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Activated carbon fibres prepared from kenaf: Influence of the experimental consditions on the morphology and textural properties

Valente Nabais, Joao; Carrott, Peter; Carrott, Manuela; Correa, Eduardo
Fonte: The British Carbon Group, Publicador: The British Carbon Group,
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Porous materials are usually heterogeneous both structurally and energetically. Activated carbon fibres (ACFs) are relatively novel fibrous adsorbents produced for example from pith, cellulose, lignocellulose, phenol resin and polyacrylonityile (Peebles, 1995; Ryu, 1999). ACFs show important advantages with respect to conventional activated carbons. Among these advantages it is worth noting their high adsorption capacity and easiness to handle. Their main inconvenience lays on the difficulty of choosing adequate activating agents and activation conditions that are required in order to maintain the fibrous morphology. The adsorption capacity of ACFs depends on many factors, such as raw materials, activation process, pore structure and surface functionalities (Suffet, 1981; Park, 1999). Surface roughness is an important factor that influences the adsorption properties of an activated carbon. Fractal dimension is a measure of roughness of a surface. The use of the fractal concept is becoming very popular as a tool to characterize the texture of complex materials, such as porous solids. The fractal properties of these porous systems were determined by means of several techniques such as gas adsorption, mercury porosimetry and Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS and SANS). Kenaf is an herbaceous annual plant that belongs to the family of Malvaceae. Kenaf possesses both...

PRODUCTION OF CARBON MATERIALS BY CONJUNCTION OF HYDROTHERMAL AND ACTIVATION PROCESSES

Valente Nabais, Joao; Laginhas, Carlos; Carrott, Peter; Ribeiro Carrott, Manuela; Titirici, Magdalena; Roman, Silvia
Fonte: Carbon 2012, Polish Carbon Society Publicador: Carbon 2012, Polish Carbon Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
Activated Carbons (AC) are traditionally produced by chemical or physical activation processes, frequently using biomass materials as precursors [1]. These procedures can be modified in order to create particular surface characteristics (both textural and chemical), so that the adsorption of a given organic or inorganic compound is optimized. Recently, the use of hydrothermal carbonization processes (HTC) to produce carbon nanomaterials was reported [2]. This process consists in the treatment of a material in water under soft temperature conditions (in the range 150-350ºC) and in some cases under pressure conditions. The HTC processes are very attractive due to its simplicity, cheapness and efficiency; they can also be classified as “green” since it does not involves organic solvents, catalysts or surfactants. By HTC, the biomass organic components are broken up and dissolved in the water, and a carbon rich solid product is obtained (the hydrochar) as well as a liquid phase containing sugars and/or oligomers that can be used for a variety of practical purposes. Previous works have reported that during HTC oxygen accumulates at the periphery of the particles originating a final carbonaceous material with a core–shell structure composed of a hydrophobic core and a hydrophilic shell containing a large number of reactive oxygen functional groups [3]. We have published in a recent work the production of hydrochars with acidic properties [4]...

Estoques e indicadores de carbono em cerradão e cerrado Stricto Sensu; Stocks and indicators of carbon in cerrado and cerrado sensu stricto

SILVEIRA, Jeanete
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Engenharia do Meio Ambiente; Engenharias Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Engenharia do Meio Ambiente; Engenharias
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
The climate on the Planet has always been natural oscillations throughout its existence, but the anthropogenic contributions of greenhouse gases also change the composition of the atmosphere, affecting climate. Climatologists have found acceleration of global warming, because of the human s actions. Conversely, photosynthetic organisms, the processes of growth absorb atmospheric carbon, storing it in its components. The native Cerrado among the various environmental services offers, assimilates atmospheric carbon and store it in their biomass and soil, contributing to the mitigation of global warming. Forest planting and maintaining vegetation cover, contribute to the mitigation of global warming, then can generate tradable credits in the Carbon Market. Establishing indicators of the carbon stocks is one point key in generation process carbon credits. This work researched of carbon s stocks in plant biomass and soil, as well as their indicators, seeking greater clarity of what happens with the carbon throughout the soil profile and between two types of vegetation in the Cerrado biome: cerradão and cerrado sensu stricto. We studied three areas of each of thouse faces. We obtained biomass carbon stocks by direct determination in the field...

