In vitro studies have been of great value in elucidating the mechanism of the regulation of several bacterial operons. To obtain a deoxyribonucleic acid preparation enriched for the histidine (his) and for the isoleucine-valine (ilv) operons, we have isolated bacteriophages carrying the his and the ilv regions of the Escherichia coli chromosome. Transposition of the his operon to a site close to the att80 region of the E. coli chromosome has been carried out selecting for integration of a temperature-sensitive F′his+ in the tonB locus. This transposed strain has been lysogenized with φ80iλ. Upon induction of the lysogen, His+ transductants have been isolated, which, on further induction give rise to HFT (high frequency of transduction) lysates. Preliminary characterization of the transducing phage is reported. The ilv operon, carried on an F′ particle, has been fused to an episome carrying the att80 region. The fused episome has been lysogenized with φ80i λt68. Upon induction of the lysogen, Ilv+ transductants have been isolated which on further induction give rise to HFT lysates.
Specific-pathogen-free Hartley guinea pigs were maintained on isocaloric-purified diets either adequate (30%) or moderately deficient (10%) in protein. Half of each diet group was vaccinated with viable Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Six weeks later, all animals were challenged by the respiratory route with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. At intervals of 1, 2, and 3 weeks postchallenge, guinea pigs from each diet and vaccination group were skin tested with tuberculin and sacrificed. Protein deficiency resulted in loss of tuberculin hypersensitivity. Vaccination with M. bovis BCG protected control animals, as determined by significant reductions in the number of M. tuberculosis H37Rv organisms recovered from lungs, spleen, and bronchotracheal lymph nodes 2 and 3 weeks postchallenge. Based upon the same criteria, the degree of protection afforded protein-deficient animals by M. bovis BCG vaccine ranged from partial (spleen and lymph nodes) to none at all (lungs). Approximately the same numbers of tubercle bacilli were recovered from nonvaccinated guinea pigs in both diet groups. Protein deficiency appears to impair M. bovis BCG-induced immunity while not affecting primary pulmonary infection with virulent M. tuberculosis.
The defective prophage φ80iλcI857dhis has been mapped through both marker rescue and deletion analysis. Deletions have been isolated which put residual his genes close to trp genes. Analysis of these deletions shows that the histidine operon on the prophage is oriented clockwise as on the bacterial chromosome, thus opposite to the orientation of the trp operon. The presence of the his promoter-operator region is inferred by the ability of the prophage-carrying strain to derepress sequentially under conditions in which the histidine concentration is limiting. In addition to his, the gnd gene is also present on the prophage and is located between his and trp operons. The bacterial genes are inserted in the right arm of the prophage and substitute for all of the late function genes, except for the first three. These data indicate that the “sense” strand for transcription of the his operon in vivo must be the “R” strand.
Manna, F; Massardo, D R; Wolf, K; Luccarini, G; Carlomagno, M S; Rivellini, F; Alifano, P; Del Giudice, L
Fonte: PubMedPublicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/05/1994EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
In vivo analysis of expression of the chloroplast rDNA cluster during somatic embryogenesis of Daucus carota (D.carota) was performed by Northern-blot analysis with different DNA probes, spanning both the 16S rRNA gene, the 16S-23S rRNA spacer, which contains the two mosaic tRNA genes tRNA(Ile) and tRNA(Ala), and the region upstream of the 16S rRNA gene, where a tRNA(Val) maps. We show that expression both of the spacer tRNAs tRNA(Ile) and tRNA(Ala) is not significantly regulated during development whereas the amount of the transcript corresponding to tRNA(Val) is not detectable during early embryonic stages and progressively accumulates during late phases. Multiple transcription start sites have been identified upstream of the tRNA(Val) gene by S1 mapping analysis, which are activated late during the embryogenesis. These data indicate that developmental control mechanisms act on plastid gene expression during embryogenesis in carrot.
