by consumers. With this trend interest in sustainably certified seafood is also increasing. The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) standard for sustainable and well-managed fisheries is considered the gold standard of fisheries certification worldwide. Because of fears that they may lose markets if they do not become certified, many fisheries in the U.S. and Canada, including the Maine lobster fishery, have recently begun to pursue MSC certification. Although certification provides a market-based incentive to improve sustainable fishing practices, it is a costly and time-consuming process, and often imposes additional requirements on fishing industries in order to meet certification standards. In order to evaluate whether the costs of certification of the Maine lobster fishery are worth the presumed benefits, I interviewed lobster industry members to learn about their knowledge and attitude towards MSC certification; administered an online consumer survey to understand consumers’ attitudes and purchasing preferences related to ecolabeled lobster; and consulted with fisheries experts and representatives from other MSC-certified fisheries to compile lessons learned. The results of my three studies indicate that MSC certification of the Maine lobster fishery could provide some benefits to the industry by helping it to tap new markets in Europe...

Setting Standards for Sustainable Tourism: An analysis of US tourism certification programs

Poser, Elizabeth
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 746043 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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As one of the biggest industries in the world, tourism has huge positive and negative socioeconomic, cultural and environmental impacts. Over the past fifteen years, a plethora of tourism certification programs have sprung up worldwide in an effort to recognize tourism businesses who truly work to reduce negative impacts by using sustainable practices. This worldwide proliferation of tourism certification programs, however, has led to consumer confusion, lack of brand recognition and widely varying standards. With a global accreditation body looming on the horizon that aims to create a single recognizable sustainable tourism brand, tourism certification programs will soon have the opportunity to become accredited by complying with minimum standards that will be determined by the Sustainable Tourism Stewardship Council. Accreditation will provide certification programs with the legitimacy and credibility they need to differentiate their programs, and thus the certified tourism businesses, from others with weaker standards, and may eventually lead to a shift of the tourism industry towards more sustainable practices. Here I use the best practice standards for tourism certification programs as laid out in the Mohonk Agreement, and the recently released Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria...

A Cost Benefit Analysis of Forest Certification at The Forestland Group

Schreiber, Jenna
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 06/12/2012
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This project evaluates the costs and benefits of the Forest Stewardship Council’s (FSC) forest certification for a large timber management organization (TIMO). FSC certification is a voluntary, market-based program that promotes sustainable forest management through third-party certification. The TIMO in this case study manages 3.3 million acres of land certified under FSC, and this project evaluated both the direct and indirect costs and benefits of certification. This project was able to quantify the direct and indirect costs and benefits of forest certification through surveys, financial analyses and regression analyses. On average, forest certification is a net-positive program for the client, earning an estimated $771,000 of additional annual revenue. Certification premiums paid for finished wood products are significantly higher than certification premiums for certified stumpage. Certified wood products receive an overall price premium of 10.5% while the premium for certified stumpage ranges from 1.6-4.3%. Price premiums for finished wood products are considerably higher for domestic sales than for export sales. The domestic sale of finished wood products generates a statistically significant price premium of 30.0% as compared to the statistically significant but much lower premium for exported wood products of 3.4%. This project provides evidence that there are financial incentives for forestland owners to maintain forest certification. FSC has marketed both the ecological and financial benefits of maintaining forest certification. Previous studies of forest certification have generally concluded that the ecological benefits of forest certification are clear but that the desired financial benefits have not yet materialized. This project demonstrates that a large timberland owner can receive meaningful financial benefits from its forest certification program.

Uma política de certificação profissional orientada para inclusão social; A policy of professional certification oriented towards social inclusion; Une politique de certification professionnelle orientée vers l’inclusion sociale; Una política de certificación profesional orientada hacia la inclusión social

Manfredi, Silvia Maria
Fonte: Linhas Críticas; Critical Lines Publicador: Linhas Críticas; Critical Lines
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/12/2010 POR
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O artigo contém a reconstrução e análise das experiências recentes levadas a efeito pelo Departamento de Certificação e Orientação Profissional da Secretaria de Políticas Públicas de Emprego do Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego – MTE/2003-2007, voltadas para a construção de políticas inclusivas de qualificação, certificação e orientação profissional. O modelo de certificação profissional desenvolvido foi construído de forma participativa e negociada. Conceitualmente, pretende ser um contraponto a algumas orientações hegemônicas. Do ponto de vista jurídico-institucional visou à construção do Sistema Nacional de Certificação Profissional. O projeto pautou-se numa perspectiva inclusiva, pois pretendia ser, além de um mecanismo de credenciamento para o trabalho, uma passarela de ingresso/retorno ao sistema escolar formal ou de inserção em percursos formativos de natureza continuada. O modelo elaborado foi testado com duas categorias profissionais e tais experiências piloto também são retratadas no presente artigo.; This article contains the reconstruction and analysis of the recent experiences carried out by the Department of Professional Certification and Guidance of the Office of Public Policies for Labor...

Certification of polio eradication: process and lessons learned

Smith,Joseph; Leke,Rose; Adams,Anthony; Tangermann,Rudolf H.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2004 EN
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Since the 1988 World Health Assembly resolution to eradicate poliomyelitis, considerable progress has been made towards interrupting the transmission of wild poliovirus globally. A formal process for the certification of polio eradication was established on the basis of experience gained during smallpox eradication. Independent groups of experts were designated at the global, regional, and country levels to conduct the process. The main requirements for the global certification of the eradication of wild poliovirus are the absence of wild poliovirus, isolated from suspect polio cases, healthy individuals, or environmental samples, in all WHO regions for a period of at least three years in the presence of high-quality, certification-standard surveillance and the containment of all wild poliovirus stocks in laboratories. Three WHO regions - the Region of the Americas (1994), Western Pacific Region (2000), and European Region (2002) - have already been certified free of indigenous wild poliovirus. Eradication and certification activities are progressing well in the three endemic regions (African, Eastern Mediterranean, and South-East Asia). Several challenges remain for the certification of polio eradication: the need for even closer coordination of certification activities between WHO regions...