Substitution and Technological Change under Carbon Cap and Trade : Lessons from Europe

Considine, Timothy J.; Larson, Donald F.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
The use of carbon-intense fuels by the power sector contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas emissions of most countries. For this reason, the sector is often key to initial efforts to regulate emissions. But how long does it take before new regulatory incentives result in a switch to less carbon intense fuels? This study examines fuel switching in electricity production following the introduction of the European Union s Emissions Trading System, a cap-and-trade regulatory framework for greenhouse gas emissions. The empirical analysis examines the demand for carbon permits, carbon based fuels, and carbon-free energy for 12 European countries using monthly data on fuel use, prices, and electricity generation. A short-run restricted cost function is estimated in which carbon permits, high-carbon fuels, and low-carbon fuels are variable inputs, conditional on quasi-fixed carbon-free energy production from nuclear, hydro, and renewable energy capacity. The results indicate that prices for permits and fuels affect the composition of inputs in a statistically significant way. Even so...

Carbon Markets, Institutions, Policies, and Research

Larson, Donald F.; Ambrosi, Philippe; Dinar, Ariel; Rahman, Shaikh Mahfuzur; Entler, Rebecca
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
The scale of investment needed to slow greenhouse gas emissions is larger than governments can manage through transfers. Therefore, climate change policies rely heavily on markets and private capital. This is especially true in the case of the Kyoto Protocol with its provisions for trade and investment in joint projects. This paper describes institutions and policies important for new carbon markets and explains their origins. Research efforts that explore conceptual aspects of current policy are surveyed along with empirical studies that make predictions about how carbon markets will work and perform. The authors summarize early investment and price outcomes from newly formed markets and point out areas where markets have preformed as predicted and areas where markets remain incomplete. Overall the scale of carbon-market investment planned exceeds earlier expectations, but the geographic dispersion of investment is uneven and important opportunities for abatement remain untapped in some sectors, indicating a need for additional research on how investment markets work. How best to promote the development and deployment of new technologies is another promising area for study identified in the paper.

State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2012

Kossoy, Alexandre; Guigon, Pierre
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
The total value of the carbon market grew by 11 percent in 2011, to $176 billion, and transaction volumes reached a new high of 10.3 billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e). This growth took place in the face of economic turbulence, growing long-term oversupply in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and plummeting carbon prices. By far, the largest segment of the carbon market was that of EU Allowances (EUAs), valued at $148 billion. With the end of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol in 2012, the value of the pre-2013 primary certified emission reduction (CER), emission reduction unit (ERU) and assigned amount unit (AAU) markets declined in 2011. At the same time, the post-2012 primary Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) market increased by a robust 63 percent, to US$2 billion, despite depressed prices and limited long-term-visibility. Against this backdrop, several new domestic and regional carbon market initiatives gained traction in both developed and developing economies in 2011. Five new jurisdictions (i.e., Australia, California, Québec, Republic of Korea, and Mexico) passed legislations laying the foundation for cap-and-trade schemes. Together, these initiatives will drive substantial resources towards low-carbon investments and they have the potential to unleash a truly transformational carbon market...

State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2011

Linacre, Nicholas; Kossoy, Alexandre; Ambrosi, Philippe
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
After five consecutive years of robust growth, the total value of the global carbon market stalled at $142 billion. Suffering from the lack of post-2012 regulatory clarity, the value of the primary Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) market fell by double-digits for the third year in a row, ending lower than it was in 2005, the first year of the Kyoto protocol. The Assigned Amount Unit (AAU) and the United States Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) markets shrank as well. As these segments declined, the dominance of the European Union Allowances (EUAs) market became more pronounced than ever and the share of the carbon market primarily driven by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) rose to 97 percent, dwarfing the remaining segments of the market. The carbon market growth halted at a particularly inopportune time: 2010 proved to be the hottest on record, while emission levels continued their seemingly inexorable rise. In the end, however, the year may be remembered most for the political opportunities that arose, yet were ultimately failed to materialize in the United States, Japan, Australia, and the Republic of Korea. While the international regulatory environment remains uncertain, national and local initiatives have noticeably picked up and may offer the potential to collectively overcome the international regulatory gap. These initiatives signal that...