Groups of female adult rats were fed either isocaloric protein-free or 18% protein diets for various intervals. Four days before sacrifice, the animals were immunized either with sheep erythrocytes or with a trinitrophenyl-lipopolysaccharide (TNP-LPS) conjugate. Spleen lymphoid cell populations, spleen plaque-forming cells, and serum hemolysins were measured. A persistent diminution, proportional to the duration of protein deprivation, was observed in all parameters studied after immunization with the T-dependent antigen, sheep erythrocytes. The immune dysfunction was more pronounced for hemolysin titers, which became undetectable after 15 days of protein-free diet. The response of the protein-free group to the T-independent antigen (TNP-LPS) after 15 days of diet was only 34% of the control. When a T-cell lymphokine, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, was measured, a normal response was observed in the protein-free group. Feeding a normal diet rapidly restored the spleen plaque-forming cell populations to 60% of normal after 4 days and to 100% after 6 days. Protein starvation influenced the production of antibodies more than it did the number of antibody-forming cells. The nutritional impairment of immunoglobulin synthesis appears to be reversible.
Specific pathogen-free guinea pigs were infected via the respiratory route with viable, attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra and maintained on purified isocaloric diets. The control diet contained 30% protein (ovalbumin) and 50 ppm of added zinc (50 micrograms/g), the low protein diet contained 10% protein and 50 ppm of added zinc, and the low zinc diet contained 30% protein and no added zinc. Guinea pigs from each diet treatment were skin tested with purified protein derivative 48 h before sacrifice at 3, 4, and 5 weeks postinfection. Protein-deficient animals exhibited significantly reduced body weight, spleen weight, serum total proteins, and serum albumin. Zinc deficiency was characterized by loss of weight and progressive reductions in plasma zinc concentrations. The number of viable M. tuberculosis H37Ra cells was significantly higher in the lungs of both malnourished groups at 3 weeks, but fell below control viable counts by 5 weeks postinfection. A similar pattern was seen in the spleens and bronchotracheal lymph nodes. Both the proportion and intensity of delayed hypersensitivity reactions increased steadily between 3 and 5 weeks in control animals, whereas the two malnourished groups were essentially anergic at all intervals...
We have recently reported the activation of a new oncogene in human papillary thyroid carcinomas. This oncogene, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), is a novel rearranged version of the ret tyrosine-kinase protooncogene. Thyroid neoplasms include a broad spectrum of malignant tumors, ranging from well-differentiated tumors to undifferentiated anaplastic carcinomas. To determine the frequency of ret oncogene activation, we analyzed 286 cases of human thyroid tumors of diverse histologic types. We found the presence of an activated form of the ret oncogene in 33 (19%) of 177 papillary carcinomas. By contrast, none of the other 109 thyroid tumors, which included 37 follicular, 15 anaplastic, and 18 medullary carcinomas, and 34 benign lesions, showed ret activation.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors responible for triggering cells of innate immunity. In this study we investigated the expression and function of TLRs 3 and 9 in human natural killer (NK) cells. In the presence of IL-12, freshly isolated NK cells responded to double-stranded RNA or unmethylated CpG DNA and expressed CD69 and CD25 activation markers. Because both markers were expressed by virtually all NK cells, this would suggest that most of them can be triggered by TLRs. Remarkably, NK cell stimulation also resulted in the induction of their functional program as revealed by IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α release and by up-regulation of cytolytic activity against tumor cells. IL-8 could efficiently substitute IL-12 in supporting NK cell responses to TLR-mediated stimulation. Importantly, freshly isolated NK cells acquired the ability to lyse immature dendritic cells after stimulation with double-stranded RNA and IL-12. However, responses to these stimuli were not restricted to fresh NK cells, because significant responses were also detected in polyclonal NK cells cultured in the presence of exogenous IL-2 for several weeks. The analysis of NK cell clones revealed some degree of heterogeneity in the ability to respond to TLR stimulation also among NK clones derived from a single donor. These data suggest that stimuli acting on TLR not only activate immature dendritic cells to release IL-12 but also render NK cells capable of receiving triggering signals from pathogen-associated molecules...
