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Cotton irrigation scheduling in central Asia: model calibration and validation with consideration of groundwater contribution

Cholpankulov, E.D.; Inchenkova, O.P.; Paredes, P.; Pereira, L.S.
Fonte: John Wiley & sons Publicador: John Wiley & sons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.02%
The calibration and validation of the irrigation scheduling simulation model ISAREG for Central Asian conditions were performed using cotton field observations in the Hunger Steppe over the period 1983–87, and in the Fergana Valley for 2001–03. The calibration referred to the crop coefficients and the soil water depletion factor for no stress. Groundwater contribution was considered in computations adopting a set of parametric equations used in ISAREG. Calibration and validation were performed by comparing the observed and simulated soil water content during each crop season. Various indicators of goodness of fit were used to assess model validation. For the Hunger Steppe, the validation also included the comparison of model-computed and field-measured crop evapotranspiration, which was performed with the energy balance method. Results obtained show a good agreement between field observations and model predictions, thus allowing use of the ISAREG model to generate and assess alternative irrigation schedules aimed at improved water use in Central Asia.

Reversing the Tide: Priorities for HIV/AIDS Prevention in Central Asia

Godinho, Joana; Renton, Adrian; Vinogradov, Viatcheslav; Novotny, Thomas; Rivers, Mary-Jane; Gotsadze, George; Bravo, Mario
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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56.02%
Although the number of reported cases of HIV in Central Asia is still very low, the growth rate of the epidemic (about 500 cases in 2000 to over 12,000 in 2004) is a cause for serious concern. Central Asia lies along the drug routes from Afghanistan to Russia and Western Europe, and it is estimated that it has half a million drug users, of which more than half inject drugs. Without concerted action, we may expect to see the rapid development of an HIV epidemic concentrated among injecting drug users over the next four or five years, followed by the spread among the 15- to 30-year-old population, with sexual transmission as the predominant mode. This would follow the pattern of the epidemic in other regional countries such as Russia, Ukraine, and Moldova.

Drought : Management and Mitigation Assessment for Central Asia and the Caucasus

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
The objective of this study is to raise awareness and understanding of exposure and vulnerability to drought in Central Asian countries and the Caucasus and to introduce a strategic, pro-active framework of mitigation and prevention. The audiences of the report are the governments of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia in the Caucasus and Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and the Kyrgyz Republic in Central Asia. The report will further be of interest to NGOs and civil society, as well as donors. More specifically, the report should help the ministries of, agriculture, irrigation and water resource management, environment, meteorological services, emergency services, and regional and local government (including municipalities) to improve their preparedness for future droughts. The report explores the ways that effective management and mitigation can soften the impact of drought in Central Asia and the Caucasus and reduce damage and relief and recovery costs. The inquiry begins with an examination of types of drought and exposure to them. Chapter 2 contains an analysis of vulnerabilities to drought, as well as the capacity of the disaster management structure to mitigate and respond to slow-onset natural disasters of this nature. The ensuing chapter covers different types of drought in 2000-01 (meteorological...

Markets and Politics in Central Asia: Structural Reform and Political Change

Pomfret, R.
Fonte: Elsevier BV, North Holland Publicador: Elsevier BV, North Holland
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66%
Book review Markets and Politics in Central Asia: Structural Reform and Political Change: G. Gleason (Ed.), Routledge, London, New York, 2003, xi + 178 pp, £60.00 (cloth

Central Asia after two decades of independence

Pomfret, R.
Fonte: Palgrave; England Publicador: Palgrave; England
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
After becoming independent in 1991, the five Central Asian countries pursued differing transition paths from the defunct central planning. This paper analyses the connection between economic policies and performance during the 1990s and 2000s. Performance over the two decades has been determined by resource endowments rather than by policy. International relations, which were predicted to centre on a new Great Game among external powers, have been more muted than anticipated, centring on geopolitics and pipelines, and with a consequence of hampering desirable economic cooperation within Central Asia. Prospects for significant change in the near future are limited because by the end of the 1990s the window of opportunity for policy initiatives had shut and entrenched political regimes had little incentive to sponsor major reforms.; Richard Pomfret; Invalid ISBN 9789292302903 as shown on the publication