Mapping Carbon Pricing Initiatives : Developments and Prospects 2013

Kossoy, Alexandre; Oppermann, Klaus; Reddy, Rama Chandra; Bosi, Martina; Boukerche, Sandrine; Höhne, Niklas; Klein, Noémie; Gilbert, Alyssa; Jung, Martina; Borkent, Bram; Lam, Long; Röser, Frauke; Braun, Nadine; Hänsel, Gesine; Warnecke, Carsten
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
The Mapping Carbon Pricing Initiatives Report maps existing and emerging carbon pricing initiatives around the world. It does not provide a quantitative, transaction-based analysis of the international carbon market since current market conditions invalidate any attempt to undertake such an analysis. The development of national and subnational carbon pricing initiatives in an increasing number of countries calls for a different focus. The uncertainty surrounding the existing carbon markets in the last years has prevented valuable resources to be channeled to low-carbon investments, particularly from the private sector. Following the economic downturn and slow economic recovery in major economies, industrial output plummeted and the demand for carbon assets used for compliance fell. With limited support, prices reached historical lows. At the same time, several national and sub-national carbon pricing initiatives are emerging. It is not surprising that several of these new carbon pricing initiatives also include design features to prevent similar developments in the future, including mechanisms to stabilize the carbon price.

The Low Carbon City Development Program Guidebook

World Bank; DNV KEMA
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
According to the United Nations population fund, the world is undergoing the largest wave of urban growth in history, with more people now living in cities than in rural areas. Cities are also responsible for a high proportion of global carbon emissions, which are the main driver of anthropogenic climate change. By taking the lead on low carbon development, cities have the opportunity to engage in an important dialogue about sustainable development, directly address local issues, and contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Low carbon development strategies allow cities to position themselves as major players in climate change mitigation, as well as set an example for the development of national emission reduction policies. The systematic approach offered by a low carbon city development program (LCCDP) enables a city to overcome the barriers faced in single project implementation and pursue an integrated low carbon pathway. It provides a common framework to identify, implement, and measure low carbon interventions that will not only contribute to lower emissions...

Design Options for an International Carbon Asset Reserve for the World

Fuessler, Juerg; Herren, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
This paper presents first concepts and insights on an International Carbon Asset Reserve. In particular, it explores how different design options can support a range of networked carbon pricing efforts. The report provides an overview of key risks in carbon markets, highlights the benefits of pooling risks on an aggregated scale, and identifies potential design options and structures for an international carbon asset reserve. The paper contributes to the wide effort to promote a long-term price on carbon and carbon market stabilization, comparability, and networking.

The FASTER Principles for Successful Carbon Pricing

OECD; World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
The case for climate action has never been stronger. Current weather extremes, including storms, floods and drought, affect millions of people across the world. Climate change is putting water security at risk; threatening agricultural and other supply chains as well as many coastal cities. The likelihood of severe pervasive and irreversible impacts will grow without action to limit and reverse the growth of GHG emissions globally. Last year’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report makes clear the overwhelming need to take action now on climate change and that the costs of inaction will only rise. The challenge is to decarbonize our economies by 2100 with action in the next decades being critical. The choices made by government, the private sector, and civil society as part of the transition to a decarbonized economy will determine the extent of future climate impacts but also provide an opportunity to unlock investment and build an innovative, dynamic low-carbon economy.

State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2012

Kossoy, Alexandre; Guigon, Pierre
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
The total value of the carbon market grew by 11 percent in 2011, to $176 billion, and transaction volumes reached a new high of 10.3 billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e). This growth took place in the face of economic turbulence, growing long-term oversupply in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and plummeting carbon prices. By far, the largest segment of the carbon market was that of EU Allowances (EUAs), valued at $148 billion. With the end of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol in 2012, the value of the pre-2013 primary certified emission reduction (CER), emission reduction unit (ERU) and assigned amount unit (AAU) markets declined in 2011. At the same time, the post-2012 primary Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) market increased by a robust 63 percent, to US$2 billion, despite depressed prices and limited long-term-visibility. Against this backdrop, several new domestic and regional carbon market initiatives gained traction in both developed and developing economies in 2011. Five new jurisdictions (i.e., Australia, California, Québec, Republic of Korea, and Mexico) passed legislations laying the foundation for cap-and-trade schemes. Together, these initiatives will drive substantial resources towards low-carbon investments and they have the potential to unleash a truly transformational carbon market...