Substitution of Cys-634 in the extracellular domain of the Ret tyrosine kinase receptor causes its dimerization and activation of its transforming potential. To gain further insight into the molecular basis leading to Ret activation we purified a mutant protein consisting of the entire ectodomain of the Ret carrying a Cys-634-->Tyr substitution (EC-Ret(C634Y)). The protein is glycosylated, like the native one, and is biologically active. By using an in vitro cell system we show that EC-Ret(C634Y) inhibits the membrane-bound receptor Ret(C634Y), interfering with its dimerization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that EC-Ret(C634Y) competes with the wild-type Ret receptor for ligand binding. The results presented support the notion of the possible involvment of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) tumours, and describe a useful tool for generating molecular mimetics directed towards specific mutations of the ret oncogene.
Approx. 2% of the Neisseria meningitidis genome consists of small DNA insertion sequences known as Correia or nemis elements, which feature TIRs (terminal inverted repeats) of 26-27 bp in length. Elements interspersed with coding regions are co-transcribed with flanking genes into mRNAs, processed at double-stranded RNA structures formed by TIRs. N. meningitidis RNase III (endoribonuclease III) is sufficient to process nemis+ RNAs. RNA hairpins formed by nemis with the same termini (26/26 and 27/27 repeats) are cleaved. By contrast, bulged hairpins formed by 26/27 repeats inhibit cleavage, both in vitro and in vivo. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, all hairpin types formed similar retarded complexes upon incubation with RNase III. The levels of corresponding nemis+ and nemis- mRNAs, and the relative stabilities of RNA segments processed from nemis+ transcripts in vitro, may both vary significantly.
Dunning, Alison M.; Durocher, Francine; Healey, Catherine S.; Teare, M. Dawn; McBride, Simon E.; Carlomagno, Francesca; Xu, Chun-Fang; Dawson, Elisabeth; Rhodes, Susan; Ueda, Saeko; Lai, Eric; Luben, Robert N.; Van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Mannermaa, Arto
Fonte: The American Society of Human GeneticsPublicador: The American Society of Human Genetics
The design and feasibility of whole-genome–association studies are critically dependent on the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between markers. Although there has been extensive theoretical discussion of this, few empirical data exist. The authors have determined the extent of LD among 38 biallelic markers with minor allele frequencies >.1, since these are most comparable to the common disease-susceptibility polymorphisms that association studies aim to detect. The markers come from three chromosomal regions—1,335 kb on chromosome 13q12-13, 380 kb on chromosome 19q13.2, and 120 kb on chromosome 22q13.3—which have been extensively mapped. These markers were examined in ∼1,600 individuals from four populations, all of European origin but with different demographic histories; Afrikaners, Ashkenazim, Finns, and East Anglian British. There are few differences, either in allele frequencies or in LD, among the populations studied. A similar inverse relationship was found between LD and distance in each genomic region and in each population. Mean D′ is .68 for marker pairs <5 kb apart and is .24 for pairs separated by 10–20 kb, and the level of LD is not different from that seen in unlinked marker pairs separated by >500 kb. However...
Genome-wide analyses carried out in silico revealed that the DNA repeats called enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences (ERICs), which are present in several Enterobacteriaceae, are overrepresented in yersiniae. From the alignment of DNA regions from the wholly sequenced Yersinia enterocolitica 8081 and Yersinia pestis CO92 strains, we could establish that ERICs are miniature mobile elements whose insertion leads to duplication of the dinucleotide TA. ERICs feature long terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) and can fold as RNA into hairpin structures. The proximity to coding regions suggests that most Y. enterocolitica ERICs are cotranscribed with flanking genes. Elements which either overlap or are located next to stop codons are preferentially inserted in the same (or B) orientation. In contrast, ERICs located far apart from open reading frames are inserted in the opposite (or A) orientation. The expression of genes cotranscribed with A- and B-oriented ERICs has been monitored in vivo. In mRNAs spanning B-oriented ERICs, upstream gene transcripts accumulated at lower levels than downstream gene transcripts. This difference was abolished by treating cells with chloramphenicol. We hypothesize that folding of B-oriented elements is impeded by translating ribosomes. Consequently...