Trade and transport in Central Asia

Pomfret, R.
Fonte: Sage Publications Publicador: Sage Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
Until 1991 Central Asia was part of the integrated economic space of the Soviet Union without borders and with a relatively effi cient transport network, but oriented toward the needs of the Soviet economy. The role of the Central Asian republics in the Soviet division of labor was as providers of raw materials, primarily cotton, minerals, and energy products; roads and railways led north or west to the Russian republic, and eastern and southern borders were effectively closed to trade. Since independence the Central Asian countries have continued to exploit their comparative advantage in raw material exports, but their trade has been hampered by poor transport facilities and by failure to improve the soft infrastructure of trade. Being landlocked exacerbates these weaknesses, but location could be turned to advantage as Central Asia is adjacent to the world’s most dynamic large economies. To benefi t from this the hard and soft infrastructure of transport and trade need upgrading, and regional cooperation to facilitate transit is needed to stimulate intra- and extra-regional trade.; Richard Pomfret

A limitação à cooperação securitária sino-russa na Ásia Central devido ao não gerenciamento conjunto do fluxo local de hidrocarbonetos por Moscou e Pequim; Limitations to the Chinese-Russian security cooperation in Central Asia due to the lack of a joint management of local hydrocarbon flow by Moscow and Beijing

Nascimento, Flavio Augusto Lira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/03/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
A Ásia Central tem sido, para a Federação Russa e a República Popular da China, uma zona de cooperação estratégica desde o fim da URSS em 1991. Desde então, desenvolve-se um regime de segurança que congrega, além das duas potências, Cazaquistão, Quirguistão, Tadjiquistão, Turcomenistão e Uzbequistão. Acredita-se, porém, que a efetiva cooperação entre Moscou e Pequim é limitada nesta parte do globo devido ao não desenvolvimento de um regime energético (focado em hidrocarbonetos) que envolva todos os países da região e que seja encabeçado por Rússia e China. Para demonstrar isto, busca-se apresentar as diferentes posições internacionais e as percepções destes dois países no tocante aos hidrocarbonetos e às suas diferentes prioridades geopolíticas. Além disto, sugere-se, ao final do trabalho, que um eficaz desenvolvimento de uma cooperação forte e abrangente entre os dois países deve se basear em um regime securitário-energético regional que inclua a Ásia Central em uma lógica sino-russa de gerenciamento mútuo tanto da segurança quanto do fluxo de hidrocarbonetos.; For both the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China, Central Asia has been a zone of strategic cooperation since the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. From then on...

The mechanics of Russian foreign policy in the Caucasus and Central Asia: regional hegemony or neo-imperialism?

Hlosek, Andrea L.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: x, 137 p. : (1 col. map); 28 cm.
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
Under President Putin, Russiab2ss foreign policy adopted the characteristics of Great Power Normalization, a pragmatic, economically focused model described by Andrei Tsygankov. Its tenets include cooperative economic and security relationships with the West, to include tolerance of Western military presence in the Former Soviet Union (FSU); a refocused foreign policy toward the FSU designed to secure regional hegemony; and a de-emphasis of large-scale integration efforts such as the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in lieu of bilateral and regionally focused multilateral efforts that elevate geo-economic goals over military presence. Russian foreign policy during President Putin's second term of office however, appears to have become more assertive, characterized by increasing conflict with CIS member Georgia, renewed military presence in Central Asia and the Caspian Basin at the expense of Western presence, and an aggressive energy agenda that has secured Russia large stakes in FSU energy infrastructure and a monopoly on regional oil and gas pipelines that export raw materials to outside markets. This thesis analyzed Russian influence in diplomatic, cultural, economic and military efforts across two regions, the Caucasus and Central Asia...