State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2011

Linacre, Nicholas; Kossoy, Alexandre; Ambrosi, Philippe
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
After five consecutive years of robust growth, the total value of the global carbon market stalled at $142 billion. Suffering from the lack of post-2012 regulatory clarity, the value of the primary Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) market fell by double-digits for the third year in a row, ending lower than it was in 2005, the first year of the Kyoto protocol. The Assigned Amount Unit (AAU) and the United States Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) markets shrank as well. As these segments declined, the dominance of the European Union Allowances (EUAs) market became more pronounced than ever and the share of the carbon market primarily driven by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) rose to 97 percent, dwarfing the remaining segments of the market. The carbon market growth halted at a particularly inopportune time: 2010 proved to be the hottest on record, while emission levels continued their seemingly inexorable rise. In the end, however, the year may be remembered most for the political opportunities that arose, yet were ultimately failed to materialize in the United States, Japan, Australia, and the Republic of Korea. While the international regulatory environment remains uncertain, national and local initiatives have noticeably picked up and may offer the potential to collectively overcome the international regulatory gap. These initiatives signal that...

State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2014

Kossoy, Alexandre; Oppermann, Klaus; Platonova-Oquab, Alexandrina; Suphachalasai, Suphachol; Höhne, Niklas; Klein, Noémie; Gilbert, Alyssa; Lam, Long; Toop, Gemma; Wu, Qian; Hagemann, Markus; Casanova-Allende, Carlos; Li, Lina; Borkent, Bram; Warnecke,
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
This report follows the evolution of carbon pricing around the world. Last year's report mapped the main carbon pricing initiatives. This year the report presents the status of each of these developing initiatives and explores the emerging trends of carbon pricing. The focus is on the recent highlights from around the world and on key lessons that can be drawn from the growing experience. Despite the difficult ongoing international climate negotiations, there is an increased focus on climate change policy and several economies are planning, implementing or refining domestic mitigation actions. These activities take careful note of past experiences, mirroring successes and dealing with weaknesses. About 40 national and over 20 sub-national jurisdictions are putting a price on carbon. Together these carbon pricing instruments cover almost 6 gigatons of carbon dioxide equivalent (GtCO2e), or about 12 percent of the annual global GHG emissions. Cooperation remains a key feature of success The international market has been struggling for some time. However...

Carbon Sequestration in Agricultural Soils

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
The purpose of this report is to improve the knowledge base for facilitating investments in land management technologies that sequester soil organic carbon. While there are many studies on soil carbon sequestration, there is no single unifying volume that synthesizes knowledge on the impact of different land management practices on soil carbon sequestration rates across the world. A meta-analysis was carried out to provide soil carbon sequestration rates in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. This is one important element in decision-making for sustainable agricultural intensification, agro-ecosystems resilience, and comprehensive assessments of greenhouse mitigation potentials of Sustainable Land Management (SLM) practices. Furthermore, the ecosystem simulation modeling technique was used to predict future carbon storage in global cropland soils. Last, marginal abatement cost curves and trade-off graphs were used to assess the cost-effectiveness of the technologies in carbon sequestration. The remainder of the report is organized as follows. Chapter two provides a brief review of soil organic carbon dynamics and the methods for soil carbon assessment. The chapter concludes with brief information on carbon assessment in The World Bank's sustainable land management projects portfolio. Chapter three reports the increase in soil carbon for selected sustainable land management practices in Africa...

Transition to a Low Carbon Economy in Poland

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
Transition to a low carbon economy in Poland is a study by the World Bank for the Polish Government, supported by the UK Department for International Development and donors to the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). The study poses the question of how Poland, an European Union (EU) member state, an industrialized 'annex one' country for the purposes of international climate discussions, and an Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member, can successfully transition to a low carbon economy as successfully as it underwent transition to a market economy in the early 1990s. Transition to a low carbon economy in Poland provides a detailed assessment of many aspects of a low carbon growth strategy for Poland, developing insights via a suite of models that should provide ongoing assistance to policymakers. These policymakers may find reassuring the main message that Poland's transition to a low carbon economy, while not free or simple is affordable. However, capturing the full package of technologically feasible and economically sensible abatement measures requires coordinated and early action by the government.