The formation of the Tat-protein/TAR-RNA complex is a crucial step in the regulation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-gene expression. To obtain full-length viral transcripts the Tat/TAR complex has to recruit the positive transcription elongation factor complex (P-EFTb), which interacts with TAR through its cyclin T1 (CycT1) component. Mutational studies identified the TAR hexanucleotide loop as a crucial region for contacting CycT1. Interfering with the interaction between the Tat/CycT1 complex and the TAR-RNA is an attractive strategy for the design of anti-HIV drugs. Positively charged molecules, like aminoglycosides or peptidomimetics, bind the TAR-RNA, disrupting the Tat/TAR complex. Here, we investigate the complex between the HIV-2 TAR-RNA and a neooligoaminodeoxysaccharide by NMR spectroscopy. In contrast to other aminoglycosides, this novel aminoglycoside analogue contacts simultaneously the bulge residues required for Tat binding and the A35 residue of the hexanucleotide loop. Upon complex formation, the loop region undergoes profound conformational changes. The novel binding mode, together with the easy accessibility of derivatives for the neooligoaminodeoxysaccharide, could open the way to the design of a new class of TAR-RNA binders...
Activating germ-line point mutations in the RET receptor are responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2-associated medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), whereas somatic RET rearrangements are prevalent in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). Some rare kindreds, carrying point mutations in RET, are affected by both cancer types, suggesting that, under specific circumstances, point mutations in RET can drive the generation of PTC. Here we describe a family whose siblings, affected by both PTC and MTC, carried a germ-line point mutation in the RET extracellular domain, converting cysteine 634 into serine. We tested on thyroid follicular cells the transforming activity of RET(C634S), RET(K603Q), another mutant identified in a kindred with both PTC and MTC, RET(C634R) a commonly isolated allele in MEN2A, RET(M918T) responsible for MEN2B and also identified in kindreds with both PTC and MTC, and RET/PTC1 the rearranged oncogene that characterizes bona fide PTC in patients without MTC. We show that the various RET point mutants, but not wild-type RET, scored constitutive kinase activity and exerted mitogenic effects for thyroid PC Cl 3 cells, albeit at significantly lower levels compared to RET/PTC1. The low mitogenic activity of RET point mutants paralleled their reduced kinase activity compared to RET/PTC. Furthermore...
YPALs (Yersinia palindromic sequences) are miniature DNA insertions scattered along the chromosomes of yersiniae. The spread of these intergenic repeats likely occurred via transposition, as suggested by the presence of target site duplications at their termini and the identification of syntenic chromosomal regions which differ in the presence/absence of YPAL DNA among Yersinia strains. YPALs tend to be inserted closely downstream from the stop codon of flanking genes, and many YPAL targets overlap rho-independent transcriptional terminator-like sequences. This peculiar pattern of insertion supports the hypothesis that most of these repeats are cotranscribed with upstream sequences into mRNAs. YPAL RNAs fold into stable hairpins which may modulate mRNA decay. Accordingly, we found that YPAL-positive transcripts accumulate in Yersinia enterocolitica cells at significantly higher levels than homologous transcripts lacking YPAL sequences in their 3′ untranslated region.
The tall-cell variant (TCV) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), characterized by tall cells bearing an oxyphilic cytoplasm, is more clinically aggressive than conventional PTC. RET tyrosine kinase rearrangements, which represent the most frequent genetic alteration in PTC, lead to the recombination of RET with heterologous genes to generate chimeric RET/PTC oncogenes. RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 are the most prevalent variants. We have found RET rearrangements in 35.8% of TCV (14 of 39 cases). Whereas the prevalences of RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 were almost equal in classic and follicular PTC, all of the TCV-positive cases expressed the RET/PTC3 rearrangement. These findings prompted us to compare RET/PTC3 and RET/PTC1 in an in vitro thyroid model system. We have expressed the two oncogenes in PC Cl 3 rat thyroid epithelial cells and found that RET/PTC3 is endowed with a strikingly more potent mitogenic effect than RET/PTC1. Mechanistically, this difference correlated with an increased signaling activity of RET/PTC3. In conclusion, we postulate that the correlation between the RET/PTC rearrangement type and the aggressiveness of human PTC is related to the efficiency with which the oncogene subtype delivers mitogenic signals to thyroid cells.