Did inequality increase in transition?: an analysis of the transitional countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Rozsas, Tamas.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: x, 109 p. : ill., col. map ; 28 cm.
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; Parallel to the process of democratization, the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia have shown an increase in measured income inequality during their transition from centrally-planned to a market-oriented economy. Since the behavior of these countries contradicted previous models of inequality, researchers analyzing the transition process linked the increase in income inequality to the egalitarian values of socialism and to the process of economic and political liberalization. This thesis questions the validity of the above statement based on three pillars. First, other factors, from economic convulsions to the revaluation of natural resources, violent conflicts, corruption, and the expansion of organized crime, have been more closely linked than democratization to changes in income inequality. Second, data quality was generally poor in socialist countries, and extremely poor in several socialist countries, and have improved during the transition in most countries, usually without proper documentation of the changes. Finally, the analysis of the origins of today's income inequality shows that the magnitude and effect of hidden inequalities in the socialist past were highly underestimated. In short...

Russian Policy in Central Asia in 1991 - 2010: A Disappearing Power?

KAZANTSEV, Andrey
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
Russian policy in Central Asia is usually analyzed within the context of the “New Great Game” theory. It usually assumes that Russia acts strategically and maximizes regional power. Analysis of real Russian foreign policy in Central Asia shows that this assumption is far from reality. Russian regional policy is chaotic, understanding of the interests is very vague and often contain mutually contradictory elements. The root of this situation can be discovered already in the crisis of Soviet modernization of Central Asia that caused a near-consensus desire of Russian political forces to completely withdraw from the region in 1991. The attempts to re-establish Moscow’s power in the region after that have usually represented non-systemic reactions to specific challenges or opportunities and all attempts to develop coherent understanding of Russian interests and aims in the region have failed. This was one of the important reasons of quick decline of Russian power and influence in the region that can be projected to the future, especially, within the context of recently lost Russian strategic control over energy transportation after realization of Chinese pipeline projects.

Modeling the epidemiological history of plague in Central Asia: palaeoclimatic forcing on a disease system over the past millennium

Kausrud, K.L.; Begon, M.; Ben Ari, T.; Viljugrein, H.; Esper, J.; Buntgen, U.; Leirs, H.; Junge, C.; Yang, B.; Yang, M.; Xu, L.; Stenseth, N.C.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
Background: Human cases of plague (Yersinia pestis) infection originate, ultimately, in the bacterium's wildlife host populations. The epidemiological dynamics of the wildlife reservoir therefore determine the abundance, distribution and evolution of the pathogen, which in turn shape the frequency, distribution and virulence of human cases. Earlier studies have shown clear evidence of climatic forcing on contemporary plague abundance in rodents and humans. Results: We find that high-resolution palaeoclimatic indices correlate with plague prevalence and population density in a major plague host species, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus), over 1949-1995. Climate-driven models trained on these data predict independent data on human plague cases in early 20th-century Kazakhstan from 1904-1948, suggesting a consistent impact of climate on large-scale wildlife reservoir dynamics influencing human epidemics. Extending the models further back in time, we also find correspondence between their predictions and qualitative records of plague epidemics over the past 1500 years. Conclusions: Central Asian climate fluctuations appear to have had significant influences on regional human plague frequency in the first part of the 20th century, and probably over the past 1500 years. This first attempt at ecoepidemiological reconstruction of historical disease activity may shed some light on how long-term plague epidemiology interacts with human activity. As plague activity in Central Asia seems to have followed climate fluctuations over the past centuries...

Xinjiang and Central Asia: Ethno-religious, political, and economic interactions

Zhao, Yueyao
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.13%
The neighboring regions of Xinjiang and Central Asia, linked historically on the famous Silk Road, later developed separately as a result of the incorporation of the former into China and the latter into the Russian Empire and Soviet Union. Thus, interaction between Xinjiang and Central Asia has been constrained by the nature of the Sino-Russian or Sino-Soviet relationship. However, the demise of the Soviet Union--which resulted in the independence of five Central Asian states--and the recent economic reforms in the People's Republic of China suggest dramatic new possibilities for interregional cooperation.^ In this thesis, an historical and comparative approach is employed to study Chinese policies in Xinjiang and Soviet policies in Central Asia, and concludes that despite several decades of separate development, the common ethnic and religious origins of the indigenous peoples and their former ties will facilitate greater interaction between the two regions. ^