Turning the Right Corner : Ensuring Development through a Low-Carbon Transport Sector

Kopp, Andreas; Block, Rachel I.; Limi, Atsushi
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
This report 'Turning the right corner - ensuring development through a low carbon transport sector' emphasizes that developing countries need to transition to a low carbon transport sector now to avoid locking themselves into an unsustainable and costly future. Furthermore, it argues that this transition can be affordable if countries combine policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions with broader sector reforms aimed at reducing local air pollution, road safety risks, and congestion. This report looks at relationships between mobility, low carbon transport and development, drawing attention to the inertia in transport infrastructure. It complements the analysis by reviewing how climate change is likely to affect operations and infrastructure, cost-effective measures for minimizing negative effects, and policies and decision frameworks. It further highlights current and projected research findings and examples from developing countries. And it concludes that new technology is not enough, and that urgent action is needed before economies become locked into high-carbon growth. It discusses how to reconcile development with the need to curb emissions...

The Prototype Carbon Fund : Addressing Challenges of Globalization - An Independent Evaluation of the World Bank's Approach to Global Programs

Kelly, Lauren; Jordan, Jeffery
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
The prototype carbon fund (PCF) is a public-private partnership whose mission is to pioneer a market for project-based greenhouse gas emission reductions within the framework of the Kyoto protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). PCF seeks to show how project-based greenhouse gas emission reduction transactions can lower the cost of compliance with Kyoto, promote sustainable development, and mobilize new resources for Bank clients. Recognizing the global environmental benefits of emissions reductions regardless of location, Kyoto allows industrialized countries and firms to offset certain obligations through the purchase of lower-cost emission reductions (ERs) in developing and in-transition countries. This review identifies Bank comparative advantage-related issues, as well as the issues raised by competition between the Bank and International Finance Corporation (IFC) in carbon finance.

Carbon Livelihoods : Social Opportunities and Risks of Carbon Finance

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
Global concerns about climate change have led to the development of new market based mechanisms aimed at reducing the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. These carbon trading schemes enable countries or entities within countries to trade 'carbon credits' in order to increase the economic efficiency of transitioning to a low carbon economy. A sub-set of these markets involve the generation of carbon credits from projects that reduce GHG emissions or increase GHG removals in developing countries. The paper first gives an overview of what carbon offset projects are and how they can be classified, as this is considered essential for understanding how the project type links to impacts. It then briefly reviews the evidence on livelihood impacts, including the approaches that have been used in determining livelihood impacts. A simple conceptual framework that is applicable to all project types is presented in section four. In section five, the World Bank portfolio is described, and in sections six and seven...

A Preliminary Assessment of the Blue Carbon Capacity of Belizean Mangroves with Ecological, Economic, and Policy Perspectives

Chang, Sylvia; Green, Ashley; Kelley, Emma
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 24/04/2015 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
In recent years, mangrove forests have experienced increasing deforestation rates in Belize due to coastal development. Our client, the Belize Ministry of Forestry, Fisheries, and Sustainable Development, wants to determine the potential for Belizean mangrove blue carbon to provide funding opportunities through international financing schemes for the conservation and enhancement of mangroves. Mangrove forests are coastal wetlands along the intertidal zone of tropical and subtropical coastlines. Mangrove, salt marsh, and seagrass ecosystems have significant abilities to sequester and store carbon in their biomass and sediments – the carbon stored in these coastal ecosystems is referred to as “blue carbon.” The impact of mangrove deforestation on carbon sequestration in Belize could be significant, but little is known about how much carbon is stored in Belizean mangroves. The goal of this project was to provide a preliminary assessment of the potential of blue carbon in Belize. This project was broken down into three objectives: ecology, economic, and policy. The goal of the ecology portion of this study was to provide preliminary estimates of the blue carbon stocks of Belize’s mangroves. This required data on the extent of Belizean mangroves...