Non-thyroid neoplasia were analysed by Southern blot of genomic DNA and DNA prepared by reverse transcription and amplification by polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR) for the activation of the RET oncogene. It is known that the rearrangement of RET occurs in about 10%-20% of human thyroid papillary carcinomas. None of 528 non-thyroid tumours showed rearrangement of the RET proto-oncogene, whereas three out of 30 thyroid papillary carcinomas were positive for RET activation. Therefore the activation of RET seems to be a somatic cell mutation specific to human thyroid carcinomas.
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of Goldie and Coldman that the use of non-cross-resistant regimens of chemotherapy could lead to maximal anti-tumour effect. We compared standard CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, fluorouracil) with alternating CMF/EV (epirubicin, vincristine) in the adjuvant therapy of early breast cancer. Stage II premenopausal node-positive or post-menopausal node-positive oestrogen receptor-negative and stage III breast cancer patients were eligible for the study. From January 1985 to December 1990, 220 patients were randomised (115 to CMF and 105 to CMF/EV). Toxicity was mild; neurotoxicity, vomiting and hair loss were more frequent in the CMF/EV group, while permanent amenorrhoea, diarrhoea, stomach ache and minor infections occurred more often in the CMF arm. At a follow-up of 48 months, 113 patients (51.4%) had had recurrence (62 on CMF and 51 on CMF/EV) and 54 (24.5%) had died (30 on CMF and 24 on CMF/EV). There was no significant difference in disease-free and overall survival between the two arms. After adjusting for menopausal status and stage, the relative risk (RR) of recurrence for CMF/EV patients was 0.93 (95% CL 0.64-1.35), while the RR of death was 0.85 (95% CL 0.49-1.47). In conclusion...
We investigated the association between pathological characteristics of primary breast cancer and degree of axillary nodal involvement and obtained a predictive index of the latter from the former. In 2076 cases, 17 histological features, including primary tumour and local invasion variables, were recorded. The whole sample was randomly split in a training (75% of cases) and a test sample. Simple and multiple correspondence analysis were used to select the variables to enter in a multinomial logit model to build an index predictive of the degree of nodal involvement. The response variable was axillary nodal status coded in four classes (N0, N1-3, N4-9, N > or = 10). The predictive index was then evaluated by testing goodness-of-fit and classification accuracy. Covariates significantly associated with nodal status were tumour size (P < 0.0001), tumour type (P < 0.0001), type of border (P = 0.048), multicentricity (P = 0.003), invasion of lymphatic and blood vessels (P < 0.0001) and nipple invasion (P = 0.006). Goodness-of-fit was validated by high concordance between observed and expected number of cases in each decile of predicted probability in both training and test samples. Classification accuracy analysis showed that true node-positive cases were well recognised (84.5%)...
The aims of this multicentre, randomised phase III trial were to evaluate: (1) the role of levamisol (LEV); and (2) the role of folinic acid (FA), added to 5-fluorouracil (5FU) in the adjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer. Patients with histologically proven, radically resected stage II or III colon or rectal cancer were eligible. The study had a 2 × 2 factorial design with four treatment arms: (a) 5FU alone, (b) 5FU+LEV, (c) 5FU+FA, (d) 5FU+LEV+FA, and two planned comparisons, testing the role of LEV and of FA, respectively. From March 1991, to September 1998, 1327 patients were randomised. None of the two comparisons resulted in a significant disease-free (DFS) or overall (OAS) survival advantage. The hazard ratio (HR) of relapse was 0.89 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.73–1.09) for patients receiving FA and 0.99 (95% CI 0.80–1.21) for those receiving LEV; corresponding HRs of death were 1.02 (95% CI: 0.80–1.30) and 0.94 (95% CI 0.73–1.20). Nonhaematological toxicity (all grade vomiting, diarrhoea, mucositis, congiuntivitis, skin, fever and fatigue) was significantly worse with FA, while all other toxicities were similar. In the present trial, there was no evidence that the addition of FA or LEV significantly prolongs DFS and OAS of radically resected colorectal cancer patients.