External Finance and Firm Survival in the Aftermath of the Crisis : Evidence from Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Clarke, George R.G.; Cull, Robert; Kisunko, Gregory
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.02%
Two data sets are used to study how country and firm characteristics affected firms' financial constraints and their likelihood of survival during the early phase of the recent global financial crisis in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, a region that was especially hard hit. The first data source provides information on the reported severity of financial constraints for 360 firms from 23 countries in 2002, 2005, and 2008. By following the same firms over time, the study summarizes both the gradual easing of financial constraints from 2002 to 2005 and their tightening during the crisis. Key findings are that financial constraints during the crisis were less severe in countries with well-established foreign banks (entered prior to year 2000), and that changes in the severity of financial constraints were more pronounced for large firms than others during the crisis (although large firms continued to have less severe constraints on average). The second data source provides information on whether firms remained in operation in 2009 in six countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Controlling for other relevant characteristics...

The Jobs Crisis : Household and Government Responses to the Great Recession in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.05%
The financial crisis swiftly expanded into an economic crisis throughout America and Western Europe, from where it spread to developing countries that had depended on foreign direct investment, consumer and mortgage credit, trade, and remittances. By early 2009, it was clear that this economic downturn would be more severe than any crisis since the great depression, prompting some to it as the 'great recession.' Eastern European and Central Asian countries were hit particularly hard during 2009, global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) contracted for the first time since Second World War. The financial crisis and the ensuing economic downturn, the worst since the Great Depression in the 1930s, went hand in hand with tightening of credit markets, bank failures, firm closures, and high demand for social safety nets. This report, The jobs crisis: household and Government responses to the great recession in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, brings together evidence that World Bank teams have collected on the impact of the crisis on households and families in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. This report shows how the crisis was felt by Eastern European and Central Asian households. Not only did unemployment rise sharply but it also lasted longer. The report also shows that the pain of the recession was broader...

Grande estratégia e ordem regional : a política de energia dos Estados Unidos na Ásia Central e no Cáucaso; Grand strategy and regional order : U.S. energy policy in Central Asia and the Caucasus

Solange Reis Ferreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/08/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.19%
Esta tese analisa a política externa de energia dos Estados Unidos na Ásia Central e no Cáucaso após a Guerra Fria. Ambas as regiões foram incluídas na grande estratégia do país, pois o fim da fronteira ideológica criou a oportunidade para que os Estados Unidos estendessem sua hegemonia. Como os recursos energéticos regionais representavam novas opções para o mercado global e condicionavam as relações entre as antigas repúblicas soviéticas, os assuntos de energia tornaram-se o princípio orientador da política externa dos Estados Unidos para essas regiões. Ademais, controlar o comércio global de energia sempre fora parte do processo de construção da Pax Americana. Nos governos Bill Clinton e George W. Bush, o planejamento implicou uma política de "portas abertas" para que o capital internacional não encontrasse barreiras de entrada. O objetivo era desenvolver os setores de petróleo e gás, e a capacidade de exportação dos países produtores. A primeira meta era aumentar a segurança energética europeia, cuja dependência em relação à Rússia interferia nos interesses estratégicos dos Estados Unidos. Tal propósito encontrou inúmeros obstáculos, sendo o principal deles o domínio russo sobre as rotas de distribuição. Diante deste quadro...

La política exterior energética China y sus implicaciones geopolíticas en Asia Central (2000 - 2010)

Torres Casas, Katherin
Fonte: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales Publicador: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/10/2014 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
El interés de la presente monografía es evaluar las implicaciones geopolíticas que ha tenido la política exterior energética China dentro la región de Asia Central. De esta manera, se analiza el papel de los recursos energéticos en las dinámicas geopolíticas que se están dando en la región centroasiática, al igual que la influencia de grandes potencias en esta zona. Así, teniendo en cuenta la teoría geopolítica de Saúl Bernard Cohen se sostiene que el acercamiento de China, a través de su política exterior energética, ha ayudado a transformar a Asia Central en un shatterbelt debido a su intención de ejercer influencia y control sobre los recursos de la región.; The aim of this paper is to evaluate the geopolitical implications of China's energy foreign policy in Central Asia. Thus, it analyses the role of energy resources in the geopolitical dynamics that are occurring within the Central Asian region and the influence of the great powers in the zone. Taking into account the geopolitical theory Saul Bernard Cohen, this paper argues that China's approach through its energy foreign policy, has helped to transform Central Asia into a shatterbelt, because of its intention to exercise influence and control over resources in the region.

La Organización de Cooperación de Shanghái (OCS): ¿una alianza estratégica Sino-Rusa para el control de Asia Central? (2001-2014)

Rubiano Giraldo, Mateo
Fonte: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales Publicador: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/08/2015 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.23%
La presente monografía pretende analizar en qué medida el co-liderazgo sino-ruso de la Organización de Cooperación de Shanghái puede condicionar la hegemonía estadounidense en Asia Central. Esta investigación defiende que los objetivos del co-liderazgo sino-ruso de la OCS - garantizar un orden multipolar del Sistema Internacional; obtener el acceso, control y explotación de los recursos (naturales, minerales e hídricos); disminuir la influencia política y militar de Estados Unidos en dicho pivote geopolítico - evidencian una contraposición al código geopolítico estadounidense en Asia Central, lo cual genera un limitante a su proyecto de hegemonía en la región. Para sustentar lo anterior se utilizan categorías analíticas propias de la Geopolítica de autores como Zbigniew Brzezinski, Saul Cohen y Peter Taylor, las cuales se contrastan con las estrategias de Rusia, China y Estados Unidos en Asia Central.; The present monograph tries to analyze in what measure the Sino-Russian co-leadership of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization can determine the American hegemony in Central Asia. This investigation defends that the aims of the Sino-Russian co-leadership of the OCS - to guarantee a multipolar order of the International System; to obtain the access...

Ásia Central e Cáucaso : as relações com o Brasil sob a égide do novo grande jogo do século XXI

Duarte, Raoni Mauricio da Fonseca Lemos
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
O tema central do presente trabalho é o de analisar as dinâmicas das relações na Ásia Central e no Cáucaso e as possibilidades que se apresentam para o Brasil fortalecer a sua presença em ambas as região. O argumento principal da pesquisa é o de que o Brasil teve interesses em estreitar as relações com essas regiões, embora a Ásia Central e o Cáucaso ocupem uma posição secundária nos interesses externos brasileiros. A relevância de tal estudo advém no fato de que estas são regiões pouco conhecidas do grande público brasileiro, as quais contam com pouca produção acadêmica no Brasil. Desde os anos 90 – e com mais intensidade a partir de 2003, com o início do governo Lula – o Brasil procurou diversificar os seus parceiros internacionais, investindo na Cooperação Sul-Sul com os países em desenvolvimento, os quais ocuparam espaço central nos últimos anos no contexto da política externa brasileira. Por sua vez, duas regiões eurasiáticas adquiriram maior importância geoestratégia nas Relações Internacionais – a Ásia Central e o Cáucaso. Desde a queda da URSS, essas zonas do globo atraíram a atenção externa em função de sua localização especial como ponto de conexão entre a Europa e a Ásia. A Ásia Central e o Cáucaso gradualmente se firmaram no cenário internacional como zonas de grande relevância econômica...

Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia)

González Ruiz, Mercedes; Pereira dos Santos, Cristina Maria; Jordana Comín, Xavier; Simón Martínez, Marc; Lalueza Fox, Carles,; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Ma. Pilar; Malgosa Morera, Assumpció
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.08%
A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a ‘contact zone’ between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk)...

Book review: Great games, local rules: the new great power contest in central Asia

Chapman, Annabelle
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/03/2013 EN; EN
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56.05%
Great Games, Local Rules charts how in the past quarter century, a new ‘great game’ has emerged in Central Asia pitting America against a newly aggressive Russia and a resource hungry China, all struggling for influence over one of the most volatile areas in the world. Annabelle Chapman finds this book promotes a more nuanced understanding of international presence in Central Asia.